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Talent Identification and Development in Sport

BTEC L3 Sport Coaching/Fitness: Unit 20
by Alice Tocknell on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Talent Identification and Development in Sport

Talent Identification & Development in Sport
Grading Criteria
Assignment 1: Talent Identification and Development

P5: Describe, using examples, five different key factors in talent development in sport
P6: Describe one current talent
development
programme in a selected sport

M3: Evaluate one current talent
development
programme in a selected sport
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Key Factors in Talent Development
Current Talent Programmes
World Class Performance Plans

TASS (Talented Athlete Scholarship Schemes)

Gifted and Talented

The World Class Start and Potential programme,

ECFA (English Colleges Football Association) Football Development Centres,

LTAD (Long Term Athlete Development) Models
What is Talent Development in Sport?
Unit 20: Talent Identification and Development in Sport
If talent identification can be defined as: The process of identifying talented performers who are current non-participants in a given sport
In groups of 4 create a definition for talent
development
in sport
Talent Development in sport can be described as...
"Programmes of additional support made available to young people who, on the basis of selection processes, can develop their potential to become high level performers in adult sport"
How long does it take to "develop into a world class athlete?" What situational differences might make this time scale different for different athletes?
Talent Development
“Scientific research has concluded that it takes eight to twelve years of training for a talented athlete to reach elite levels”
The process of talent development involves a detailed knowledge of lots of different positive factors, as well as an understanding of some of the obstacles that can stand in the way of an athlete.
Physical
Physiological
Sociological
Psychological
Obstacles
P5: Describe, using examples, five different key factors in talent development in sport
Height Weight Muscle Girth Somatotype
Can each of these factors be developed?
Example:

A boxer choosing the correct training methods to maintain weight, muscle girth and somatotype to be in the correct weight class.

It is common for athletes to be highlighted due to physical factors for certain sports, and then the specific skills for those skills developed later on..... what is an example of this?
Aerobic Capacity
Anaerobic Capacity
Physiological characteristics can only be developed to a certain point once they have been established
Example: A sprinter would struggle to be a top marathon runner even if they changed their training to match that of the top marathon runner.
Parental Support
Education
Opportunities for deliberate practice
Roles, Skills and techniques of Coaches
Tangible Support
Intangible Support
Financial Support
Kit, Training Fees, Match Fees
Transport
Praise / Consolation
Being present at competitions
Hugs!
Write down all the ways that education could impact on a childs development in sport...
Gifted and Talented
http://gifted.youthsporttrust.org/page/etm-video/index.html
practice activities that need a lot of effort, are not inherently enjoyable and do not lead to immediate social or financial rewards
Deliberate Practice:
10,000 hrs of deliberate practice required to be an elite athlete
What will impact the opportunity to complete this?
Trainer
Create a learning environment
Communicate
Is it important to develop athlete's psychological skills alongside practical skills?
How would we improve.....
Confidence
Concentration
Decision - Making
What obstacles may a child, or developing athlete face?
Injuries
Role Ambiguity...
Peer Pressure
Gender differences
Age
Influence development as time away from training can influence progress
A study in 2005 found at potentailly 16% of young talented athletes have their career ended by injury
What sterotypes are associated with certain sports?

Social impact of a busy training schedule
is uncertainty or confusion over the role you are supposed to be fulfilling
Can you be a good student and a good athlete?
What impact might moving from school, where you are the best player, into a higher squad where you become an average player of a group?
Male athletes are developed in a number of sports and less attention has been paid to female athletes

Why do you think this is?
Matural differences

2 athletes in the same group, one could be born in January, the other in December, the first athlete will have nearly a years advantage on height and muscle girth.

How may that effect selection?
P1: Describe different types of talent
P2: Describe five different predictors of talent for performers in sport
Task 4
P3: Describe one current talent
identification
programme in a selected sport

M1: Evaluate the chosen talent identification programme in a selected sport
Talent Programmes
Types & Predictors of Talent
How much do you know?
Predictors of Talent
Name the 5 categories predictors of talent fall into
What are the 4 types of talent?

Define talent
Sociological Factors
Types of talent
Unidimensional

Multidimensional

Unisport

Multisport
Limited transferable skills - sprinter who can only sprint 100m
Range of skills that are transferable to other sports, positions and events. Common in team sports
Excel in one sport to elite level - David Beckham is a world class footballer but not world class at any other sport
World class at a range of sports - unheard of today
a natural ability to be good at something that can be developed by appropriate training
Talent
Greatest English cricketer - captaining England scoring 94 first class centuries. Never lost a test match, and had an average of 50
Took in the first ever internation athletics match between Yale and Oxford and won the 100m, and long jump. In 1893, he also = WR long jump record at 7.17m
Played rugby for Oxford University, Blackheath & the Barbarians
Professional footballer, reached FA Cup Final and played for England
What type of talent did Fry have?
Would it be possible for a modern day athlete to emulate Fry's achievements? Why?
What categories could predictors of talent be grouped under?
E.g. including parental support and Education
Sociological
Physical

Physiological

Psychological

Sociological

Skill-related
What sociological factors can you think of which may affect talent identification?
What sociological factors can you think of which may affect talent identification in football?
Sociological factors in talent identification...
Race
Sex
Religion
Tradition
Family
Injury
Social class
Country of residence
Social acceptance
Disability
Parental influence
Identity construction
Peer pressure
School sport
Facilities
Scouting hot-spots
Psychological Factors
Think back to your own early experiences of sport. How were they related to your age, social class, race or ethnicity, family, neighbourhood or community?

Why might differences in your experiences exist?
Hoop Dreams
"The first five yards are in your head"
Many individuals believe that sport only requires physical abilities

With the increased demands and stresses placed upon athletes, psychological factors are required

These psychological factors can be used to predict how successful an individual could be
Physical Factors
Physiological Factors
Skill-related Factors
Talent
All attempts at talent identification are fundamentally based on the prediction of future performance of athletes based on their present level of performance and attributes
Anaerobic Capacity
a
bility to work without oxygen
Sports?
Aerobic Capacity
maximal capacity for oxygen consumption by the body
Sports?
General Motor Skills
Fundamental to movements such as running, jumping, throwing and catching

Dependant on components of fitness such as agility, balance, and co-ordination

Athletes who display these skills as young children tend to be better athletes in later life
Technical and tactical skills
Sport specific skills that are learned through game play

Technical - technique you need during a skill

Tactical - tactical skills relating to different positional plays or phases during a game

Game intelligence
Limited transferable skills - sprinter who can only sprint 100m
Range of skills that are transferable to other sports, positions and events. Common in team sports
Excel in one sport to elite level - David Beckham is a world class footballer but not world class at any other sport
World class at a range of sports - unheard of today
1
2
3
4
What terms are each definition describing?
Describe these aspects of predictors of talent...
1. Physical - Height

2. Psychological - Drive

3. Physiological - Anaerobic capactiy

4. Sociological - Social class

5. Skill - motor skills
Predictors of Talent
Hoop Dreams is a critically acclaimed 1994 documentary film directed by Steve James, with Kartemquin Films. It follows the story of two African-American high school students in Chicago and their dream of becoming professional basketball players

(Parts 3,4,5 & 6 can be found on youtube.com)
What physical characteristics can we assess for talent identification?
Pick a sport and list the physical characteristic you would identify
Sport specific
Position specific
Size
Quickness to react
Power
Flexibility
Speed
Tracking
Peripheral vision
Strength
Agility
Vision
Co-ordination
Depth perception
Physical Predictors....
Predicting Adult Height
Girls reach 75% adult height at 7.5y
boys at 9 years.

Girls reach 90% adult height at 11.5y
boys at 13.5 years
What do we need to think about?
Maturation
Early maturers may excel or be disadvantaged

Late maturers may have greater potential
Profoundly alters power : mass ratio
The Young Athlete
Less strength and lower aerobic & anaerobic capacity than adults





Highly trainable systems which recover quickly

Faster at learning skills than adults (eg swimming)
Research in Sport.....
Height
sitting height
mass
arm span
2 arm throw
seated throw
cricket ball throw
countermovement jump
40m sprint
multistage shuttle run
Australian Sports Commission, 1995
A battery of tests designed to discriminate high sporting potential

Used by track & field, canoeing, cycling, rowing, triathlon, water polo and wt lifting

High achievers invited to join talented athlete programme
Talent Search
Cotzee et al., 2001, S.A. J Res Sp, PE & Rec 23: 9 -25
Literature based research for 14y old boys swimming 50 and 100m freestyle

23 variables predicting success identified

Physical Predictors were:

Long lower limb, hand & foot lengths
Wide shoulders in relation to hips
Biceps + head girths
Talent ID by anthropometry in swimming
Olds T. In Anthropometrica 1996 (Norton & Olds) UNSW p343
Sporting Giants
In the early 1960s, Wilt Chamberlain was one of 3 players over 7ft tall in the NBA.

In 2001 there were 42

Mean height increase is 2.25cm/decade, for NBA players since 1945, and tallest are increasing at 4.38cm/decade.

The secular trend is just 1cm/decade
Lower body weight
High surface area
Write the general motor skills for ....FOOTBALL
Current Talent I.D programmes...
Talent
Identification

Talent
Development

Talent 2016 - Tall and Talented
What is 'Tall and Talented'?
Who is it run by?
Which sports does it look at?
What is the age range?
What background should applicants have?
What is the rationale for the programme approach?
What is the end focus?
http://www.uksport.gov.uk/pages/talent-2012-fighting-chance/
For the other current talent programmes produce a similar summary to the one you have done for 'Tall and Talented'
Research the way a specific sport identifies talent. e.g cycling
Research a talent identification strategy in a different country e.g Australia or the USA
Bayli's Model - Long Term Athlete Development
Leading expert on planning and periodisation and on short and long term
training and performance programming

Currently working with LTA, FA, RFU, AENA – help develop LTAD plans

Based on Key Principles:
Long-term approach (8-12 years to reach elite level)
Athlete centred (individual)
Early or late specialisation
Motor development in childhood (9-12 yrs)
Dr Istvan Bayli
Bayli's Long-term Athlete Development
FUNdamental
Training to Train
Training to Compete
Training to Win
4 Stages....
Put these 4 stages in order.....
FUNdamental
Training to Win
Training to Train
Training to Compete
Key Points
Performers need to sample wide range of fun and creative activities
No sport-specific specialisation
Emphasis on development of basic motor skills, not competition
Parents/Carers involved and supportive
Tasks/Groups set by biological rather than chronological age
Age: 4 - 10 years
Its vital that coaches are aware of the so-called critical periods ‘accelerated adaptation’ so that these windows of opportunity are exploited to their full potential
Key Points
Performers begin to apply basic skills and fitness to preferred activities
Performers begin to reduce number of sports/activities
Emphasis on training and practice, but element of competition introduced (e.g. 25% of training programme)
Emphasis on learning how to train NOT on outcome
Age: Boys 10-14 yrs, Girls 10-13 yrs
Age: Boys 14-18 yrs, Girls 13-17 yrs
Key Points
Emphasis on development of sport-specific skills, techniques, tactics and game strategies
Performers generally have individualised conditioning programmes and specific performance goals
Over-training and over-competition must be avoided
Key Points
Most performers train and compete on full-time basis
Performer’s physical, technical, tactical and mental capacities fully developed
Emphasis on specific training to achieve and maintain optimum performance at key competitions
Age: Boys 18+, Girls 17+
Negatives of Bayli's Model
Positives of Bayli's Model
Sociological Factors Recap
Pick one case study and write down 3 sociological predictors of talent that may affect talent identification
Grant, 13, Male. Basketball
Lives in Tamworth
Attends a school who are Football focused
Plays in Worcester Academy



Melissa, 16, Female, Cage Fighter
Attends private school
Parents are lawyers
Attends training camps in USA
Phil. 21. Male. 200m Runner
Double lower leg amputee
Lives alone
Attends training camps in USA
Psychological Predictors of Talent.....
You are in charge of a talent identification programme that identifies talent based on physical, sociological and psychological predictors of talent.

What psychological factors would you look for when recruiting potential talent?

For example. Self-confidence.
Case Study
Fredrick trains near Weston (1hr away). He is an only child and his parents are both retired. He attends a comprehensive school where sailing is not included and he is studying 4 A levels.
Name: Fredrick Jones
Age: 18
Gender: Male
Sport: Sailing
Location: Bristol
Phase 2
Phase 1
promo vid
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