English 8 Parts of Speech
Every word is a different part of speech People, places, things, or ideas. Nouns Proper Noun A specific person, place or thing All proper nouns are capitalized. state --> Minnesota
city --> Mound Collective Noun Refers to a group as one team, class, herd, murmuration Plural Noun More than one person, place, thing or idea Most nouns are made plural by adding an "s" or "es"
Some are made plural by adding "en" flower flowers Possessive Noun Shows that a person, place or thing, owns something.
Apostrophes are used to show possession. Compound Noun A word made up of one or more nouns football, facebook, backpack http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/possessives/ Pronouns stand in place of nouns. Pronouns Antecedent: The word that a pronoun replaces Personal Pronoun Singular Plural
1st person I, me we, us
2nd person you you
3rd person he, she, it they, them
him, her takes the place of the name of a person or thing http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/personalpronouns/ Possessive Pronoun takes the place of a possessive noun Singular Plural
1st person: my, mine our, ours
2nd person: your, yours your, yours
3rd person: his, her(s), its their, theirs Put my book and his pens in her locker or ours. 8 http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/partsofspeech/ Reflexive Pronoun reflects action back on the noun our pronoun just named Singular Plural
1st person: myself ourselves
2nd person: yourself yourselves
3rd person: herself, himself themselves A word that describes
a noun or pronoun Adjectives Which one? Adjectives usually modify a noun
or pronoun by answering the following questions: What kind? How Much? How many? This car
Those doors Black stripe
Heavy tires Some Bread Two seats There are characteristic adjective suffixes. http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/rootsprefixesandsuffixes/ Adjectives can do several things: They can DESCRIBE someone or something. They can COMPARE two or more things. golden
glowing big bigger BIGGEST Articles are special kinds of adjectives. a, an, the Color and number words are also adjectives. They help to answer the questions 'Which one?' and 'How many?' 1 2 3 Adverbs A word that modifies or describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Where? To what
extent? How? Adverbs answer
the following questions: How often? When? ? Regularly?
Never? The most common adverb suffix is -ly Adverbs Adverbs of Time:
tomorrow, yesterday, now Adverbs of Degree, Adverbs of Manner: well, poorly Adverbs of place: there, near, here Different
types of adverbs Good vs. Well Good is an adjective.
Well is an adverb. Mary wants to see herself in the mirror. Interrogative Pronouns Ask questions: Indefinite Pronoun does not have an exact antecedent Singular: someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, either, neither, one, no one, each, another
Plural: several, few, other, both, many Who? Whom? Whose? Which? What? Demonstrative Pronoun points out something specific This That These Those Verbs a word that expresses physical or mental action or a state of being All complete sentences contain verbs.
Verbs tell what is happening in a sentence (action verb). If nothing is happening, then the verb expresses a state of being (linking verb) 3 kinds of Verbs Linking Verbs extra verbs in front of the main verb to help make a statement Express mental or physical action Mental Actions:
Think, worry, dream, imagine Physical Action:
jump, run, write, grow Show a state of being, something exists Helping Verbs Action Verbs am
feel LINKING VERBS: These verbs link to the subject a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that describes or identifies the subject. Action verbs and linking verbs can both be considered main verbs am
should HELPING VERBS will
would Verb Phrases A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs.
will be coming
should have paid
must have been injured The parts of a verb phrase may be separated from one another by words; the helping verb may be separated from the main verb. EXAMPLES:
Did you see Lorraine Hansberry’s play?
We have not seen it yet. Subject/Verb Agreement A singular verb has to match its singular subject. A plural verb has to match its plural subject Singular Plural
I walk We walk
You walk You walk
He/she walks They walk Verb Tense Verb tense: verbs show the time that the action is taking place. (past, present, future)
Past tense Present tense Future tense
Walked walk will walk Conjunctions words that connect words or groups of words together in a sentence The most common conjunctions are:
and, but, or
Other common conjunctions are:
for, nor, yet, so I like green eggs and ham.
I like green eggs but not ham.
I like green eggs or ham.
I like green eggs, for they go well with ham.
I like neither green eggs nor ham.
I like green eggs, yet I also like ham.
I like green eggs, so I must like ham. Some conjunctions work in pairs:
both-and http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/adverbs/ http://www.brainpop.com/english/grammar/subjectverbagreement/ Prepositions a word (or a group of words) that shows the relationship between its object (a noun or pronoun following the preposition) and another word in the sentence The most common conjunctions... for
yet Are called coordinating conjunctions.
They connect equal parts of a sentence. EXAMPLE: The boy took his dog into the house.In this sentence, into is the preposition that shows the relationship of the house and the dog (the house is what the dog was taken into). Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase A
Prepositional Phrase is made up of:A preposition + any modifiers + the noun object Examples:
Fred placed the book on (preposition) the (modifier) desk (object).
Sally looked for clothes in (preposition) her (modifier) closet (object). Prepositions can be:
Single words: at, in, on, with
Compound words: within, outside, underneath
Phrases: on top of, in spite of, on account of Common Prepositions about
without Interjection Words that show strong emotion or surprise Usually an exclamation point sets an interjection apart from the rest of a sentence.
Example: Wow! I had no idea how strong you are.
If the emotion is not as strong, a comma is used.
Example: Hey, can you hand me that pencil?
Wow! Hey! Oh no! Ouch! Ugh! Yea! Yikes!
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