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8th Grade US History Presidents Project
Transcript of 8th Grade US History Presidents Project
Jefferson 1801-1809 Born: April 13,1743 in
Of State: Secretary
Of War: Henry
of Treasury: Samuel Dexter
Albert Gallatin(1801) Attorney
General: Levi Lincoln(1801)
Caesar A. Rodney(1807) Political
President: Aaron Burr
George Clinton John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 Born: July 11, 1767
of State: Henry Clay Secretary of War: James Barbour(1825)
Peter B. Porter(1828) Secretary
of Treasury: Richard
General: William Wirt Political
President: Aaron Burr
George Clinton James
K. Polk 1845-1849 Born: November 2, 1795 in Mecklenburg County,
North Carolina Cabinet
of State: James
of War: William L.
Marcy(1845) Secretary of
Treasury: Robert J.
General: John Y. Mason(1845)
Isaac Toucey(1848) Political
Party: Democrat Vice
M. Dallas Millard
Fillmore 1850-1853 January 7, 1800 in
New York Born: Cabinet
of State: Dainel Webster(1850)
Edward Everett(1852) Secretary
of War: Charles M.
of Treasury: Thomas
General: John J.
Party: Whig Vice
President: None Abraham
Lincoln February 12, 1809 in LaRue County, Kentucky Born: Cabinet Advisors: Secretary
of State: William H.
of War: Simon Cameron(1861)
Edwin M. Stanton(1862) Secretary
of Treasury: Salmon P. Chase(1861)
William P. Fessenden(1864)
Hugh McCulloch(1865) Attorney
General: Edward Bates(1861)
James Speed(1864) Political
Party: Republican Vice
President: Hannibal Hamlin
Andrew Johnson During Thomas Jefferson's presidency, he signed a treaty with france in 1803. This treaty included the purchase of two million square miles, the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson purchased the territory, which almost doubled the size of the United States for about $15 million. The territory opened up more land to farmers and settlers and it also gave the United States complete access to the Mississippi River. The only issue was that the Constitution did not say anything about the U.S. Government aquring land by treaty. Jefferson fought that the transaction was constitutional by using the Elastic Cause and congress soon ratified the treaty. The Louisiana
Purchase Once the treaty was ratified and the land was in United States arms, President Jefferson began looking for some one to explore the Great Unknown. Finding Meriwether Lewis and William Clark fit for the expedition, Jefferson sent them to map out the new territory and to attempt to find an all water route to Pacific Coast. If there was such a route, shipping and traveling further westward would easily be possible. The Lewis and Clark Expedition took two years to complete. The expedition failed to discover an all water route to the coast, however they discovered many other easily accessible routes and new plant and animal life. The Great Unknown had finally been deciphered. The Lewis &
Clark Expedition Thomas Jefferson believed that a democratic government should be run by the people which was known as, Jeffersonian Democracy. His veiws took off after he won the election of 1800. He advocated that every one had natural rights; life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Jeffersonians also believed in recognizing private and federal property. They felt there should be a weak central government and the people should be governing. Many U.S. citizens agreed with and followed President Jefferson's views but when his presidency was finished so was the Jeffersonian Democracy. There was no one who really kept it active and advocating after that. Jeffersonian
Democracy John Q. Adams made the decision to improve roads and transportation. He chose to build the Erie Canal, which was one of the best choices he made as president. President Adams' decision thrust the United States into prosperity. The canal opened up better ways for transportation of goods which led to part of the Industrial Revolution. The Erie Canal With the opening of the Erie Canal, it brought better transportation of goods. It allowed the Industrial Revoulution to kick off. Factories and mills were able to produce more products and ship them faster increasing the quantities of goods in the U.S. The industrial part of the country helped improve the economy of the United States. This helped citizens make money and pay off debts and travel, sending the country booming. Industrial
Revolution Adams' congress passed the Tariff of 1828 which became known as the Tariff of Abominations to protect the United States industry from lower-priced imported goods. The industrial North welcomed the tariff which improved their businesses but the rual South resented the tariff because it caused them to pay dearly for goods they did not produce. The tariff also indirectly caused reduction of british goods to be imported and made it difficult for Britain to pay for the cotton they imported. Tariff of
Abominations The Mexican War was not supposed to be a long, drawn-out war. According to President Polk it was supposed to be a way to get Mexico to negotiate with the United States. Mexico refused to recoginze Texas as independent and its annexation to the United States. Unfortunately, U.S. troops had never fought so far from home and were not ready for the battle. However they drew the victory and won the war. Which allowed Mexico, Texas and the United States to negotiate the borders of Texas. Mexican-American War President Polk's address to the Union convinced the country of the truth of gold in California. This led to the California Gold Rush. Settlers from the north to the south headed to California to find their own fortunes. The rush led farmers and businessmen alike tearing westward for a sliver of gold metal. However, not many found anything at all. But throughout the remainder of Polk's presidency, '49er's had gold fever. California Gold Rush The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war against Mexico. In the treaty, the Rio Grande became recognized globally as the border of Texas and divided Mexico and the United States. Also, the Mexican Cession was negotiated, which included the upper
part of California and present day New Mexico. President Polk had successfully negotiated the borders and recieved land also. Now, settlers looking to settle in Texas could
freely settle peacefully. Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo President Fillmore signed into law the Compromise of 1850 which did several things. It both helped and hurt the north and south. Popular sovereignty helped determine if Utah and New Mexico were admitted into the Union as free or slave states. The Compromise helped establish the borders of California, admitting it as a free state. And last, tougher Fugitive Slave Acts were brought about. The Compromise of 1850 helped to hold off the Civil War and kept the south from secession. Compromise of 1850 Not only did President Fillmore sign the Compromise of 1850 but he signed into effect the Fugitive Slave Act. This document forced U.S. citizens to turn in runaway slaves and give them back to their owner if found. The only problem was even if a slave was in a free state and had papers saying he was free, slave hunters would still capture and return them to slavery. For each slave captured, the capturer would recieve payment. The south loved this new law nut northerners resented it and did what they could to avoid it and help free slaves. The Fugitive Slave Acts were one of the first wedges leading up to the Civil War. Fugitive Slave Acts Milliard Fillmore helped to abolish the slave trade in the Nation's capital, Washington D.C. The trade, however, was not abolished where D.C. met Virginia. These compromises helped ease tensions before the Civil War broke out. Taking the trade away left the capital free of ridicule and could not be seen as sided in the debate against slavery. This allowed congress in Washington D.C. to see to its job in creating laws to protect and solve problems in the United States and it's territories. Abolishing Slave Trade
in the Nation's Capital President Lincoln was known as a war president. Most of his presidency was spent balancing the politcal and military sides of the Civil War. The south seceded when he won the Election of 1860. And Lincoln went into the south into war at first to preserve the Union. Soon after, however, the war turned toward a battle against slavery. The war held a heavy burden on both sides of the war. While many men where in battle the women had to provide for the families and work the fields or in the factories. Everyone was very bitter against eachother and the years during the war were rough. Civil War Lincoln's republican views and decisions on the matters of slavery made him an over night political super-star in New York and other northern states. In the south he was looked at as someone who would do everything in his power to abolish slavery. The south were so fearful of Lincoln abolishing slavery they decided to seceed if he won the Election of 1860. Lincoln disliked slavery but repetedly stated he wouldn't abolish it, just stop slavery from spreading into new states and territories. The south did not believe him and when Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States in 1860 southern states began seceeding. Lincoln soon after sent the militia in to the deep south to try to preserve the Union. Election of 1860 President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclaimation as a military tactic. It set all slaves in the Confederate States of America free unless that state rejoined the union. The proclaimation set approximately 3.1 million of the approximate 4 million slaves in the United States as a whole. Most freed slaves escaped in mass numbers to the north and border states with many joining the Union army to go back and fight the Confederates. President Lincoln not only free the slaves to anger the south as his military tactic but he also gained soldiers who were more willing to die for the Union than most. Emancipation