How? Criteria and standards Evaluators involved in regular appraisals Evaluators in decisions on promotion Evaluators involved in decisions on rewards 4.2 School principal Special commission School principal School principal School principal
Peer evaluators at the same school Central education authority School principal
Peer evaluators at the same school Central education authority or government School principal;
Member of school leadership other than school principal;
Peer evaluator at the same level School principal;
ISCED 2-3: state or regional education authority in case of appeal or complaint School principal (1st evaluator);
School organising bodies (2nd evaluator) School principal External accredited evaluators;
Teacher from another school;
Municipal evaluation commission (composed of local peer evaluators) School principal General Inspectorate;
School principal School principal;
Evaluators specified in the school's quality assurance programme School principal Peer evaluators at the same school Central education authority School principal representing school organising body (competent authority) Member of school leadership team;
Peer evaluator from the same school School principal Teacher from the same school;
Collegiate body within the school (chaired by principal);
Trained teachers from other schools School principal School principal School principal or teacher reviewer designated by the school principal What makes a great teacher... ...and who gets to decide? Classroom School System For what? with whom? Instruments Who does what? Appraisal is everybody's business Inspectorates School leaders Mechanisms to use feedback Performance feedback Professional development/ formative implications Financial implications Recognition and rewards Information and publication of results Policy development Public policy Using results Formative use Summative use Influence on teacher self-efficacy Feeding appraisal into professional development Using appraisal to shape incentives Addressing underperformance A relationship between appraisal and teacher practice and motivation Relationship between appraisal and performance ... small Influence of appraisal on career decisions Methodology and procedures, mix of instruments, criteria, purposes, knowledge and skills
Degree of differentiation by type of teachers
Interrelation between teacher appraisal and other types of evaluation Objectives Reference standards Performance criteria Teacher classroom observation Teacher self-appraisal Teacher portfolio School self-evaluation School external evaluation Student learning outcomes Student national examination Accountability Teacher professional organisations Insights on leadership, management and quality of teaching Conduct appraisal of teaching and non-teaching duties Design and regulate Processes Purpose Capacity &
Governance The government? Principals? Fellow teachers? Students? Most countries surveyed by the OECD have some formal or informal mechanisms in place to ensure that teacher appraisals feed into individual and collective professional development activities and continuous learning Appraisal for accountability aims to provide summary information about a teacher’s past practices and performance, relative to what is considered “good” teaching and to establish incentives for teachers to perform at their best. Professional profiles of competencies Job descriptions School development plans Planning and preparation: demonstrating knowledge of content and pedagogy, demonstrating knowledge of students, selecting instructional goals, designing coherent instruction, assessing student learning; Classroom environment is about creating an environment of respect and rapport, establishing a culture for learning, managing classroom procedures, managing student behaviour Instruction implies communicating clearly and accurately, questioning, engaging students in learning, providing feedback, flexibility and responsiveness. Professional responsibilities, e.g. reflecting on teaching, communicating with families, contributing to the school and district, growing and developing professionally. Involving teachers is key Objective-setting and interviews Surveys of stakeholders Using multiple sources of evidence for appraisal is key Eight in ten teachers consider their appraisal a fair and useful evaluation of their work
One in four teachers report that appraisal and evaluation affects their professional development.
One in ten reports that appraisal and evaluation affects their pay.
One in six reports that appraisal and evaluation affect their career development.
Three-quarters report that they would receive no recognition for improving the quality of their work or for being more innovative in their teaching What do teachers say? *Figures are country averages of TALIS participants Teacher tests Italy's Valorizza stakeholder survey Surveyed principals, teachers, parents and students offered very similar views as to teachers who are highly respected for their professional behaviour, even if they could not define exact criteria that characterise that behaviour In Norway, the Teacher Union and the Norwegian Student Organisation have developed principles and guidelines for teacher appraisal by students Sweden, teachers often conduct surveys among their students with the aim of obtaining feedback on their teaching practices. In China, teachers are appraised against four aspects of their performance: professional integrity; professional competencies; diligence; and their own and their students’ achievement 'Methods of Effective Teaching Project' www.metproject.org Guidance on application of appraisal Experienced peers Strength of influence of appraisal on professional development Teachers for
the 21st century Using appraisal
to improve teaching Across countries... 2013 International Summit on the Teaching Profession
Andreas Schleicher Across countries, 20% of new teachers – and 13% of experienced teachers – never received feedback from any internal or external source.
In some countries, figures were considerably higher: 60% of new teachers in Italy reported that they had never received appraisal or feedback, as did a third of new teachers in Spain and Portugal. What do teachers say? Appraisal ...then the appraisal has to provide meaningful feedback ...then you need to be clear about the consequences of appraisal In Delaware, student learning outcomes are only one aspect of appraisal, but the essential idea is that no teacher should be rated effective whose students do not progress, and no teacher should be rated ineffective whose students do progress. High Low High High Low Low Chile involves many practising teachers as evaluators. Teachers work as “correctors” of teacher portfolios and as peer evaluators who conduct interviews and participate in Community Evaluation Commissions. Further information www.oecd.org/education
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion Find out more at: Professional development Across countries, only 16% of teachers said their appraisal led to a real change in the likelihood of career advancement
only 27% said it led to changes in work responsibilities that made their job more attractive What do teachers say? Teachers as active agents in the design and implementation of reform and innovation... Effective in-service professional development and attractive career structures... Then effective appraisal will make the crucial difference Professional autonomy in a collaborative culture... High-quality initial teacher education and good mentoring... Teaching an attractive career choice that invites the best candidates... The Holy Grail? Or the Alchemists Stone? Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Thank you! Find out more about our work at: www.oecd.org/education ...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion Using appraisal
to improve teaching ...then appraisal can make the crucial difference Further information www.oecd.org/education
firstname.lastname@example.org and remember...
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion Find out more at: Appraisal in context www.metproject.orgSee the full transcript