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Cell Structure and Function

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by Kailyn Crouch on 14 November 2012

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Transcript of Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function I think I know that cells are made up of a lot of different things.
Some cells have a nucleus. There are eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. The differences between them are that one had a nucleus and one does not.
I know that all cells have a cell wall or a cell membrane.
Some terms I know are flagella, cilia, mitochondria, nucleus, cells membrane, meiosis and mitosis and the phases. I wonder if all cells have DNA.
I wonder what other differences occur in cells.
I wonder what functions cells have?
What happens during the phases of mitosis and meiosis?
What other kinds of cells are out there that I don’t know about? The BIG Idea •Cells, atoms and molecules make up EVERYTHING.
•Some cells are living, some aren’t.
•Cells can be characterized into kingdoms and domains.
•The cell is like a factory in the way it functions, you can’t have the end result without everything working properly. WHAT I THINK I KNOW WHAT I WONDER KEY CONCEPTUAL IDEAS AND RELATED DETAILS The Basis Of Life Organization Living things tend to be highly organized and complex compared to non-living things.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Metabolism Living things rely on chemical reactions, often to interchange matter and energy. Life is sustained by the gathering and expenditure of energy.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Self-Reproduction Living organisms replicate themselves, but with variation and autonomously generate their own kind by means of inherited traits.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Adaption Living things have characteristics, provided by heredity, that support their survival and reproduction and that are shaped by interaction with their environment. These characteristics can change over a period of time in response to their environment.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Growth and Development When a living organism reproduces, the offspring start out smaller, and usually much simpler in form, and then increase in size and complexity.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Response and Stimuli An organism respondes to its environment in order to preserve itself.

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Sizing Up Cells Cells vary in size. There are some giant cells such as ostrich eggs, but most cells are microscopic. (Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1991) vs. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek First thing he looked at was matter between his teeth.
He also found single celled organisms like amoebas and parameciums found in pond water, plant cells, and different kinds of human cells. (Waggoner, 1996) Cells are so small because... of efficiency
cell roles are regulated by the nucleus where the efficiency is maintained in close proximity. ("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Types of Cells Nerve Cells Glandular Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Share many of the organelles found in other types of cells and have developed the highly specialized axons and dendrites required to transmit electrical impulses throughout the organism and can reach up to several meters in length in larger animals.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Specially designed to produce and release chemicals.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) simpler
no nucleus or other organelles
chromosomes (DNA) are circular
must have a thick and inflexible wall
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) more complex
large in size
bound by flexible cell membrane allowing them to exchange materials more quickly with their environment
thread-like DNA is contained within a nucleus
carries a large amount of DNA
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Domains and Kingdoms Carolus Linnaus Domains Broadest group into which organisms can be classified.

1. Archaea
2. Bacteria
3. Eukariya
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Scientist who created this classification system for different species.
(Waggoner, 2000) Kingdoms classification system in which Domains can be further divided.

1. Archaea
2. Bacteria
3. Protista
4. Fungi
5. Plantae
6. Animalia
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Domain/Kingdom: Bacteria: single celled prokaryotic organisms
no nucleus
almost all unicellular
can be found everywhere
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Domain/Kingdom: Archaea single celled prokaryotic organisms
closest relatives to first life forms
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Domain: Eukarya more closely related to archaea than bacteria.
all have DNA enclosed in nucleus
organized into 4 main kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia- based on evolutionary history and physical characteristics.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Kingdom: Protista single celled
have very different ways of interacting with their environment
first appeared in the fossil record 1.5 billion years ago
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Kingdom: Fungi multicellular
digest dead organic material
some fungi are the source for drugs like penicillin and other antibiotics
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Kingdom: Plantae multicellular organisms
chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll
plants grow in response to light
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Kingdom: Animalia Humans are members of this Kingdom
Multicellular
Ingests their food
Tetrapods, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) The Cellular Factory shapes of cells differ
some cells can change their shape when necessary by altering their cell membranes.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) cells must maintain a low surface area-to-volume ratio so that nutrients can be brought in, and waste products can be moved out, efficiently.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Specialization of Cells all cells must: generate energy
dispose of waste products
transport throughout the cell across the membranes of organelles
replicate themselves through cell division or other means
store the genetic material that makes replication possible
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Security and Recieving Layers a cell membrane are primarily composed of a special class of lipids called phospholipids.
Phospholipids protect the contents of the cell from its environment.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Plant cells have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose.
cell walls serve as a means of carbohydrate storage.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Cytoskeleton:
dynamic, 3D structure, composed of:
microfilaments
microtubules
and intermediate filaments These three elements are responsible for the stability of the cell and the movement of materials from place to place.
Also play an important role in chromosome separation and cell division.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Cytoplasm: semi-transparent fluid that fills the cell Vacuoles: bubble-like figures that contain stored nutrients or water

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Nucleus: control center
the storehouse for the genetic information, in the form of DNA, that controls all the activities of the cell.
(Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1991) Nuclear Envelope: two membranes that enclose the nucleus. This is where DNA and RNA are held.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Control Center Cell Division is initiated in the nucleus.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Ribosomes: produce proteins
found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) a series of passageways in the cells that aids the movement of the components that assemble proteins., Rough ER: Smooth ER: studded with ribosomes.
abundant in cells that produce secretory proteins that are destined to be exported form the cell. has no ribosomes, appears smooth, and has no role in protein synthesis.
Its job is to package the secretory proteins for export and assist in the synthesis of lipids and steroids.
(Davidson, 2004) Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus made up of many sets of sacs called cisternae that are bound by lipid membrane.
Between 5 or 8 are usually present within a cell.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Vesicles bubbles of modified, sorted and packed rough ER.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Lysosomes: a special kind of vesicle that does the maintenance work in the cell.
These vesicles remain in the cytoplasm.
When white blood cells attach invading bacteria, it is the lysosomes that do the work of breaking down the intruder into constituent parts.
They break down complex macromolecules into smaller organic molecule chunks.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Mitochondria the powerhouse of the cells.
Where the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Plant Cells do not have to digest their food. Photosynthesis enables plants to harness the energy of the sun to create the glucose they need to survive and grow.
choloroplasts make this possible. Water very important to the life of everything living and nothing would survive without water.
each cell uses water as a medium in which to carry out the activities of life: growth, cell expansion, and replication.
water is a polar molecule
one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Elements 21 elements play a major role of life on earth.
6 of these 21 are essential to life. They are called Biogenic Elements.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) 1. Carbon
2. Hydrogen
3. Oxygen
4, Nitrogen
5. Phosphorus
6. Sulfur Properties of Elements Double Bond: When elements share two electrons

Triple Bond: Forms when two carbon atoms each share three electrons.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Four Major Classes of Macromolecules Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Simple and complex carbohydrates
Lipids
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Proteins most abundant class of macromolecules
make up half of cells weight
composed of 20 different types of amino acids
(Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1991) Nucleic Acids Structural Proteins: fibrous and help maintain order and form.

Regulatory Proteins: control cell processes and regulate the expression of the information contained in the genes.
attach to a binding site to switch the gene on or off.

Transport Proteins: can carry substances through the body in extracellular fluids such as blood.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) The means by which genetic information in the cell is stored, transmitted, and expressed.
Made up of nucleotides
Long chain of repeated units
(Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1991) Simple/Complex Carbohydrates Simple: quick energy sources, but don't usually supply any other nutrients or fiber.
Sugars

Complex: often supply energy and other nutrients and fiber that the body needs.
Starch

("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) Lipids Not technically macromolecules because they are not synthesized by the same process as nucleic acids, protains and polysaccharides.
Not readily soluble in water.
Commonly known as fats.
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) DNA Nucleic acid that contains genetic instructions.
Double helix
(Ahlgren & Rutherford, 1991) mRNA serves as temporary copy of the information encoded in DNA.
Can be read by ribosomes
("Scipack: Cell structure," 2007) REAL WORLD CONNECTIONS All of this information is connected to the real world because it is dealing with our bodies.
Students need to know how their body works to be able to properly maintain it and understand it.
Once students are able to understand this information they will be more able to understand the world around them and why and how living and nonliving organisms work the way that they do. Cross-curricular Connections Language Arts Students could use this information to write a story, a play, a song, or a poem about their body and what goes on within it. This will make sure that the students understand the processes happening in their body, while also practicing Language Arts skills. Social Studies Students can research a famous scientist that had a part in the discovery and development of Cell Structure and Function and then present the information to the class. Mathematics Students should be able to count the calories that they have burned during a day, and how many they have ingested, then be able to write a sentence about how this happened. How My Thinking Changed My thinking has changed because, before I just knew parts of what happened in Cell Structure and Function, but nothing really came together in my mind in an organized fashion. Now everything has come full-circle and I am now able to tell WHY certain things are happening in a cell instead of just knowing that they do, and that be it. How This Will Inform My Teaching This will help my teaching, because I think that teachers need to really know their materials. If teachers don't know what they are teaching about in full detail then it will be hard for them to answer questions from students. Also, having the information organized in a way that makes sense helps with your teaching strategy. As a teacher, we need to be prepared for all types of questions from students. Resources Image Resources Information Resources Ahlgren, A., & Rutherford, F. J. (1991). Science for all americans. Retrieved from
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http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/6/SCP-CSF.0.1
Waggoner, B. (1996, AUGUS 25). Antoni van leeuewnhoek. Retrieved from
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