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Music History (Ancient Music - Romantic)

First in a lecture series about Music History
by Matthew Smyth on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Music History (Ancient Music - Romantic)

Ancient Music Time Period: ca. 101 BC-ca. 570 AD Origins: A resurgence in the interest in folk melodies arose in the concert music of the 1950’s by composers like Igor Stravinsky and Bela Bartok. Performances of such music have acquainted people of the 20th c. with the rhythms, melodic systems, and timbres generally unfamiliar to Western Art Music. The "Aftermath" Music was used as an expressive medium
Rites of the community (as depicted in paintings, sculpture, and murals)
Ritual- repetitive incantations and instrumental rhythms commonly accompanied religious rites and festivals, often achieving a hypnotic or magical character.
Most references to music, whether pictorial or written, lead to the conclusion that its practice, including the kind of music was permissible, its manner of presentation, and the instruments employed, was determined by the dominant religion.
The outgrowth of the combination of music and religious ritual was the musical drama and incidental music in spoken drama. Function of Ancient Music: Greeks ascribed ethical values to their music, depending on the modal relationships with the scales of the modes on which the melodies were built. Melodies in one mode were considered effeminate, others damaging to the morals of youth, and others stimulating to warlike action. (Plato- Republic and Laws). In Greece, music played an important role in the performance of the dramatic works of the classic theater. Ancient Greek Music (a "case study"): Form & Organization: based on melodic fragments or patterns

Melody: has an unending characteristic. Consists of spun-out variations in decorative arabesques, trills, turns, and florid scale passages.

Harmony: In a modern sense, harmony didn’t exist in ancient music, Drones and ostinato patterns were the most widely used and realized. Music was also modal in characteristic, in addition to scales of smaller constructions than 7 tones (ie- the pentatonic scale). Simple harmonization at the octave, unison, and 5th were most prevalent.

































Rhythm: Rhythmic patterns among primitive as well as civilized groups achieved a complexity that Western civilization did not cultivate until the present century. Rhythm includes quantitative- long and short- beats as well as qualitative- strong and weak beats.

Texture: combination of voices and instruments performing the same melody.

Instrumentation and Tone Color: Music and words were closely connected in early musical performance and voice was an important medium of expression. When instrumental colors were added to vocal music, they always doubled the voice, generally at the unison or the octave. Primitive instruments:
Bowed strings were of a relatively simple construction, but plucked strings were further developed (lyre- predecessor of the lute and guitar).
Brass instruments never advanced beyond a simple form (without slides or valves)
Woodwinds were slightly more advanced, as they incorporated accessories such as reeds. General Characteristic of Anicent Music: There’s no written record of any composers or extant musical works from this period. Composers were, without a doubt, performers as well, and there are certainly records of performers that were assumed to also be composers. Although there are no specific composers to whom compositions can be attributed, examples of ancient music do exist. Composers: Early writers dealt heavily with the math-and-music relationship, or the philosophical-ethical matter surrounding music.
Pythagoras (582 BC-500 BC): the early Greek mathematician and theoretician heavily influenced these writings of “harmony”. He first discovered the ratios of pitch. Pythagoras did not leave any words of his own, but his students wrote about him, which is why we know something about him in the first place.
Plato (427 BC-347 BC): Discussed music and ethical values in Timaeus and the Republic. He also stressed the importance and proper form of music education.
Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC): A student of Plato, also concerned with the ethics of music, which he wrote about in Politics.
Aristoxenus (354 BC-?): was the most important of Greek writers on music who wrote Elements of Rhythmics and Harmonic Elements.
Aristedes Quintillianus (ca. 200 AD): His treatise De Musica Libri VIII provides us with a wealth of knowledge Theorists: excerpt from "Rite of Spring"
Igor Stravinksy String Quartet No. 2, Movement No. 2
Bela Bartok Ancient Greek Lyre Music
(Anonymous) Ancient Greek Lyre Music
(Anonymous) Musical Modes where the tonic pitch ROTATES where the tonic pitch IS STABLE NOTE: 1/2 steps are marked with brackets Piano Keyboard NOTE: 1/2 steps are marked with brackets The (Early) Middle Ages Time Period: Early Middle Ages: 500-110 (A.D) Origins: Our knowledge of early medieval music is based upon scant evidence as well. Early sacred music was notated and preserved by the Roman Catholic church. It’s open interpretation is due to the primitive form of notation at this time, specifically in regard to rhythm. Nearly no music of the secular genre exists because the monks (in the church) were the only ones qualified to write music down. All other music was passed down aurally. However, the many monastic orders that flourished during this period still had a direct affect on the secular music of the time.

The most important influence on music outside of the Church during the Middle Ages was feudalism, which gave rise to a society with a well-developed social consciousness. A large body of secular music and poetry in the vernacular was derived from society’s entertainments and the desire for self expression outside of the confines of the church. General Characteristic of Anicent Music: Function of AMusic in the Middle Ages (in-depth) The Mass Plainsong expressed a simple faith in God. This function was achieved by the musical setting portions of all rituals of the Church, the most important of which was the Mass. Plainsong was also used extensively in musical settings of hymns, psalms, and tropes. These tropes, nonliturgical texts and music, were inserted between words of liturgical texts.

Secular music did exist, although not much is known about it. It was used for functions such as dancing, to chronicle news events, and as a vehicle for the expression of folk tradition Is divided into two parts: the Ordinary and the Proper


Ordinary:
Kyrie
Gloria
Credo
Sanctus
Agnus Dei Proper:
Intriot
Gradual
Alleluia
Offertory
Communion Form & Organization: was determined by the Latin text of the liturgy. In a few instances, mainly in tropes and sequences, organization was based on freely composed melodic configurations with little regard for the natural accents in language.

Melody: plainsong consists of a monophonic melody set to sacred text. It has a restricted range, seldom extending past the octave. Plainsongs were composed with the church modes in mind:

Harmony: Developed from the Ancient Greek modes, the church modes were formed. These modes were the harmonic basis of the melodic plainsongs. From the ancient Greeks, these modes were divided into two categories: authentic and plagal modes. In addition to these modes, there were frequent ostinato or drone figures that helped create harmonic backing for plainsong. Church Modes Because of the improvisatory nature of early music, almost every performer was a composer. This was especially true in secular music, and no doubt the same procedure was responsible for the origin of most of the chants that later became traditional.

Notker Balbulus (c. 840-912): was one of the earliest composers identified by name

Wipo of Burgundy (d. 1048): composed the sequence for Easter, which is still used today

Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054): theorist and composer. His Alma Redemptoris Mater achieved great popularity and became the basis for numerous monophonic and polyphonic works.

Abelard (1079-1142): is known to have made a collection of hymns for munks and nuns. One of these nuns, for whom his love is legendary, was the famous Heloise. Their love story has held the interest of the public for many centuries. Composers: The (Late) Middle Ages Time Period: (Early Middle Ages: 500-1110 (A.D))
Late Middle Ages: 1110-1430
1100-1300: Crusades
1163: Notre Dame Cathedral
1200: Arts Antiqua
1215: Magna Carta
1266: Ars Nova
1348: The Black Death Influences on Music: In art history the middle Ages is sometimes referred to as the Gothic period. The term refers to the architecture characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and flying buttresses, and was introduced by 17th c. writers who looked upon this style as unclassical and vulgar.

Two main major contributions of the late Middle Ages in music:
1. The rise in development of polyphonic forms
2. Merging of secular and sacred musical genres

A system of notation (specifically for rhythm) was developed, which is why we know much more about late middle ages music than before. Modern scholars are able to recreate much of the music of this time with authority and accuracy.

Sociocultural considerations for the development of music in the SACRED Genre:
1. Scholasticism- a medieval philosophy that systematized all intellectual and religious experience according to rigid rules of medieval logic.
a. regulated the theory and practice of music according to canons of acceptable music practice in the church
(ex- triple meter was more important than duple meter)
b. controlled and codified the emotional content of sacred music
(In the SECULAR genre, there was an indirect influence of scholasticism inasmuch as church composers who rebelled against strict control found freedom in the secular style)

Social shift and the effect on music:
Increase in independent economic responsibility (from governments to the individual level)
General increase in wealth, and therefore patronizing of the arts and culture.
Rise of town centers
Opening of universities (and music was studies in the university setting!)
Increased skepticism of the authority of the church to control all aspects of life
Communication with the East and an increase in trade
The Crusades The Function of Music in the Late Middle Ages Sacred music in the Middle Ages served the same religious functions as earlier. The same liturgical text were set, but in a polyphonic setting instead of a monophonic setting.
MONOPHONY: one “voice” (or melodic line)
POLYPHONY: many “voices” (or melodic lines
A new addition in texture was the motet, a form that was later one of the most important vocal polyphonic forms.

Church officials frowned upon ornate melodies because they felt that such melodies obscured the meaning of the text (and therefore the message of the text that was trying to be delivered to God). Any move to make music more emotionally expressive was avoided because it appealed to the senses, and not the soul.

Music took on an increased importance in the fabric of medieval society. The rise in the social status of secular music, demonstrated by the nobility of the troubadours and trouveres, shows the wide interest in vernacular secular song.

The establishment of courts and the growing power of the other secular institutions encouraged strong centers of secular culture in many medieval cities. This was the age of chivalry and a time when courtly love became the subject of lyric love songs. For the first time in music history, individual composers achieved recognition for their creative efforts. General Characteristics of Late Medieval Music Plainsong and secular monophony continued, but the growth and refinement of polyphonic style was the major concern of this era. This concern for a defined polyphony marked the beginning of the emancipation of music from its dependence on pre-existng materials such as plainsong.

The 12th c. marked the rise of the Arts Antiqua (old art) school, which was the first school to develop the basic rules for polyphony. Ars Nova (new art) school emerged in France and Italy in the 14th c., which greatly expanded the use of rhythmic notation

Form & Organization: text influenced the form of the music. Standard musical forms were developed at this time, such as….
Rondeau: A-B-A-C-A-D-A-E, etc….

Melody: was vocal in style, which means that it move in stepwise motion with a limited range. Secular melodies and 14th c sacred forms expanded on range slightly. Sacred melody in polyphonic forms other than plainsong usually constituted of short phrases in repeated metric patterns.

Harmony: All melodies were modal, but at this time there is a hint towards tonality as we know and use it today. Medieval harmony was the result of polyphonic texture. Because there was no systematic chordal structure, there were often sharp and unresolved dissonances among the voices. The harmonic vocabulary was largely limited by the use of perfect fourths, fifths, and octaves. All other intervals were considered dissonant.

Rhythm: To emancipate musical form from the rhythm of tet and to gain some agreement of accent song the voices of polyphonic forms, it was necessary to invent some sort of rhythmic system that was independent of poetic rhythm. To that end, composers devised a system by which rhythmic cohesion could be brought to a melody through repeated rhythmic patterns. These were developed into the six rhythmic modes

Texture: Polyphonic textures prevailed in almost all medieval music after 1300. Prior to this time, secular music was monophonic and religious music was either set to traditional plainsong or organum, an early form of polyphony. There was no distinction between the textures of sacred and secular polyphonic music of the period. The different voices retained their melodic independence and frequently crossed. At the same time, there was an openness about the sound of early polyphony due to extensive use of intervals of the 4th, 5th, and octave which lack the harmonic direction of dissonant intervals.

Instrumentation and Tone Color: music as mainly vocal, both in the sacred and secular genres. Melodic instruments of all kinds could be substituted for the cantus firmus in polyphonic forms. Instruments certainly did double or reinforce vocal lines. Composers Leoninus (1160): one of the great masters of the Notre Dame school. Noted for his style in organum, he made extensive use of the syllabic technique
SYLLABIC: one note per syllable
MELISMATIC: many motes per syllable
he also foreshadowed the motet principle by lengthening the notes of the plainsong with a cantus firmus with a freely moving voice above it.

Perotin (12th c.): successor of Leoninus at Notre Dme, Further developed organum and increased the rhythmic accuracy of his settings with the newly developed form of notation, and also increased the standard setting from three to four voices.

Guillame de Machaut (1130-1377): leader of the French Arts Nova, and most important composer of the 14th c. He developed more lyric melodies and a more suave harmonic texture using thirds and sixths to soften the dissonance of early organum. He was also the first to compose a complete polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass. In secular music he excelled in the ballad, bringing to it an ingenuity of imitation, a sonorous harmony, and an expressive melody that foreshadowed the Renaissance style. Plainchant
In Timore Dei Leonin
organum duplum Francesco Landini
Guarda una Volta Rhythmic Modes The Renaissance Time Period: Influences on Music: The term renaissance literally means a rebirth. In this case, it was of a an interest in the ideas and forms of classic antiquity as applied to the artistic and cultural life of Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. In its broader scope, renaissance implies a general renewal or rebirth of interest in the dignity and inherent value of humankind, which was a trend that extended from the late medieval movement of humanism. Music reflected this movement only in the boarder sense, and found its greatest expression in the works of the Burgundian and Netherland composers. 1430-1600 The Roman Catholic Church
& the Council of Trent The Roman Catholic Church retained its important position as the leading patron of musical production, even though there was a growing tendency toward secularization. Evidence of this deep concern in counteracting the increasing secularization of religious music, as well as the influence of Protestantism can be seen through the abolition of tropes and all but four sequences, and secular canti firmi for the composition of motets and masses by the Council of Trent (1543-1563). The Council’s determination to stem the great wave of secularization almost resulted in the banning of all polyphonic settings of liturgical music and return to the exclusive use of traditional plainsong. The Protestant
& English Reformation The Protestant Reformation exercised a greater influence upon religious music specifically, and European music generally, than any other movement initiated in the Renaissance. Both the Huguenot and English Reformations gave rise to musical expressions appropriate to these movements. It was, however, the positive inclusion of music by Luther as a vital and important part of the religious liturgy in the form of congregational chorale singing that contributed substantially to the musical renaissance in the German-speaking lands. This movement can be seen as a starting point that ultimately led to the supremacy of German and Austrian music from the middle of the 17th c. to the end of the 19th c. The Rise of the Aristocracy The rise of the wealthy and powerful aristocratic patrons in the ruling courts of Burgundy in the 15th c., the Holy Roman Empire of Charles V. and Philip II, and the princely courts such as those of Florence, Mantua, and Venice, were powerful influence on music. Usually these aristocratic rulers were as influential in religious as in secular affairs, because they maintained important chapels within the courts and became patrons of composers for their religious as well as secular compositions. The Printing Press The invention of the printing press on the 15th c. led to the first successful music printing from moveable type at the beginning of the 16th c. By the end of the 16th c., large numbers of printed musical works were available, particularly editions of secular music such as madrigals, airs, and chansons. Although the aristocracy and wealthy upper middle class were the principal purchasers of such works, the multiplicity of printed copies tended to spread the musical works of important composers over a wider area than was heretofore possible through limited manuscripts. The Function of Music in the Renaissance: The primary purpose of sacred music in the Renaissance was liturgical. It served both the traditional Roman Catholic and the newly founded Protestant service. The Roman Catholic Church had the more highly organized liturgy, and, therefore, the greater body of religious music was composed in the service of Catholics.

Secular music provided a highly cultivated group of amateur performers among the aristocracy and upper middle class with appropriate music for singing and playing, Cultivated ladies and gentleman of the Renaissance were often capable singers or players, and frequently both.

During the last half of the 16th c., instrumental music was employed to provide a select society with entertainment performed by professional and skilled amateur players. These performances took place in the salons of the nobility and the homes of wealthy burghers. Music was written in response to the demand for dancing at formal court functions. Popular songs and dances of folk like character supplied the great mass of people with music that was appropriate to festivals and other social occasions, both religious and secular General Characteristics of Renaissance Music: Much of the music of the Renaissance was based on polyphonic practices. There was a unity of style in both secular and religious music that applied to vocal and instrumental compositions as well. The Renaissance represents the last period of music history in which there is such unity of style in all forms. Form & Organization: Renaissance music shows a unity of formal organization except in the case of small poetic and dance forms of a secular nature. One unifying technique employs a cantus firmus derived primarily from plainsong literature or form folk-song sources, giving rise to works that ere basically polyphonic elaborations of a preexisting melodic idea. The cantus firmus was generally placed in the tenor voice, which in the early Renaissance was the lowest pitched voice.

In strictly polyphonic works, both secular and religious, formal organization was episodic. Compositions consisted of a number of sections, each treating its thematic material individually and exhaustively. In highly developed polyphonic forms, such as the motet and Mass, there was rarely any repetition of a previously used musical section or text. Each section constituted the complete treatment of a line of text.

Secular poetic song forms were often characterized by a formal organization that used a principal refrain in contrast to its other musical phrases. Dance forms were based on folk idioms and generally consisted of an application of the principle of repetition and contrast, Contrasting with the Mass, all these works are in single rather than multiple movements. Melody: Expression in Renaissance music often was the result of varied melodic treatment. Melodic form is determined by textual rather than musical considerations. Harmony and rhythm cannot be analyzed apart from melodic structure. Melodies were modal, largely vocal in conception, and limited to a ranger that rarely exceeded the octave. Wide skips were avoided, and most melodic movement as diatonic or restricted to the tones particular to a given modal scale. Chromaticism is rare in the early works of the Renaissance but is frequently found in the secular music of the late Renaissance. Harmony: In Renaissance music, harmony resulted from the simultaneous sounding of more or less independent lines of melody, and not from planned harmonic progressions. Composers did not build their music on chordal assumptions within a tonal system. Such a predetermined function of harmony gradually made its appearance at final cadences, however, and began to point the way to the dominance of harmonic considerations over melodic voice leading.

Harmony was essentially intervallic rather than chordal. The relation between the tons of melodic lines, particularly in reference to the cantus firmus, was of prime importance in determining the melodic progression and the treatment of dissonance. Since rules and conventions governing voice leading were determined by the treatment of intervals among the voices, that which strikes the ear as harmonic progression today is a result of voice relationships rather than harmonic construction. Rhythm: Renaissance rhythm was free from strict metrical phrasing, although many rhythmic formulas were used, including syncopation. Rhythmic phrases were generally long, and free from metrical accent. The rhythms of the polyphonic voices often overlapped.

The rhythms of Renaissance music are often complex as a result of the polyphonic writing and the metric intricacies of the text One aspect of this complexity is exemplified in the musical puzzles that delighted Renaissance composers. These musical puzzles were based upon a variety of clefs and mensural signatures, leaving the performer to find the key to their solution. They varied from the rather simple to the very intricate, often with instructions for their solution. In its original notation, the puzzle appears simple. However, when transcribed into modern notation, its rhythmic complexity becomes more apparent. Texture: Polyphony was the predominant texture of Renaissance music. Even in the late Renaissance, when a tendency toward homophonic treatment was found in secular songs, the accompanying voices were treated more or less as independent melodies rather than as chordal accompaniments In the 16th c. there were works in which harmonic texture was used as a contrast to the predominating polyphonic texture. These homophonic passages called the familiar style suggested that this mighty have been a practice generally used in folk or popular music. Instrumentation & Tone Color: The human voice, both in solo and ensemble, was the most commonly accepted medium of performance in the Renaissance. Voice ranges of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass became the framework for all vocal compositions. Instruments in both sacred and secular music reinforced the voice. Instruments such as the organ, harpsichord, and clavichord were used independently in the 6th c., and both string and wind ensembles became increasingly popular.

The English full consort was an ensemble in which a consistency of tone color was achieved. These were most commonly groups of viols or recorders in different ranges. Variety in tone color was accomplished by mixing the various types of instruments in performance. This was referred to as a broken consort. The lute, which holds a place of importance parallel to the piano in the 19th c. , was the most popular instrument of the time. General Characteristics of Renaissance Music: Renaissance composers commonly began to be indemnified by name with their works. Moreover, many of those whose names we now were innovators in style, or leaders of particular schools of composition, During the Renaissance there were two distinctive schools, the Burgundian school, and the Flemish, or Netherlands school.

The Burgundian school flourished during the first half of the 15th c. and included Dufay and Binchois.

The Felmish School, from about 1450-1600, included such composers as Ockeghem, Obrect, Josquin des Prez, and many others who were to spread the Flemish innovations to various selections of Europe. ca. 101 BC
-
ca. 570 AD 500
-
110 (A.D) 1110
-
1430 1430
-
1600 1400-1630 The Early Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages The Renaissance John Dunstable (c. 1380-1453) --
Quam pulchra es Guillame Dufay (c. 1400-1474) --
Ave Maris Stella Gilles Binchois (c. 1400-1460) --
Asteria Johannes Ockeghem (c.1420-1496) --
Requiem - Introitus Josquin des Prez (c. 1440-1521) --
Absalon, fili mi Jacob Obrecht (c. 1452-1505) --
Missa de Sancto Donatiano - Sanctus The Baroque 1600
-
1750 The Baroque Time Period: Sociocultural Influences on Music: 1600 - 1750 Baroque- derived from the Portuguese work ‘barroco’, meaning irregularly shaped pearl. Originally it was a derogatory term, but the meaning of the word changed as it was applied to the arts movement at this time. In fact there was so much art produced during this time that the baroque era is further divided into early-middle-and late sub-eras.

Baroque art is considered elaborately decorative, dramatic, flamboyant, and emotional. There was a tendency to fuse the arts whenever possible. Music, literature, painting, and sculpture are all combined in the budding genre of opera, or ‘dramma per musica’. There was an intense desire to express an idea, a feeling, or the artists’ own deep convictions and emotions often led to excesses in all forms of art. The Baroque movement has its inception in Italy as a part of the Counter-Reformation. Its influence and spirit spread rapidly into all parts of Europe. Despite its first association with the Counter-Reformation, the Baroque spirit became an equally vital part of the Protestant Reformation, and in fact pervaded both spiritual and secular forms of artistic expression. The Counter-Reformation Thirty Years’ War The struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants over religious issues, political power, and ownership of land and attributed to the growing differences in cultural and musical dimensions of life between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants. Rise of absolute monarchies Aided in the unification of the national states and helped form the national styles. The rich and upper-class were the monarchs and princes that would patron this lavish lifestyle, such as the French courts of Louis XIV and XV. This mainly attributed to the rise and growth of opera. Smaller courts, such as those of the German princes and dukes, were influential in cultivating intimate music for salon and chapel. Rise of the merchant class Scholarly Study Doctrine of Affections A philosophical position that assumed that the arousal and sustaining of feelings ad affections was the primary purpose of music. This doctrine expected that a consistent emotion be evoked and sustained throughout a movement or composition. As the doctrine was practiced, numerous musical formulas were devised for the evocation of particular emotions. It was calculated and planned emotional music. This wealth supplied the basis for the rich, independent cities there were to provide a suitable climate for the establishment of a commercial theater and its musical production, the opera. Became increasingly important in the Baroque era. Success of the scientific examination in the fields of physiology, astronomy, mathematics, and physics led to a systematic development of the techniques and materials of musical art (example, Bach’s Art of Fugue or Rameau’s Treatise on Harmony) The Function of Music in the Baroque Era: An increasing amount of religious music now incorporated musical instruments.

Much music in the latter part of the Baroque was written for amateur musicians who performed in the households of the aristocracy and the wealthy class.

In the large wealthy courts, ballet and opera were first performed as special entertainment for princes and courtiers. The opera soon developed into a very popular form of public entertainment. This occurred first in Italy for private theaters, and thereafter in public theaters throughout Europe. Performance of purely instrumental character were rarely given for the general public.

The oratorio was the religious counterpart of the opera. Because of its subject matter and presentation without staging, gesture, costumes, or lighting, it was not as popular as opera, but it found success as a public choral concert.

Education- there was no institutional organization for teaching the musical arts. Young boys who showed an interest or talent in music were taught by their own musical fathers or relatives or were attached to the household of a composer-performer. Instruction in performance and composition was restricted to the aspiring musician and to the households of the aristocracy and wealthy. General Characteristics of Baroque Music: Style and Performance Practice for the first time in history, two styles flourished side-by-side:

The Renaissance Style (stile antico or prima practica)
The new Baroque Style (stile moderno)

Utilized the Greek device of ‘monody’- a manner of writing in which the melodic line was supported by a very simply chordal accompaniment.

Originally the melodic line was something midway between speech and song, characterized by freedom of rhythm, dramatic pauses, and asymmetrical phrases.

Stile Concitatio (the excited style)- where the music illustrated the words or moods of the dramatic action. The use of tremolo in the strings of the orchestra or rapidly sung syllables to a repeated note by the voice are typical of this style. Form & Organization contrapuntal development of thematic material continued to be used in works that were wholly or partially contrapuntal- the fugue, toccata, and the chorale prelude. The new homophonic forms particularly in instrumental music, generally depended upon a simple statement and contrast of melodic material.

Increase in the number of solo keyboard works, showing an increase shift in the importance of the role of improvisation.

As in the Renaissance, text continues to dominate vocal musical forms. In the new recitative the text was declared in an almost theatrical style throughout by them to replicate the vocal delivery in the Greek theater.

The establishment of major and minor tonalities lead to distinct phrase and period construction in formal design. This was common to instrumental and vocal music, and was frequently used as a device of sequencing and patterning in formal organization. Melody Melodic writing varies from the declamatory style of the recitative to the extremely florid style of the late Baroque arias and instrumental melodies.
Fortspinnung- a process of melodic writing in which short figures are developed into melodic lines of substantial length and complexity.

Recitative:
Dry Recitative (secco)- a through bass accompanied the voice.
Accompanied Recitative (accompagno)- was more dramatic and accompanied by an ensemble of instruments. Usually used to introduce an aria in cantatas and the dramatic forms of opera and oratorio.

Bel Canto (beautiful singing) technique:
Composers provided for this demand by writing melodies that were musically scintillating and often dramatically expressive. These melodies often deteriorated into spectacular vocalizes with ornamentation either written in or left to the discretion of the singer.

Instrumentation- melody gradually assumed vocal and instrumental idiomatic styles, but these were often interchangeable. In the early decades of the 17th c., publications sometimes did not designate whether the music was to be sung or played. Both instrumental and vocal music employed melodic line of extended range. The desire for vocal display and the use of homophonic style account for this phenomenon Rhythm Harmony Instrumentation & Tone Color Expect for recitative, repeated metrical units became the standard in Baroque music. Tempos were more consistent, in part because of the importance of the moving basso continuo, which gave a certain driving feeling to the music. The rapid change of harmony induced by the basso continuo also made for a driving harmonic rhythm, the movement given to music by the changes in harmony, which added its fore to the total rhythmic motion. there was a huge shift in harmonic thinking from the reliance of the modal systems to the major-minor tonal relationships. This system dominated Western music until the 20th century.

Figured bass: the harmonic configurations of the bass line, suggesting rapid changes of harmony, especially when realized by a keyboard performer.

Chromaticism: and dissonance were freely employed in Baroque music for expressive purposes. Tempered tuning of keyboard instruments was introduced and made possible the chromatic changes that were necessary for extended modulations. Many of the instruments of the Baroque era were forerunners of modern instruments. Composition became increasingly idiomatic as composers wrote for the possibilities and limitations of specific instruments.

Orchestra: the instrumentation of the orchestra was not fixed. Orchestras accompanied vocal dramatic works and performed as independent musical organizations The Baroque orchestra was smaller than the modern orchestra and consisted mainly of strings and woodwinds. Brass and percussion was added for special effects.

Baroque Organ: dominated the instrumental genre, and was an ideal instrument for realizing the transparent contrapuntal texture of polyphonic music

Improvisation: The Baroque was the last period in which improvisation was a definite requisite of every performer. Such improvisatory techniques as the realization and actual addition of ornaments in both vocal and instrumental performance were not only tolerated by expected.

Color; became an increasingly important aspect of music. String techniques such as tremolo and pizzicato were used. Dynamic markings were also introduced, but used sparingly. Texture Homophonic texture began to predominate in vocal and instrumental forms. The tendency in purely homophonic forms to include contrapuntal techniques and the harmonic richness of contrapuntal forms tended to make the texture of most Baroque music rather thick and opaque. The interest in homophonic texture did not exclude polyphonic texture, which were achieved by tonal counterpoint. There was great emphasis on contrasting textures, especially in the concertato style. The common contrast of large and small groups was enhanced by the general use of contrapuntal treatment for the large group and homophonic treatment for the smaller groups. Composers Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643): wrote the first operatic masterpiece, ‘Orfeo’. He expanded the orchestra and in come cases scored for specific instrument in his dramatic works. His harmonic writing was for expressive purposes and caused much adverse criticism.

Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1641): was important in the development of the fugual form. Although he wrote no works actually called fugues, his monothematic ricercares were among the most important forerunners of the fugue.

Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687): was the most distinguished opera composer of 17th c. France. He succeeded in establishing a true French opera, which was in effect a reform of the traditional Italian opera with its many musical excesses. He was able to give French opera a greater measure of dramatic sincerity though his handling of dramatic recitative, arias, and instrumental

Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706): a middle-German organist and composer wrote mainly organ works, although he also wrote for other keyboard instruments. His fugues are of utmost importance, not only because of their influence of Bach’s writing, but for their intrinsic artistic value.

Henry Purcell (1659-1695): was the most famous English Baroque composer. He was a gifted instrumental and vocal composer, and was singularly gifted in his ability to compose on a ground bass.

Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725): was known mainly for his contributions to the style of the Neapolitan opera, of which he wrote over one hundred.

Francois Couperin (1668-1733): his most numerous and renowned compositions are instrumental works which he wrote for harpsichord. Couperin’s works are characterized by simple harmonies, generous ornamentation, and short phrases, all typical characteristics of the ‘galant’ style.

Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) is easily the most celebrated of all the Italian Baroque composers. Contributed to both vocal and instrumental genres of music.

George Philipp Teleman (1681-1767): His compositions were designed for every conceivable type of musical performance. Teleman remained relatively unknown during the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries. The revival of interest in Baroque music during the past thirty years has brought his music to the fore again, particularly the orchestral and chamber music.

Jean-Philippe Rameau (1673-1764): an important theorist, organist, and composed. In his theoretical work, he stated his system of chord building on superimposed thirds became the idea of a fundamental bass by which chord progressions are determined. Employing this system in his own compositions, his critics found that his works lacked melody, were filled with illogical harmony, and used orchestral instruments in a noisy fashion.

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750): is easily one of the most important composers of all time. He was a master of the art of tonal counter point (explored in ;Art of the Fugue’). His skill in handling fugal treatment is evident in all of his compositions. He composed in every conceivable form except opera. Although the preponderance of his works were written for the church, much of his instrumental output is strictly secular in nature.

George Frideric Handel (1685-1795): In contrast to Bach, Handel was a cosmopolitan composer who added to his German heritage a wide study and firsthand knowledge of the Italian style. His compositions of both secular and religious drama reveal a spirit of grandeur, for there is always something of the pomp of the court about his work. J.S. Bach
'Little Fugue in G Minor' George Handel
Messiah - Hallelujah Chorus Jean Philippe Rameau
Gavotte with 6 variations George Telemann
Concerto for Flute & Violin Claudio Monteverdi L'Orfeo - Savall J.B Lully
Te Deum The Classical 1750
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1820 The Classical Era Time Period: Sociocultural Influences on Music: 1750 - 1820 Representation of beauty through ideal forms.
Formal balance in terms of proportion,
Symmetry;
Noble Simplicity;
Restricted use of Ornamentation;
Revival in interest of the characteristics of Ancient Greece and Rome;
Striving for Universality of Expression.

As seen in the writings of Johann Joachim Quantz (1752):

“If a style that consists, like the present German one, of a mix of the styles of different
peoples, every nation finds something familiar and unfailingly pleasing. Considering all that has been discussed about the differences among styles, we must vote for the pure Italian style over the pure French. …everyone will agree that a style blending the good elements of both will certainly be more universal and more pleasing. For a music that is accepted and favored by many peoples, and not just by a single land, a single province, or a particular nation, must be the very best, provided it is founded on sound judgment and a healthy attitude. “

It is in this period that the realm of aesthetics comes into play, largely via writings of
Immanuel Kant Critique of Pure Reason and Hegel. Music is thought of in increasingly less functional terms, serving some higher purpose of enlightening representation that can
present an idealized way of being and existing. Middle class interest in art and the drive
to learn. Private patronage begins to decline, modern audience for music emerges; public
concerts just for listening. Enlightenment: In religion, valued individual faith and practical morality over the
supernatural and the church. In philosophy and science, the emphasis on reasoning
from experience and from careful observation (via Decartes) the conviction that reason
and knowledge could solve social and practical problems as well as advance scientific
discovery. Voltaire, Hume (empiricism), Rousseau (French philosopher- liberty and
equality), Adam Smith (The Wealth of Nations), Jane Austin and Goethe. Both humanitarian and cosmopolitan: Catherine the Great of Russia patronizes the arts, and also promoted social reform. Freemasonry, based on humanitarian ideals and a longing for universal brotherhood spread rapidly throughout Europe (members include Frederick the Great, Goethe, Haydn, Mozart). Beginning the ole boys club that is academia. 1. Focus on Melody: contrasted with motivic variation and through-bass
accompaniment characteristic of earlier styles (Bach); as such, form was not
very periodic, no sharp contrasts (as in Bach) or no formal pattern of contrasts in
thematic tutti and nonthematic solo sections (Vivaldi) motive: a short figure of distinctive melodic or rhythmic configuration that recurs throughout a composition or section and functions as a unifying element Interesting question if this would have happened had Bach been a well- known composer in his time

2. Melodic Periodicity: a composer articulates musical ideas though distinct
phrases, 2-6 measures in length; creates a structure marked by frequent full and half
cadences and integrated through motivic correspondence. By analogy with verbal
composition, a musical unit made up of shorter phrases was considered a period,
and a composition was a succession of such periods.

3. Harmonic Periodicity: instead of the continuously driving harmonic motion
typical of the older styles, harmonic motion is divided into a series of stable or even
static movements in harmony. As such, harmonic motion slows down.
Alberti bass: one of the most common devices for writing harmonic motion in
keyboard music: involves the arpeggiation of triads (chordal movement) in a simple
patter of short, repeating notes; also serves purpose of highlighting melody. Used by
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven; named for the Italian composer Domenico Alberti (1710-
1740)

4. Emotional Contrasts: abandon the idea of expressing one basic affection, and
instead include contrasts between the various parts of a movement or even within
a theme itself…natural philosophers also changed their perceptions about the
emotional life of an individual…people do not become aroused to a certain state
of mind and then have to wait to be aroused into another one to change their
mood…now recognized as in constant flux, jostled by associations that might make
unpredictable turns Function of Music in the Classical Era: Developements in Music Since the Baroque Era: Orchestra: A general rise in the increase in instrumental ensembles, in particular, the rise of the symphony orchestra, which became (and is still) the dominant medium of musical expression for art-music composers

Orchestras of the Baroque:
vlns 1 and 2; vla; cl; bs;
2 oboes;
3 trumpets;
2timpani;
harpsichord

Orchestra of Classical:
vlns 1 and 2; vla; cl; bs;
2 fl;
2 ob;
2 cl;
2 fag;
2 french horns;
2 trumpets;
2 timpani (harpsichord)

Symphony: work for orchestra in several movements; most important genre of the
Classical period. Symphonies of this period are generally in 4 movements, with this
scheme

I. Allegro (sonata form)
II. Andante moderato
III. Minuet and trio (often in ¾) ABA form of movement as a whole, minuet is a (repeated) b a’ repeated
IV. Allegro

Form: became an increasingly important and interesting element to classical composers, who now created (or re-formed from simpler musical forms in the past) some of the most standard forms still used today

Sonata Form:

1. Exposition (usually repeated often preceded by introduction): incorporating a first theme (or group of themes) in the tonic, a transition or bridge passage leading to a second often more lyrical theme group in the dominant or relative major, and a closing theme (in the new key).
( note importance of repeating themes: you may only hear this once…recording technology, how we listen to music, etc)

2. Development: modulates to new keys, motives and themes from the exposition are presented in new ways, keys, rhythms, and combinations. Developing an idea.

3. Recapitulation: the material of the exposition is restated in the original order but with all the themes in the tonic. Following the recapitulation there may be a coda: (It. tail) A supplementary ending to a composition, often containing new material from what has previously been presented; a great deal of finality.

4. (Optional: CODA, or return to the beginning, or ending fragment)

Concertos: Usually, like Baroque solo concertos of Vivaldi, are in three movements; fast (tutti vs solo section); slow (aria-like); fast (popular, dance-like form) Often include cadenzas; were improvised by the performed at the time.
Cadenza: improvised passage usually placed just before the end of a piece or
section; often in free rhythm, virtuosic


Harmony:

Modulation: change from one key to another during the course of a composition

Tonic to Dominant Motion: is of great, utmost even, importance in this form. A tonic-to-dominant relationship is also known as a I-V motion, and is the basis of many of our cadencial forms. Using a metaphor from grammar and syntax, the I-V relationship provides us with a framework, or a half-way point when listening to a piece of music, like a coma would be use to join to ideas. The dominant represent the second most important defining element of a tonic key, but sounds, in a way, less “obvious” than the tonic. Composers (and their important works) of the Classical Era Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809): After being employed in Vienna as a choir boy from a young age, Haydn entered the service of Prince Paul Esterhazy, a huge patron of the arts and the head of one of the wealthiest and most powerful Hungarian families. His most important works are his instrumental pieces, but he also wrote Masses, operas, and oratorios. Haydn wrote 104 symphonies, most of them for Prince Esterhazy’s orchestra.

Haydn’s Symphonies 1768-74: (Nos. 36-60) Haydn is no longer viewing the symphony as light entertainment, but regards symphonies as serious works that demand close listening. Deeply emotional and agitated character has been associated with a movement in literature known as Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) (Goethe, Herder; about the emotional life of the individual). In music, often unison proclamation often followed by contrasting idea; changes from forte to piano; crescendos and sforzati; development sections limited to motives from the exposition, are dramatic. Symphonies from this period are four movements:

Haydn Symphony No. 44 in e minor 1772 “Trauer” (mourning):
Haydn asked the third, slow movement to be played at his funeral. All the movements have the same tonic, but 4th movement ends in E major (typical of works in minor at the time)

I. Allegro con brio: breezy; with vigor: main theme, played in unison, followed by contrasting idea;
II. Minuet and trio: upper and lower strings are in canon in minuet (3/4) (ABA) form; B section at 3:20ish
III. Adagio: romantically expressive warmth; leisurely flow of musical ideas, listener is not too aware of structure.
IV. Finale, like first movement, is in sonata form dominated by a figure which opens the movement in unison strings

String Quartets of Haydn: reputation of being first great master of the string quartet. 2 vlns, with the violin 1 usually having the most melodic material. These have the same type of 4-movement structure as symphonies:

I. Sonata-allegro
II. Minuet
III. Slow movement
IV. Finale (fast) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791): born in Salzburg…his father Leopold served in the archbishop’s chapel and later became its assistant director…showed prodigious talent from a young age…toured as well, with his sister Nannerl…wrote his first minuets at age 5, first symphony just before his ninth birthday, first opera at 12. Unlike Haydn’s suitable employment with the Esterhay family, Mozart did not like working under the archbishop, and also due to an effort to get away from his overbearing father (most likely), quit the job in 1981 and began to be a free-lance musician in Vienna. Did alright there, making most of his money from private teaching and putting on yearly concerts (a relatively new thing) where he would perform one of his piano concertos, some solo works, and stuff by other composers. Hit with The Magic Flute, died while writing his requiem, mysterious commission. Compositions are numbered by Ludwig von Kochel, thus K. numbering system used to identify Mozart’s compositions.

Opera:The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, The Magic Flute Church Music: masses, the requiem

Symphonies (41 numbered, but more)

String quartets

Solo Concertos: 17 piano concertos, in which he would have played the piano part; French horn concertos, clarinet concerto, flute concertos

Piano sonatas; Violin Sonatas

Requiem Mass
Requiem, K. 626: mass for the dead. Latin texts. Mozart’s last work, was left unfinished, and was completed by his pupil Franz Sussmayr. The Requiem was commissioned by Count Walsegg Stuppach, under the condition of secrecy, for his work. The work was postponed because Mozart was working on The Magic Flute and La clemenza di Tito, and was not completed at the time of his death; he was buried in a pauper’s grave, with no mourners. Mozart remarked that he left he was writing his own requiem. The requiem is one of Mozart’s most heterogeneous, and displays the broadest range of stylistic references. Exploits contrast to the extreme. Chordal / homophonic Dies irae and Rex tremendae, contrapuntal Requiem Aeternam, Kyrie fugue. SATB soloists and choir, 2 bassett horn, 2
fag, 2 trumpet, 2 timpani, strings, basso continuo. “Haydn and Mozart together ranged over all the genres current in the late eighteenth century, and their music represents the best that the period produced.” Franz Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Amadeus - Salieri helps Mozart write his Requiem Haydn Symphony No. 44 - Presto The Romantic 1800
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1910 Time Period: Romanticism versus Classicism: A period in European music history dating from the early 19th c. until the early 20th, and often divided into two phrases: early (before 1850) and late (after 1890). Romanticism therefore was freed immediately from the Classical Era that preceded it, as this music favored the individual creative imagination, and the fantastical. The role of the performer also switched during this era. In the Classical Era, the musician was expected to be an improviser, but performers during the Romantic Era no longer encouraged creative liberties with composition through ornamentation; rather they became the conveyors of the composers intentions.

There was a new stress on the creator and the creation as a somewhat mystical process (particularly in late German Romanticism): “Art gave entry into a transcendent spiritual world, indefinable and infinite; this raised its creators out of the ordinary human sphere. Because the artists’ primary obligation was to be true to his inner creative urges, Romanticism encouraged the breaking down of traditions of subject matter, artistic conventions, limits set to genres, canons of taste ad beauty….” (H.D.M 739). Origins: The word romantic derives from the romance, or a long narrative in prose or verse that has its roots in the Middle Ages, and is the principal precursor to the novel. Because there was no counterpart in Classical literature, the romance was immediately liberated from the limits and obstructions that were imposed on the literary genres during the Classical Era (a revival of Renaissance forms). Sociocultural Influences: A time of dramatic thought and action as well as strong contradictions:

communism and capitalism
freedom and oppression
logic and emotion
science and faith
virtuosity v. intimacy (in music)
nationalism v. internationalism (in music) Historical Influences: The revolutionary spirit that finally exploded in the French Revolution infused artists with the ideals of liberty and individualism. The Industrial Revolution caused a major change in the economic and social life of common people and also gave rise to a wealthy, capitalistic middle class. There was a general leveling of society, and while composers did not write for lower classes, their music was the potential patron form the composer who had all but lost aristocratic patronage because of the increasing decline in power and influence of the court.

Religious entities had fallen out of favor almost completely at this time (musically speaking) and the Church was no longer a patron of music to any significant extent. The small amount of sacred music written during this time contained the personal religious feelings and convictions of the composer expressed in music, largely for concert hall. Characteristics Music was emphasized much more in the liberal arts than in the eras that preceded it, as the indefinable nature of music made it quintessentially Romantic. 1.Emphasis on the indefinable, particularly in relation to form, where the beginning, middle, and end of a piece, is weakened.
2.Lengths of pieces were more varied, ranging from brevity to extreme lengthiness
3.Exploration of distant harmonic and tonal relationships
4.Expression of emotion and the evocation of imagination Form and Organization: Characterized by an intensity of personal feelings. Dynamic climaxes and frequent changes in dynamics served to build the tension necessary for its expression. Frequent chromaticism helped to create harmonic tension. Rhythm: Further extended the tertian harmonies (harmonies built by stacking 3rds) into 7th, 11th, and 13th chords. Tonality was weakened by the fusion of major and minor modes. Modulations to distant keys became more frequent. Strong formal cadences were often avoided. Texture: Polyphonic texture was no longer pervasive, but there was a greater interest in homophonic textures. Piano became one of the most popular instruments of the era.

The orchestra grew to be the favorable large ensemble of the century. It featured great size and varied color, capable of creating “Romantic expression.

Opera was an important musical medium in the Romantic era. Combining drama, poetry, and the visual experience of action incorporates a lot of emotion (and thus was of interest to the Romantics) Continued in the classical tradition: contrasting melodies in a homophonic style, and the Sonata Form was the most important form of the time (further developed from its creation in the classical era) Melody: Harmony: No significant change from the Classical era. Became increasingly more irregular, but a strong present of pulse was still important. However, there were often frequent changes of tempo in a piece. Tone Color & Instrumentation: Function of Music: Romantic music still served a sophisticated and aristocratic society, as had classic music. Aristocratic patronage reduced from what it had been in the 18th c., and there were practically no opportunities for the kind of patronage enjoyed by Haydn and the like.

There was a rise of the concert-going patrons, and composers began to rely heavily on ticket sales from such events. Winning the affection of the public became a primary goal of composers and performers. Artists like Liszt and Paganini who were often also fine performers themselves, wrote a large number of virtuoso pieces to thrill the public with technical display.

The intimacy of the exclusive salon was still and ideal setting for chamber music and solo form. Performance was no longer by amateurs, however, for Romantic music was usually too technically demanding for unskilled performers.

The teaching of music became an established profession. Many of the conservatories and schools of music were founded for the education of performing and creative musicians. Research in music history and theory was introduced into the programs of many universities by the end of the 19th c. Composers (and their important works) of the Romantic Era Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827):
Responsible for freeing music from the harmonic, rhythmic, and formal restraints of Classicism and for leading the way to individualism and subjective feeling in music.
1. he showed a remarkable economy of material
2. his themes were often constructed from short motives that were gradually built up
3. he raised the piano to a new level of importance
4. he expanded the use of polyphonic procedures in thematic development
5. he used dissonance as a functional part of his harmonic structure

Franz Schubert (1792-1828): contributed significantly to the voice & piano repertoire in addition to the symphony.

Hector Berlioz (1803-1869): Was a pioneer in the area of symphonic program music. He developed the ‘idee fixe’, a recurring melody or theme that identifies programmatic ideas and persons in a purely musical manner. His most famous work is Symphonie Fantistique

Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847): Contributed significantly to the voice and instrumental genres of music. Mendelssohn’s music is closely allied to the Classic traditions in form; the Romantic spirit appears in his melodies and imaginative orchestral coloring. His music has little of the passion and violence of Romanticism by almost always expresses a serenity and sentimentality that achieved wide audience appeal.

Piotor Ilytich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893): contributed to ballet (The Nutcracker) and the symphony

Gustav Mahler (1860-1911): was the last great composer of the Viennese Romantic style. Wrote nine very epic symphonies and was known for his skillful and imaginative orchestration. Those Who Developed the Symphony Those Who Developed Opera Those Who Developed Solo Repetoire Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868): was one of the most brilliant Italian Romantic Opera composers. Wrote The Barber of Seville, The Thieving Magpie, and William Tell

Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901): is the greatest figure in the history of Italian opera. He is no revolutionary like Wagner, for he never departed completely from the traditions of the closed forms.

Richard Wagner (1813-1883): one of the most controversial figures in music history. Was a significant contributor to the vocal medium with his operas Tristan und Isolde and Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924): was the most famous and successful opera composer after Verdi, and wrote La Boheme, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly. Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840) was the first of the great instrumental virtuosi of the 9th. c

Frederic Chopin (1810-1849): Exploited the melodic and harmonic possibilities of the piano to a greater degree than any other composer.

Franz Liszt (1811-1866): one of the most fascinating of the Romantic personalities. As a virtuoso pianist-composer, he left the imprint of his virtuosity and sentimental Romanticism on almost all subsequent pianists. Those Who Developed Chamber Music Johannes Brahms (1833-1897): contributed significantly to the symphonic form, but more importantly, gave greater importance to chamber music Hector Berlioz
Symphonie Fantastique
excerpt- March to the Scaffold Giacomo Puccini
La Boheme
Quando me'n vo Fredric Chopin
Fantasie Impromptu Johannes Brahms
Piano Quartet No.1 in G-, Op.25, Movement No. 4 Wipo of Burgundy
Christians, Praise the Paschal Victim Hermannus Contractus
Salve Regina Rhythm: Plainsong was determined by the rhythmic flow of prose, which included the long and short syllabic values of ecclesiastical Latin. As a consequence, metric patterns are absent in sacred monophony. In contrast, secular monophony used the vernacular, in which there are more qualitative accents, and its rhythm is most often metric.

Texture: Because plainsong was monophonic, there was no texture in the sense of a combination of lines or tonal coloring as in later music. However, the austere line of plainsong sung by the priest, or the chant sung in unison by a choir, created a mystic simplicity of linear sound that complimented the start simplicity of the Romanesque cathedral. Music of this time used a wider range, more definite rhythmic patterns, and vernacular texts, it expresses a widening range of human feelings and emotions.

Instrumentation and Tone Color: Plainsong was always vocal. As a rule, instruments were prohibited in the medieval church. Secular monophony was vocal, but it was often accompanied by instruments, especially when used as dance music. Instruments used in secular music were plucked and bowed strings, primitive woodwinds, and percussion Againcourt Carol Catherdral Choir Schools The Italian emphasis on art which resulted in innovations such as perspective and a renewed ephasis on structure can be seen in music as well (pholyphony, form, range)
English win the 100 years war
English victory has a direct effect on the importance of courts
The French term see a rebirth in the arts - they enjoy the English influence
English bring with them a new register -- The Bass, this allows for a harmonic underpinning because of this composers start to think in terms of chords and chord progressions Music in the Burgandian Lands John Dunstable (1390-1453)
Leading English composer of his day
New empahsis on melody/harmony
Guillaume Du Fay (1397-1474)
The most famous composer of his time
Travels throughout Europe
Adds a new emphasis on melody and harmony
Adds a fourth voice!
Consonance/Disconance are carefully controlled
Works: 6 masses, 35 independant mass movements, 4 Magnificats, 60 hyms and other chant settigns, 24 motets, 34 plainchant melodies, 81 secular songs Binchois's Chanson
De plus en plus Guillaume Du Fay
Numper Rosarum Flores The Italian Rennaisance Italians were traders and a large middle and upper class was formed in Italy
They had access to many Greek and Roman texts
Began to use triads in there music
Music Printing greatly influenced composition and performance
Many wealthy Italian Patrons suppored music Northern Composers Jones Ockeghem (1420-1497)
Extends Bass range, and therefore the overall range of music
Writes for 4 independant melodic voices
Teaches three pupils who continue the northeren tradition: Jacob Obrecht (1457-1505)
Heinrich Isaac (1450-1517)
Josquin des Prez (1450-1521) Isaac
"Innscbruck, ich muss dich lassen"
Inssbruck I must leave you Each of these pupils traveled widely and worked throughout Europe Josquin des Prez
"Mille Regretz"
A Thousand Regrets Josquin Des Prez (1450-1521) The most famous composer of his time
His works are known and performed widley throughout Europe
All of the voices were equally important
Each phrase will often recieve its own treatment
He is well known in his time and his influence is far reaching after his death Josquin des Prez
"Ave Maria Virgo Serena"
Hail Mary serene virgin" Ave Maria
Music is perfectly crafted to fit the words
Uses beautiful and well crafted cadence points
Uses Imitation
Creates an effect similar to perspective in painting
All singers join together at the end to create emphasis on the text and the final cadence Josquin Des Prez
El Grillo Rennaisance Vocal Music Lute Songs The lute was the most popular instrument for the home in the Rennaisance
The lute is secondary to the voice
Lute songs are homophonic
Singers may accompany themselves or have an accompanist play the part John Dowland
Flow My Tears Flow my Tears Very popular in his time
Text may have been written by Dowland
The form is AA BB CC
Slow tempo, minor key and decending pattern all help to convey melencoly Instrumental Music Music begins to be written for instruments
Most instrumental music of the Rennasiance was used for dance
Composers did not specify the instruments to be used
Orchestras did not exist Cornetto Sackbut Recorder Crumhorn Consort of Sackbuts and Cornets Viola de Gamba Rennaisance Consort Pierre Francisque Caroubel
Passamezzo and Galliard Sacred Music Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)
Born and worked in Italy
Music Director of St. Peter's
A master of Rennaisance polyphony
Output: 105 masses, 140 madrigals and over 300 motets Palestrina
Kyrie from Pope Marcelli Mass The Venetian School Venice, a trading capital, became a hotspot for both vocal and instrumental music
Saint Mark's Cathederal was where many great composers of the Rennaisance and early Baroque made a living
Composers such as Adrian Willaert. Andrea Gabrieli, Giovanni Gabrieli and all worked here and formed what we call "The First Venician School"
This group of composers wrote music for multiple choirs/ensembles to perform at once Giovanni Gabrieli
Plaudite Sacred English Composers Palestrina
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