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Grammar

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by Smith Vidal on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Grammar

Grammar
Say what you want to say.
Passing the EPE
Content
Organization
Style/Expression
Grammar and Mechanics
BRAINSTORM
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Using correct grammar and mechanics is about making sure your sentence means what you want it to mean. Once you have organized your thoughts in an effective manner, the next step is communicating those thoughts properly.
Punctuation
Fragments & Run-ons
Tense Shifts & Double Negatives
Subject-Verb
Agreement
(This is what you worked on Tuesday)
(We are going to focus here.)
Commonly misused words & phrases
Some common grammatical challenges:
Cassandra wear a big, blonde, curly wig everyday.
What is wrong with this sentence?
Subject-Verb Agreement
The subject (noun/pronoun) must represent the same quantity as the verb (action).
If the noun is singular, the action must also be singular.
If the noun is plural, the action must also be plural.
Cassandra wear
s
a big, blonde, curly wig everyday.
Tips for Subject/Verb Agreement
Usually, if the noun ends with (-s), the verb
does not, and vice versa.
Examples:
◦ The dog
s
stay outside.
◦ The dog stay
s
outside.
◦ Jennifer goe
s
to ballet class on Tuesdays.
Jennifer
s
tend to be nice girls.
Those apples smells terrible.
Those apples
smell
terrible.
What is wrong with this one?
Fragments and Run-ons
A sentence consists of two parts: a subject and a predicate.

Fragments
are either missing one of these two parts, or made dependent by a subordinating conjunction.

Run-on sentences
tend to have too many subjects and/or predicates.
What is wrong with these sentences?
While she went to the nail spa to get a pedicure.
Hits her repeatedly.
He
hits her repeatedly.
I had to stay home with seven children
while she went to the nail spa to get a pedicure.
Jane told Kisha to get out of the house her obsession with UFOs had gone too far.
This type of corruption is shameful, it must be stopped.
Amari runs faster than a cheetah he can sing, too.
Ray loves pancakes but he is a diabetic and can not have sweets.
What is wrong with these sentences?
Let's eat Grandma.
Let's eat, Grandma.
Punctuation saves lives.
Jane told Kisha to get out of the house
. Kisha's
obsession with UFOs had gone too far.
This type of corruption is shameful
;
it must be stopped.
Amari runs faster than a cheetah
, and
he can sing, too.
Ray loves pancakes
,
but he is a diabetic and can not have sweets.
Apostrophe
How do we fix a run-on sentence?
Separate complete sentences using a period (.).
Attach complete sentences using a semi-colon (;).
Attach complete sentences using a comma and coordinating conjunction (, FANBOYS)
F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
S
o
To show posession.
Example: Gloria's baby is so cute. (singular)
The principal called all of the boys' parents. (plural)
To make contractions.
Example: Scare crows aren't (are+not) scary.
Emily tried to climb the rope, but she couldn't (could not).
Larry has about thirty box's of wine.

Chocolate chip cookies are the twins's favorite.
What is wrong with these sentences?
Larry has about thirty box
es
of wine.

Chocolate chip cookies are the
twins'
favorite.
How do we fix them?
Misuse of commas is the most common punctuation mistake.
A comma, by itself, cannot join two complete sentences.
Attempting to join sentences using a comma is called a comma splice.
What is wrong with these sentences?
Do you drink tea with milk lemon or honey?

Looking up at the sky I saw two jets flying over my house.

My brother a sports nut owns five hundred baseball cards.

Mike has to work on Tuesday mornings so he volunteers on Tuesday nights.

His mother shouted “Go get a job!”
Do you drink tea with milk
,
lemon
,
or honey?

Looking up at the sky
,
I saw two jets flying over my house.

My brother
,
a sports nut
,
owns five hundred baseball cards.

Mike has to work on Tuesday mornings
,
so he volunteers on Tuesday nights.

His mother shouted
,
“Go get a job!”
How do we fix it?


When we list a series of words.
Before a quote.
When interrupting the sentence with a phrase.
When connecting two independent clauses using a coordinating conjunction.
When introducing a sentence with a subordinate clause.


We need a comma...
Accept, Except:
Accept is a verb meaning to receive.
Except is usually a preposition signifying exclusion.
Ex: I will accept all the packages except that one. Except is also a verb meaning to exclude. Ex: Please except that item from the list.
Affect, Effect:
Affect is usually a verb meaning to influence.
Effect is usually a noun meaning result.
Ex: The drug did not affect the disease, and it had several adverse side effects. Effect can also be a verb meaning to bring about. Ex: Only the president can effect such a dramatic change.
There, Their, They’re:

There is an adverb specifying place; it is also an expletive.
(Ex: There is a wasp in here.)

Their is an adjective specifying possession.
(Ex: Their love will last forever.)

They’re is a contraction, combining “they” and “are”.
(Ex: I love these socks because they’re so soft.)
To, Too, Two:

To is a preposition.
(Sally goes to school.)

Too is an adverb.
(Brandon is too young for school.) ◦

Two is a number.
(He is only two years old.)
Double Negatives
Double negatives can give emphasis to figurative language, but avoid them in academic writing.

Ex: We don't need no education; we don't need no thought control
Tense Shifts
Avoid switching between past tense and present tense.

Ex: Foote
wrote
about Shiloh and
describes
its aftermath.
Foote
writes
about Shiloh and describes
its aftermath
.

Refer to your handout packet for extra practice and review.
Let's start with a proofreading exercise.

Good Luck!
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