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Time Frames of Philippine Literature in English

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by Ivy Esparagoza on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Time Frames of Philippine Literature in English

Time Frames of Philippine Literature in English
1. THE PERIOD OF RE-ORIENTATION: 1898-1910
2. PERIOD OF IMITATION: 1910-1925
3. PERIOD OF SELF-DISCOVERY: 1925-1941
4. JAPANESE PERIOD: 1941-1945
5. THE REBIRTH OF FREEDOM: 1946-1970
6. PERIOD OF ACTIVISM: 1970-1972
7. PERIOD OF THE NEW SOCIETY: 1972-1981
8. PERIOD OF THE THIRD REPUBLIC: 1981-1985
9. CONTEMPORARY PERIOD: 1986-

LITERATURE AND HISTORY
Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a race, the feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to be included... and these feelings, aspirations, customs, and traditions that are written is literature. History can also be written and this too, is literature.
Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a race, the feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to be included... and these feelings, aspirations, customs, and traditions that are written is literature. History can also be written and this too, is literature.
Literary compositions that have influenced the world
The Bible is the account of God's action in the world and his purpose with all creation. The writing of the Bible took place over sixteen centuries and is the work of over forty human authors. It is a quite amazing collection of 66 books with very different styles all containing the message God desired us to have.
BIBLE
(Sacred Writings): This has become the basis of Christianity originating from Palestine and Greece.
The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ultimately from Koine Greek "ta biblia" which means "the books”.
KORAN
The Muslim Bible originating from Arabia.
The Koran is a record of the exact words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Muhammad. Muhammadmemorized the words and then taught his Companions. Then scribes, who checked with Muhammad during his lifetime, wrote down the words. Not one word of its 114 chapters has been changed over the centuries.

The Koran is the primary source of every Muslim's faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects that concern all human beings: wisdom, beliefs, worship, and law. However, it focuses on the relationship between God and His creatures. It also provides guidelines for a just society, proper human relationships and equal divisions of power

These have been the source of myths and legends of Greece. They were written by Homer.
THE ILIAD AND THE ODYSSEY
The Iliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during theTrojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.
These epic stories are about the Mycenaean or Bronze Age, ancient Greeks, who flourished from about 1600-1100 BC
The Iliad: The Iliad tells the final chapter in the story of two major Bronze Age “Greek” alliances battling each other. It ends when the Achaeans (people mainly from what we now call Greece) sack Troy (located in modern day Turkey). It's a long, meandering epic, but it primarily revolves around the "godlike Achilles'" struggle to confront his hubris and become humanized.

The Odyssey, in contrast, mainly takes place outside of that common culture and describes contact with pre-Mycenaean Mediterranean cultures. The story focuses on Odysseus and his family's struggle to recover from the Trojan war's after effects and, primarily, with Odysseus struggle to make it back home. So The Iliad describes the clash between two equally brilliant and beautiful groups of “Greeks”, and The Odyssey describes contact with the “Other”, represented as monsters and witches.

The longest epic of the world. It contains the history of religion in India
THE MAHABHARATA
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana
The Mahabharata is the longest Sanskrit epic. Its longest version consists of over 100,000 shloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), and long prose passages. About 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odysseycombined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata to world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Qur'an.
It depicts the religion and customs of the English in the early days. This originated from England and was written by Chaucer.
CANTERBURY TALES
The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century, during the time of the Hundred Years' War. The tales (mostly written in verse, although some are in prose) are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return
Chaucer's long poem follows the journey of a group of pilgrims, 31 including Chaucer himself, from the Tabard Inn in Southwark to St Thomas à Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral. The host at the inn suggests each pilgrim tell two tales on the way out and two on the way home to help while away their time on the road. The best storyteller is to be rewarded with a free supper on their return.
This literary device gives Chaucer the opportunity to paint a series of vivid word portraits of a cross-section of his society, from a knight and prioress, to a carpenter and cook; a much-married wife of Bath, to a bawdy miller - an occupation regarded in Chaucer's day as shifty and dishonest.
Chaucer mixes satire and realism in lively characterisations of his pilgrims. The tone of their tales ranges from pious to comic, with humour veering between erudite wit and good honest vulgarity. Taken together, the tales offer a fascinating insight into English life during the late 14th century.
Chaucer's original plan was for over 100 stories, but only 24 were completed, some of which had already been written for earlier works. Their order varies in different surviving copies, the Hengwrt manuscript being valued most for its accuracy.

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe of the US. This depicted the sad fate of slaves; this became the basis of democracy later.
UNCLE TOM'S CABIN
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman.

Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States; one million copies were sold in Great Britain. In 1855, three years after it was published, it was called "the most popular novel of our day."

This shows the religion and customs of the early Italians.
THE DIVINE COMEDY
The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia) is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between c. 1308 and his death in 1321. It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature,[1] and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of theafterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church. It helped establish the Tuscan dialect, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language. It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
On the surface, the poem describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven; but at a deeper level, it represents allegorically the soul's journey towards God. At this deeper level, Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy, especially Thomistic philosophy and theSumma Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. Consequently, the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse".
The work was originally simply titled Comedìa and was later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio. The first printed edition to add the word divine to the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce, published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.

This shows the cultural characteristics of the Spaniards and their national history.
EL CID COMPEADOR
The name El Cid is a modern Spanish denomination composed by the article el meaning "the" and Cid which comes from the Old Spanish loan word Çid from the dialectal Arabic word sayyid, which means "Lord" or "Master". He could be so addressed by the Mozarabs or by the Arabs serving in his own ranks, and then its transliteration was adopted by the Christians, but no contemporary record referring to Rodrigo as Cid has been found. Arab sources use instead Rudriq, Ludriq al-Kanbiyatur or al-Qanbiyatur(Rodrigo el Campeador).[1] The cognomen Campeador given by his Christian countrymen derives from Latin campi doctor that means "battlefield master". He probably gained it during the campaigns of King Sancho II of Castile against his brothers King Alfonso VI of León and King García II of Galicia. While there are no contemporary documents proving that he was addressed as Cid, there are many Christian and Arab records addressing him as Campeador, even autographs which prove that he used the cognomen himself. The whole combination Cid Campeador is first documented ca. 1195 in the Navarro-Aragonese Linage de Rodric Díaz included in the Liber Regum under the formula mio Cid el Campeador.
This includes Doce Pares and Roncesvalles of France. It tells about the Golden Age of Christianity in France.
THE SONG OF ROLAND
The Song of Roland (French: La Chanson de Roland) is a heroic poem based on the Battle of Roncevaux in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature. It exists in various manuscript versions which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity in the 12th to 14th centuries. The oldest of these is the Oxford manuscript which contains a text of some 4,004 lines (the number varies slightly in different modern editions) and is usually dated to the middle of the 12th century (between 1140 and 1170). The epic poem is the first and with The Poem of the Cid one of the most outstanding examples of the chanson de geste, a literary form that flourished between the 11th and 15th centuries and celebrated the legendary deeds.
La Chanson de Roland, or The Song of Roland, is the oldest surviving French poem. It is also the oldest and greatest of the chansons de geste, medieval epic poems written in French. In old French, "geste" means a deed or action, often of heroic proportions. A hundred or so of these epic poems…

This includes the cult of Osiris and the mythology and theology of Egypt
THE BOOK OF THE DEAD
The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as had always been the spells from which they originated. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased.
There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead, perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on apapyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.

This was written by Confucius of China. This became the basis of the Christian religion
THE BOOK OF THE DAYS
This Book of The Days by Confucius was written on a Christianity basis. It talks about examples of the acts by Confucius. This work suggests that the text of the Analects as we have received them is heavily accreted, and represents the additions of many generations of school heads. Due to the changing political, social, and cultural environments, different heads of the Confucian school chose to praise or denigrate different of their predecessors, and even described very different social practices and ritual environments.
From Arabia and Persia (Iran). It shows the ways of government, of industries and of society of the Arabs and Persians
ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS OR THE ARABIAN NIGHTS
One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of West and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during theIslamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English language edition (1706), which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment.
The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, South Asia and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work which in turn relied partly on Indian elements.
What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryar and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used to express heightened emotion, and for songs and riddles. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains, although some are longer.
Some of the stories of The Nights, particularly "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp", "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor", while almost certainly genuine Middle Eastern folk tales, were not part of The Nights in Arabic versions, but were added into the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators.
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