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Copy of Endocrine System

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by Diellza Xhema on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Endocrine System

What is the Endocrine System? A collection of glands and organs that produce and regulate hormones in the bloodstream to control functions of the body Responsibilities include metabolism, growth and sexual development Endocrine Glands Pituitary Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Thyroid Gland Thymus Gland Secretes hormones Increases the rate at which one uses energy Regulates calcium levels in the blood Helps the body respond to danger Regulates the immune system Hormone Imbalances A hormone imbalance is when hormones that regulate body control are no longer working. Feedback Mechanisms Functions of the Glands Thymus Gland- Adrenal Glands- Pituitary Gland- Why is the Endocrine System Important? Epinephrine (EpiPens) Also known as adrenaline or adrenalin Glucagon does the opposite of Insulin Insulin is released when blood sugar levels climb too high and lowers glucose in the blood by telling the liver to make glucose into glycogen and store it for future use One of the body's chemical messengers made in the endocrine system Hormones help control blood pressure, growth, pain relief, body temperature, metabolism, sex organs, and thyroid gland function and other necessary body functions. When the production of these are messed up it leads to growth disorders, diabetes, and other diseases. The Endocrine System is important because it can control body functions by making chemical reactions in the body. This reaction, known as the “Flight or Fight Response” prepares the body for strenuous activity
Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism It is given by injection to treat a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylactic shock. Anaphylatic shock is a severe allergic reaction that can be triggered by a drug or food allergy, or by an insect bite. It has many, many symptoms. Hormone imbalances can be caused by obesity, a sedentary life style, stress, non organic animal products, and stress. Growth Disorders as opposed to acromegaly gigantism is overproduction of growth hormones during childhood resulting in no disfigurement. Acromegaly is a growth disease caused by overproduction of growth hormones after puberty. Somatotropin, or GH, is the growth hormone. It is produced in the pituitary gland. Changes in the production of this accounts for Dwarfism, acromegaly, and gigantism which are all growth disorders. "Killer T Cells" or Cytotoxic T Cells Cortex and Medulla-
produce hormones Epinephrine The "master gland" Controls hormone functions Acromegaly and Dwarfism Acromegaly Caused by a benin tumor in the pituitary gland
Occurs in mostly middle aged adults after puberty and they no longer have growth plates.
Can cause severe disfigurement to the forhead, teeth spacing, facial structure, feet and hands. Dwarfism dwarfism is most commonly caused by,
A lack of growth hormone.
Or Achondroplasia which is cause by a gene mutation and is not passed down.
They both result in shortness of limbs spine and overall small size. Faleminderit per vemendje Sistemi endokrin Gjendrat kryesore jane:
1.Hipofiza
2.Hipotalami
3.Gjendra tiroide
4.Gjendra paratiroide
5.Timusi
6.Epifiza
7.Gjendra mbiveshkore
8.Pankreasi
9.Farori(te meshkujt)
10.Vezori(te femrat) Sistemi endokrin eshte nje sistem i gjendrave,ku secila gjender sekreton tipe te ndryshme te hormoneve.Fjala endokrin rrjedh nga gjuha greke endo qe do te thote brenda dhe crinis qe do te thote sekretim. Hipotalami Hipotalami eshte ure lidhese ne mes sistemit nervor dhe atij endokrin.Hipotalami ben sintetizimin e materieve aktive te cilat e bejne lirimin e hormoneve nga adenohipofiza. Hipofiza Hipofiza eshte gjender e vogel ne madhesine e nje bizeleje dhe sipas ndertimit ndahet ne tri lobe: 1.Adenohipofiza
2.Intermedia
3.Neurohipofiza Adenohipofiza Adenohipofiza sekreton hormone qe e stimulojne punen e gjendrave tjera dhe veprojne drejtperdrejt ne organin e caktuar. 1.Hormoni folikulostimulues
2.Hormoni luteinizues
3.Hormoni tireotrop
4.Hormoni adrenokortikotrop
5.Prolaktina
6.Hormoni somatotrop Intermedia dhe neurohipofiza Intermedia prodhon hormonin INTERMEDINE ose MELANOFORINE E rregullon ngjyren e lekures te peshqit,amfibet e kurrizore te tjere.Kurse te gjitaret merr pjese ne adaptimin e retine per te pare ne terr. Neurohipofiza prodhon hormonet oksitoksine dhe vazopresine. Ky hormon ka funksione te shumta.Rrit shtypjen e gjakut,stimulon resorbimin e ujit,shkakton kontraktimin e muskujve te uterusit dhe keshtu e ndihmon aktin e lindjes etj. Gjendra tiroide ose tiroidea. Gjendra tiroide prodhon hormonin e quajtur TIROKSINE ne te cilen ben pjese edhe jodi. Kur kjo gjender nuk funksionon ne rregull atehere shtohet ose pakesohet prodhimi i ketij hormoni.Kur shtohet prodhimi shfaqet nje semundje e quajtur semundja e Bazedovit. Kur pakesohet prodhimi i tiroksines shfaqen dy semundje tjera te quajtura MIKSIDEMA dhe KRETENIZMI Gjendra paratiroide Gjendra paratiroide prodhon PARATHORMONIN i cili e rregullon metabolizmin e kalciumit dhe fosforit ne organizem. Shtimi i parathormonit shoqerohet me pakesimin e kalciumit ne gjak dhe shfaqjen e nje semundje te quajtur TETANIA. Timusi Kjo gjender rritet ne moshen e pubertetit dmth rreth 12-16 vjec.Nuk dihet se cilin hormon e prodhon por dihet se heqja e saj shkakton dobesim dhe tkurrje te eshtrave. Ne moshen 12-14 vjeqare ndikon ne zhvillimin e gjendrave seksuale si dhe ka rol mbrojtes ne organizem. Epifiza Kjo gjender ben prodhimin e serotonines dhe melatonines . Gjendet ne mes talamusit dhe trurit te mesem dhe ka rol te rendesishem ne funksionin e gjendrave seksuale dhe paraqitjen e vecorive dytesore seksuale. Gjendrat mbiveshkore Gjendet ne pjesen e siperme te veshkave.Ne prerjen terthore te saj dallojme pjesen e jashtme dhe te brendshme qe kane prejardhje te ndryshme dhe prodhojne hormone te ndryshme. Pjesa e jashtme ose korja prodhon hormonet mineralokortikosteroide dhe glukokorikostoireide te cilat kane funksione te ndryshme si psh bejne pervetesimin e proteinave,karbohidrateve,rregullimin e sasise se ujit dhe kripes etj. Pjesa e brendshme ose palca prodhon dy hormone ,Adrenalinen dhe Noradrenalinen te cilat kane funksione te ngjashme.Ndikojne ne shtypjen e gjakut,ne temperaturen e trupit,ne veprimtarine e zemres etj. Pankreasi Pankreasi eshte gjender me funksion te dyfishte-
endokrin dhe
ekzokrin.. Funksioni ekzokrin : Lidhet me prodhimin e enzimeve qe derdhen ne duoden dhe ne zorre te holle te cilat e ndihmojne tretjen e materieve ushqimore. Funksioni endokrin: Lidhet me ishujt e Langerhansit qe gjenden ne pjesen e fundit te pankreasit ku prodhohet Insulina,Glukagoni etj. Insulina: Punoi: Diellza Xhema Gjendrat seksuale Gjendrat seksuale (farori dhe vezori) kane funksion te dyfishte ekzokrin dhe endokrin.Funksioni ekzokrin ben prodhimin e gameteve kurse funksioni endokrin prodhimin e hormoneve. Farori Hormoni kryesor i tij eshte ''testosteroni'',funksionet e te cilit jane keto:
Zhvillimin e e organeve seksuale dhe funksionin e tyre
Zhvillimin e muskultatures dhe eshtrave
Del mjekra dhe mustaqet
Zeri behet me i trashe etj. Vezori Perderisa farori e prodhon testosteronin Vezori i prodhon dy hormone:Estrogjenet dhe Progesteronin.Te cilat kane funksione mjaft te rendesishem:
E stimulojne zhvillimin e aparatit seksual te femres
Zhvillohet krahrori,pjesa e legenit
Zeri behet me i holle etj.
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