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Parts of Speech

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by Kate Klacan on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Parts of Speech

English 8
Parts of Speech
Every word is a different part of speech

People, places, things, or ideas.
Nouns
Proper Noun
A specific person, place or thing
All proper nouns are capitalized.
state --> Minnesota
girl--> Hailey
city --> Mound
Collective Noun
Refers to a group as one
team, class, herd, murmuration
Plural Noun
More than one person, place, thing or idea
Most nouns are made plural by adding an "s" or "es"
Some are made plural by adding "en"
flower
flowers
Possessive Noun
Shows that a person, place or thing,
owns
something.

Apostrophes are used to show possession.
Compound Noun
A word made up of one or more nouns
football, facebook, backpack
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/possessives/
Pronouns stand in place of nouns.
Pronouns
Antecedent: The word that a pronoun replaces
Personal Pronoun
Singular Plural
1st person I, me we, us
2nd person you you
3rd person he, she, it they, them
him, her
takes the place of the name of a person or thing
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/personalpronouns/
Possessive Pronoun
takes the place of a possessive noun
Singular Plural

1st person: my, mine our, ours
2nd person: your, yours your, yours
3rd person: his, her(s), its their, theirs
Put
my
book and
his
pens in
her
locker or
ours
.
8
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/partsofspeech/
Reflexive Pronoun
reflects action back on the noun our pronoun just named
Singular Plural
1st person: myself ourselves
2nd person: yourself yourselves
3rd person: herself, himself themselves
A word that describes
a noun or pronoun
Adjectives
Which one?
Adjectives usually modify a noun
or pronoun by answering the following questions:
What kind?
How Much?
How many?
This car
Those doors
Black stripe
Heavy tires
Some Bread
Two seats
There are characteristic adjective
suffixes
.
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/rootsprefixesandsuffixes/
Adjectives can do several things:
They can DESCRIBE someone or something.
They can COMPARE two or more things.
golden
dry
glowing
big
bigger
BIGGEST
Articles
are special kinds of adjectives.
a, an, the
Color and number words are also adjectives.
They help to answer the questions 'Which one?' and 'How many?'
1
2
3
Adverbs
A word that modifies or describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Where?
To what
extent?
How?
Adverbs answer
the following questions:
How often?
When?
?
Regularly?
Frequently?
Never?
The most common adverb suffix is
-ly
Adverbs
Adverbs of Time:
tomorrow, yesterday, now
Adverbs of Degree, Adverbs of Manner: well, poorly
Adverbs of place: there, near, here
Different
types of adverbs
Good vs. Well
Good is an adjective.
Well is an adverb.
Mary wants to see
herself
in the mirror.
Interrogative Pronouns
Ask questions:
Indefinite Pronoun
does not have an exact antecedent
Singular: someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, either, neither, one, no one, each, another
Plural: several, few, other, both, many
Who? Whom? Whose? Which? What?
Demonstrative Pronoun
points out something specific
This That These Those
Verbs
a word that expresses physical or mental action or a state of being
All complete sentences contain verbs.

Verbs tell what is happening in a sentence (action verb). If nothing is happening, then the verb expresses a state of being (linking verb)
3 kinds of Verbs
Linking Verbs
extra verbs in front of the main verb to help make a statement
Express mental or physical action
Mental Actions:
Think, worry, dream, imagine
Physical Action:

jump, run, write, grow
Show a state of being, something exists
Helping Verbs
Action Verbs
am
is
are
was
were
be
being
been
see
hear
taste
smell
feel
seem
sound
looks
appear
become
stay
remain
feel
LINKING VERBS:
These verbs link to the subject a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that describes or identifies the subject.
Action verbs and linking verbs can both be considered
main verbs
am
is
are
was
were
be
being
been
do
does
did
has
have
had
may
might
must
can
could
shall
should
HELPING VERBS
will
would
Verb Phrases
A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs.

EXAMPLES:
has played
will be coming
should have paid
must have been injured
The parts of a verb phrase may be separated from one another by words; the helping verb may be separated from the main verb.
EXAMPLES:
Did
you
see
Lorraine Hansberry’s play?
We
have
not
seen
it yet.
Subject/Verb Agreement
A singular verb has to match its singular subject. A plural verb has to match its plural subject
Singular Plural
I walk We walk
You walk You walk
He/she walks They walk
Verb Tense
Verb tense: verbs show the time that the action is taking place. (past, present, future)

Past tense Present tense Future tense
Walked walk will walk
Conjunctions
words that connect words or groups of words together in a sentence
The most common conjunctions are:
and, but, or
Other common conjunctions are:
for, nor, yet, so
I like green eggs and ham.
I like green eggs but not ham.
I like green eggs or ham.
I like green eggs, for they go well with ham.
I like neither green eggs nor ham.
I like green eggs, yet I also like ham.
I like green eggs, so I must like ham.
Some conjunctions work in pairs:
either-or
neither-nor
both-and
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/adverbs/
http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/subjectverbagreement/
Prepositions
a word (or a group of words) that shows the relationship between its object (a noun or pronoun following the preposition) and another word in the sentence
The most common conjunctions...
for
and
nor
but
or
yet
Are called coordinating conjunctions.
They connect equal parts of a sentence.
EXAMPLE: The boy took his dog
into
the house.In this sentence,
into
is the preposition that shows the relationship of the
house
and the
dog
(the house is what the dog was taken into).
Prepositions are always the first word in a
prepositional phrase
A

Prepositional Phrase is made up of:A
preposition
+ a
ny
modifiers
+

the
noun object
Examples:

Fred placed the book
on
(preposition)
the
(modifier)
desk
(object).


Sally looked for clothes
in
(preposition)
her
(modifier)
closet
(object).
Prepositions can be:

Single words: at, in, on, with

Compound words: within, outside, underneath

Phrases: on top of, in spite of, on account of
Common Prepositions
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
around
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but (except)
by
down
during
for
from
in
inside
into
like
near
of
off
on
onto
out
outside
over
through
throughout
to
toward
under
underneath
until
up
upon
with
within
without
Interjection
Words that show strong emotion or surprise
Usually an exclamation point sets an interjection apart from the rest of a sentence.
Example: Wow! I had no idea how strong you are.
If the emotion is not as strong, a comma is used.
Example: Hey, can you hand me that pencil?
Common interjections:
Wow! Hey! Oh no! Ouch! Ugh! Yea! Yikes!
Please take out your green note taking packet when you arrive in class.

Be ready to take notes.
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