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Interactive Theory of Reading to Practice

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by Sandra Sharpe on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of Interactive Theory of Reading to Practice

Orthographic Processor Meaning Processor Phonological Processor How Adams (2004) Interactive Theory Works and What it Means to Teachers The pronunciation of words in this process are "represented as a complex of elementary speech sounds" (Adams, 2004). This process also involves spelling to sound translations. Sandra Sharpe
Knowledge Nugget
EDU 587.01
May 7, 2013 Content Processor Adams (2004) Model of the Reading System: Four Processors How to Apply Adams (2004) Interactive Reading Theory
to Practice Teaching Strategies TEACHER Reading Writing Speech Knowledge & Comprehension
of the Theory Applying the Theory to Practice According to Adams (2004), the orthographic processor is the "reader's knowledge of the visual images of words, which includes the reader's knowledge that individual letters are represented as interconnected bundles of more elementary visual features, while printed words are represented as interconnected sets of letters." This involves the meanings of familiar words "represented as interconnected bundles of simpler meaning elements" (Adams, 2004). This processor uses the larger knowledge of the text and "swings its own bias among rival candidates so as to maintain the coherence of the message" (Adams, 2004). Adams (2004) Interactive Reading Model includes four processors which are "simultaneously active and interactive (see arrows in the model), and the key is the coordination and the cooperation of all as shaped by the reader's own prior knowledge and experience." This model does not focus solely on comprehension (Top Down Theory) or phonics and word recognition (Bottom Up Theory) like other models and theories of reading do. Comprehension and word recognition theories focus on the text, and do not address the author's purpose for writing the text or connections the reader makes with the text from previous learning experiences. The Interactive Theory takes ideas from these two theories and focuses on reader interactions with the text, not just the text itself. In Adams' (2004) Reading Model, the processors working together are responsible for the fluency of the reader and the coherence of the text.
When teachers understand and view Adams' (2004) Interactive Reading Theory as the way the reading process works, they assess prior knowledge of the subject matter, and create learning activities that students can connect with and build upon during new learning experiences or texts.

Before Reading Activities:

1. After determining that Endangered Penguins is non-fiction, create a "Non-fiction Print Conventions" booklet with students. This will teach students the components of a non-fiction text and will serve as a reference tool. If time, have students find the different non-fiction print conventions and paste them in the book. The Endangered Penguins book can be used as a guide and to help students get ideas of non-fiction text features that should be included in the booklets. Have students cut out non-fiction print conventions from old magazines, newspapers and other resources and paste them in the book.
This activity will help students interact with Endangered Penguins and addresses the author’s purpose of using the text features to aid in the comprehension of the text. See a few pages of a Non-fiction Print Conventions booklet I made with my students.

2.Click on this YouTube video
to introduce students to
vocabulary (penguin, iceberg, species, emperor, bird, hatch, and krill). Look at the words in context and in isolation. Determine the parts of speech, the definitions, and why the words are important when learning about penguins.
Frontloading vocabulary will allow students to interact more fluently with the text and recognize important words and their definitions instead of stumbling over them and not recognizing their importance. This offers a unique way to introduce vocabulary, and students learn the words and their definitions in the context of the song. The readers interact with the text and show how the processors in the Adams (2004) Interactive Reading Theory work together and build upon each other. Students use their knowledge of letters and words (Orthographic processor), recognize and put together the sounds that the words make (Phonological processor). The reader then finds the meaning of the word (Meaning Processor) in isolation and again in context (Context Processor) during this activity. During Reading Activities:

1. "Ten Important Words" activity (Yopp & Yopp, 2010, p. 90-91). Students are able to interact with Endangered Penguins and chose words that they believe are important from the context in which they are written. Students use all the processors from Adams’ (2004) theory, and they are interactive. If you look at the model the arrows do not necessarily flow from the bottom to the top, they can also start at the top and flow downward.

a. Students are given a copy of the reading selection (if applicable) and ten self-adhesive notes. If you are unable to supply many copies of this text and are fortunate enough to have a SmartBoard, put the book under the Elmo so it will be large enough for all students to view.
b. Students independently identify what they believe to be the ten most important words in the text as they read. One word is written per self-adhesive note. Time is given to students to re-read and revise the list.
c. Students then take their self-adhesive notes and create a bar graph of the words they selected. The teacher leads a discussion on word choice, patterns displayed, and the importance and uniqueness of the words to the text. This will lead to student discussions of the text as well.
d. After the discussion, the students each write a one-sentence summary of the text.

2. Use a graphic organizer, like a bubble map with the words endangered penguins in the middle. Students can fill in surrounding bubbles with facts they learn as they read (Yopp & Yopp, 2010, p. 76). This is another way the reader can interact with the text. Similar to the “Ten Words” activity, students will document what they determine to be important to their own comprehension of the text. Click on the bubble map for an example. After Reading Activities:

1. Try the "Navigating Through Non-fiction" Partner Activity. This activity helps students become more aware of the features of non-fiction texts and how they contribute to the overall comprehension of Endangered Penguins. It also helps the reader identify the author’s purpose for including the features and the identification of the important terms. This activity also connects to the before reading activity of creating a Non-fiction Print Conventions booklet.

2. Create an Investigation on penguins (adapted from Hoyt, 2002) using non-fiction text features (i.e. photographs of penguins, a cutaway of a penguin's egg, the title printed in bold print, a map of Antarctica, etc.). By participating in this activity after reading the text, students take charge of their learning about a subject matter, such as penguins, and are able to incorporate non-fiction text features, facts they have learned, and other information they made connections with.

A few examples of investigations are shown below, along with a student planning guide and assessment information. Very interesting, but how can I use this Interactive Theory to help my 3rd grade students read a non-fiction text titled Endangered Penguins by Bobbie Kalman and Robin Johnson? References

Adams, M.J. (2004). Modeling the connections between word recognition and reading. In R.B. Ruddell & N.J. Unrau,. (eds.). Theoretical models and processes of reading, (5th ed.). (p. 1219-43). Newark, DE: IRA.

Bird, C. M. (2013, April 16). Welcome to psychological foundations of literacy week 12, Spring 2013. Unpublished manuscript, power point for EDU 587 Psychological Foundations of Literacy course for Department of Language,
Learning and Leadership, SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, NY.

Bird, C. M. (2013, April 23). Welcome to psychological foundations of literacy week 13, Spring 2013. Unpublished manuscript, power point for EDU 587 Psychological Foundations of Literacy course for Department of Language,
Learning and Leadership, SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, NY.

Hoyt, L. (2002). Make it real: Strategies for success with informational text. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Kalman, B. & Johnson, R. (2007). Endangered penguins. New York, NY: Crabtree Publishing Company.

Tip #80: Investigations (Retrieved May 1, 2013 from

Yopp, R.H. & Yopp, H.K. (2010). Literature-based reading activities (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

YouTube Video. (February 1, 2010). Mr. penguin song. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from Penguins warmblooded carnivore that eats tiny fish and krill birds that
air using lungs use wings to
swim, not fly All species live in the Southern Hemisphere some species are endangered by: Bobbie Kalman & Robin Johnson Endangered Penguins Example of an Investigation on Plants A Self-Assessment Guide and Plan for Hoyt's Investigations of
Non-fiction texts 3 More Student Examples What is an Interactive Theory? Unlike other theories, the interactive reading theory addresses more than just the text being used. It focuses on the reader's interactions with the text, and three elements in the reading process. First the author’s purpose for writing the text is identified prior to reading and during the process of reading the text. Second, the theory addresses the actual text itself and how the author uses the text to talk to the reader. Finally, the theory looks at how the reader constructs meaning from the text and makes connections to what they already know. Here are some before, during, and after reading activities that can be used with Endangered Penguins and other non-fiction texts. The activities allow students to use prior knowledge of penguins and make connections with the non-fiction text. Prior to any of these activities, students should examine the text by doing a "picture walk" and determine the genre by identifying specific non-fiction characteristics. Students should also have the opportunity to share their prior knowledge of penguins.
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