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Smell (Olfaction)

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by

Zoe Rose

on 27 February 2017

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Transcript of Smell (Olfaction)

Smell (Olfaction)
Pheromones:
a chemical substance produced and released into the environment by an animal, especially a mammal or an insect, affecting the behavior or physiology of others of its species.
What is the name for the smelling disorder
where you cant smell anything?
By Zoe, Aarushi, Tyler, Vimal, and Zac
Anatomy
How smells differentiate:
The sense of smell, just like the sense of taste, is a chemical sense. They are called chemical senses because they detect chemicals in the environment, with the difference being that smell works at dramatically larger distances than that of taste.

Cilia: is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thick protuberances that project from the much larger cell body.


Olfactory Bulb: is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell.

Olfactory receptors: also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants which give rise to the sense of smell.
Anosmia
What is the term for the nerves in your nose called?
Olfactory Sensory Neurons
Each human has their own distinct odor.
True!
Like fingerprints, every person has their own distinct odor. The distinct odor you have comes from the same genes that determine tissue type.
People can detect at least one trillion distinct scents.
True!
Scientists thought that the human nose could only detect about 10,000 different smells, but that information was based on a study from 1927 and very outdated. This year, researchers from Rockefeller University tested people’s sense of smell by using different mixtures of odor molecules.
Trivia Time!!!!
Scent cells are renewed every 30 to 60 days.
True!
The sense of smell is the only cranial nerve — nerves that emerge from the brain and control bodily functions including eye movement, hearing, taste, and vision — that can regenerate.
You can smell fear and disgust.
True!
You can smell feelings of fear and disgust through sweat, and then you can experience the same emotions.
Men have a better sense of smell than women.
False!
Women always are better at odor and smell identification than men, and every study finds that. One of the reasons for this may be that women have a more developed orbital prefrontal region of the brain. It may have also evolved from an ability to discern the best possible mates, or to help women better bond with and understand newborns.
1. Vaporized odor molecules (chemicals) floating in the air reach the nostrils and dissolve in the mucus (which is on the roof of each nostril).
2. Underneath the mucus, in the olfactory epithelium, specialized receptor cells called olfactory receptor neurons detect the odor. These neurons are capable of detecting thousands of different odors.
3. The olfactory receptor neurons transmit the information to the olfactory bulbs, which are located at the back of the nose.
4. The olfactory bulbs has sensory receptors that are actually part of the brain which send messages directly to:
The most primitive brain centers where they influence emotions and memories (limbic system structures)
“Higher” centers where they modify conscious thought (neo-cortex).
5. These brain centers perceive odors and access memories to remind us about people, places, or events associated with these olfactory sensations.
Video!
Full transcript