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Anatomy & Physiology: Introduction

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by james donahue on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: Introduction

Anatomical
Systems

Integument
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Lymphatic
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproductive
1. Protects deeper tissues from injury.

2. Synthesizes vitamin D.

3. Regulate body temperature.

4. Communication with the environment (via cutaneous nerves).

5. Excrete wastes.
1. Support the body mass.

2. Protect soft organs.

3. Movement.

4. Store minerals.

5. Hematopoiesis.
1. Move bones and maintain posture.

2. Circulate blood.

3. Propel substances.

4. Regulate blood pressure.

5. Vision and focus.

6. Stabilize joints.

7. Generate heat.
1. Sensation.

2. Integration.

3. Motor stimuli.
4. Form the blood brain barrier.

5. Phagocytosis.

6. Circulate Cerebral Spinal Fluid.

7. Create myelin.
Regulate metabolism via hormones.
Return leaked fluid back into the blood stream.
1. Pump blood.

2. Vasomotor action.
3. Transport blood gases.

4. Neutralize pathogens.

5. Hemostasis.
Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
1. Catabolize nutrients.

2. Absorption.

3. Defecation.
1. Regulate blood composition.

2. Regulate blood volume/pressure.

3. Regulate blood pH.

4. Regulate calcium (vitamin D).

5. Regulate RBC concentration.
1. Formation of gametes.

2. Nurture offspring.

3. Growth and development.
Body Planes
Frontal Plane
Sagittal Plane
Horizontal Plane
Divides the body into front and back
Divides the body into left and right
Divides the body into
top and bottom
Body Cavities
Directional Terms
anterior/posterior
ventral/dorsal
superior/inferior
medial/lateral
proximal/distal
superficial/deep

Regional Terms
Feedback
negative v. positive
Anatomical Variations
Regional
20.5-21.5% of S. African blacks have 3 heads of the bicep brachii
(2.5% have 4 heads)
17.2% of Indians do not possess a palmaris longus
All Human Population
8.5% have an extra muscle in their lower leg (plantaris)
10% of quadricep contusions generates new bone growth
4.5% have extra nipples
0.35% have an extra rib in their neck
0.2% have the appendix in the upper left quadrant
0.16% have a single "horseshoe" kidney
0.008% have the heart on the right
0.022% gender cannot be determined at birth
Extreme variations
are seldom seen

Be sure you can:
Anatomy
&
Physiology

youtube.com/watch?v=_O4ufdR8yBY
See the full transcript