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Volcanism, Mountains and Earthquakes

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by Michelle G on 18 February 2013

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Transcript of Volcanism, Mountains and Earthquakes

But wait! Volcanism It is the phenomenon connected with volcanoes and volcanic activity. It includes all things resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of a planet to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface. What is a Volcano anyway? Trivia Trivia A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. Cinder Cones or Scoria Cones Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano. They are built from particles and blobs of thick lava ejected from one vent. Most cinder cons have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than 300 meters above their surroundings. Kostal Volcano A young cinder cone in Wells Gray Provincial Park in east-central British Columbia, Canada. A cinder cone located in central Oregon, USA, just west of US Highway 97 between the towns of Bend, Oregon, and Sunriver, Oregon. Paricutin Volcano Located in Mexico, it is one of the 7 Natural Wonders of the World. It developed in the 1940's and grew 5 stories tall in less than a week! Mount Fuji The highest mountain in Japan located on Honshu Island at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft) Composite Volcano / Stratovolcano Composite volcanoes are formed by alternating layers of lava and rock. Most have a crater at the summit which contains a central vent. The essential feature of a composite volcano is a conduit system through which magma from a reservoir deep in the Earth's crust rises to the surface. They are symmetrical and have steep sides. Mayon Volcano, also known as Mount Mayon, is an active volcano in the Philippines. Renowned as the "perfect cone" because of its almost symmetric conical shape, Mayon forms the northern boundary of Legazpi City. Mayon Volcano Krakatoa Krakatoa is a volcanic island in Indonesia. It has produced one of the biggest eruptions in history causing tsunamis, killing over 35 000 people and destroying 2/3 of Krakatoa Island. The eruption could be heard from Western Australia. Lava Butte Lava Butte Kilauea A volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, and one of five shield volcanoes that together form the island of Hawai'i, Kilauea is one of the most active volcanoes on the planet. Shield Volcano A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their large size and low height, resembling a warrior's shield. This is caused by the highly fluid lava erupted from more explosive volcanoes. One of the five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the US state of Hawai'i in the Pacific Ocean, and the largest on Earth in terms of volume and area covered. It is an active shield volcano, with a volume estimated at approximately 75,000 cubic kilometers. Mauna Lao Lava Domes A lava dome is a mound of volcanic rock extruded from a volcano. The lava piles into a heap rather than flowing away. Diameters of domes range from a few meters to several kilometers. They can be up to 1000 m high. A lava dome of Chaiten Volcano in southern Chile during its 2008-2010 eruption. Lava domes in the crater of Mount St. Helens in Skamania County, Washington, U.S.A Novarupta lava dome in July 1987 in Alaska, U.S.A How do Volcanoes form? As mentioned earlier, one way that volcanoes form is when one tectonic plate goes deep enough into the magma, underneath (subducts) another plate. This creates a 'subduction zone'.
Another way is when the tectonic plates pull apart (diverge). It produces a 'rift zone' which allows the magma to rise to the surface.
The final way is called a 'hot spot'. These are made within tectonic plates (not at the edges) where the magma is hot enough to melt through the crust and erupt. Fold mountains are the most common type of mountain. The world’s largest mountain ranges are fold mountains. These ranges were formed over millions of years. Fold mountains are formed when two plates collide head on, and their edges crumbled, much the same way as a piece of paper folds when pushed together. Fold Mountains Himalayas of Asia Alps in Europe As the name suggests, fault-block mountains, or fault mountains, are formed when blocks or rock materials slide along faults in the Earth's crust. There are two types of block mountains, lifted and tilted. Fault-Block Mountains Lifted mountains have two steep sides, whereas tilted mountains one steep side and a gently sloping side. have Tetons of Wyoming, USA (their steep edge facing east) Sandia Mountains
east of Albuquerque, New Mexico Dome Mountains Dome mountains are the result of a great amount of melted rock (magma) pushing its way up under the earth crust. Without actually erupting onto the surface, the magma pushes up overlaying rock layers. At some point, the magma cools and forms hardened rock. The uplifted area created by rising magma is called a dome because of looking like the top half of a sphere (ball). Navajo Mountain in Arizona, US Volcanic Mountains As the name suggests, volcanic mountains are formed by volcanoes. Volcanic Mountains are formed when molten rock (magma) deep within the earth, erupts, and piles upon the surface. Magma is called lava when it breaks through the earth's crust. When the ash and lava cools, it builds a cone of rock. Rock and lava pile up, layer on top of layer. Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia Plateau Mountains Plateau mountains are not formed by internal activity. Instead, these mountains are formed by erosion. Plateaus are large flat areas that have been pushed above sea level by forces within the Earth, or have been formed by layers of lava. Plateau mountains are often found near folded mountains. As years pass, streams and rivers erode valleys through the plateau, leaving mountains standing between the valleys. The Adirondack Mountains of New York
are remnants of an eroded plateau. How are mountains formed?

Mountains are formed by slow but gigantic movements of the earth's crust (the outer layer of the Earth). The Earth's crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. When two slabs of the earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. What are Mountains ? The scientific name for mountain lion is Puma concolor. A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them. The study of mountains is called orography Mount Everest The World's Highest Mountain The World's Tallest Mountain Mauna Kea The highest mountains on each continent
(the Seven Summits) If I was to establish a system, it would be, that Mountains are produced by Volcanoes, and not Volcanoes by Mountains. - Sir William Hamilton What do earthquakes, mountains and volcanoes have in common? Plate Tectonics Layers of Earth
Atmosphere: The envelope of gases surrounding the earth
Hydrosphere: All the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas.
Biosphere: The regions of the Earth occupied by living organisms such a plants and animals
Lithosphere: Oceanic and continental crusts
Mantle: Upper and lower mantle
Core: Outer and inner core ...are large, constantly moving, irregularly shaped masses of rock.
They move by floating on the mantle, which causes continental drift. Tectonic Plates Review How do the plates move? The driving force that moves the plates are the convection currents. The mantle is made of much denser, thicker material, so the plates "float" on it like oil floats on water.

When the convection currents flow in the mantle, they also move the crust. The crust gets a free ride with these currents. Plates can move... 1. Away from each other (diverging)
2. Toward each other (converging)
3. Slide past each other (Transforming) Subduction ...is when one plate plunges beneath another
...results with the formation of volcanoes This movement of the tectonic plates produce mountains, earthquakes and volcanoes. Mount Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius is located near Naples, Italy and is most famous for destroying the city of Pompeii in the year 79. The continents are moving at the rate of 2 centimeters a year, which means that in 1000 years, it will move 20 meters. This number may not seem so big right now, but if we start thinking in terms of millions of years, just imagine how big the number can get. FACT REVIEW REVIEW REVIEW REVIEW Environmental Effects Gas clouds released can contain suffocating and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide and sulphur.
Ash clouds contain dust and sulphuric acid which can change global temperatures.
Lava flows can destroy anything in their path.
Falling ash damages infrastructure and crops.
Eruptions near water can create tsunamis.
However, volcanic ash often produce the best, nutrient rich soil in the world and can assist to regenerate environments. Fold Mountains Are when two tectonic plates compress and push land upwards. REVIEW Parts of a Volcano Earthquakes also rely on the movement of tectonic plates and occur at the junctions of the plates. Deadliest Earthquakes in History Magnitude Location Comments Date 9.1 Indonesia Produced tsunami; killed 230 000 and displaced 1.7 million. 26th December, 2004 7.0 Haiti Killed 316 000 and displaced 1.2 million 1st December, 2010 7.6 Pakistan Killed 86 000 with another 68 000 injured 8th October, 2005 9.0 Japan Killed 18 000 and injured 7 000 11th March, 2011 Which plates would have caused these earthquakes? Earthquake Definition An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another.
The surface where they slip is called the fault line or fault plane.
The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter.
The location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. When the edges of faults hit each other and stick, energy is being stored up between them.
When the force of the moving plates finally overcomes the friction of being stuck together, all that stored up energy is released.
The energy moves outward from the fault in all directions in seismic waves (like ripples on water).
The seismic waves reach the Earth’s surface and shake the ground and anything on it. Why does the land shake? Indonesian Earthquake/ Boxing Day Tsunami Haiti Earthquake VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES How are Earthquakes measured? Earthquakes measure seismic waves using seismographs. When the ground starts shaking,
the seismometer (hanging mass)
remains still while the frame around
it moves. The suspended mass used to be a pendulum, but most modern
seismometers work electromagnetically.

A permanent magnet is used and the outside case contains numerous coils of fine wire. Movements of the magnet relative to the frame make small electric signals in the wire, which can be sent to a computer or recorded onto paper. The Richter Scale A numerical scale (exponential) for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake based seismograph movements. A earthquake than measures 5.0 the ground shakes 10 times more than a 4.0 earthquake.
A 8.0 earthquake shakes 100 times more than a 6.0.
A 9.0 shakes the ground 1000 times more than a 6.0. Landslides
The sliding down of a mass of earth or rock from a mountain or cliff. Avalanches What causes landslides and avalanches? Unstable slopes caused by:
Earthquake
Heavy rainfall
Melting snow
Erosion
Human use http://environment.nationalgeographic.com.au/environment/natural-disasters/avalanche-interactive/ http://tlc.discovery.com/convergence/quakes/interactives/makeaquake.html EARTHQUAKES Review 1. Contour lines join points of ...........

2. What does the contour interval on a map mean? Earthquakes can trigger tsunamis which can be more deadly than the actual quake itself. e.g. the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by a giant undersea earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Complete worksheet 3.2 'Mountain Hazards' as you view this Prezi. You will need a set of earphones. Where is the Ring of Fire? So Australia should be safe right? One of Australia's most serious natural disasters occurred when an earthquake shook Newcastle in New South Wales, leaving 13 people dead and injuring more than 160. The damage bill has been estimated at around A$4 billion dollars, including an insured loss of over A$1 billion. All the result of just a few seconds of earthquake ground shaking at 10:27am on 28 December 1989 (McCue and others, 1990).
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