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The Biomechanics of a Basketball Free Throw

Analysis of a Basketball free throwshot through the 5 phases
by Anna Kamerman on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of The Biomechanics of a Basketball Free Throw

The Biomechanics of a Basketball Shot
By Anna and Ali

Free Throw Comparison
Preliminary
-focused on target
- feet square to basket (no toe forward, this is based on players preference)
-shoulder width apart
-knee flexion
-ball in both hands, with shooting behind ball and non shooting hand supporting
- fingers well spread apart
-wrist extension
Back Swing
- greater knee extension (at about 90 degrees)
- ball is unmoving as knee flexion
takes place
- the shooting forearm extend at about 80 degrees from the upper arm
- The angle between the thigh and trunk is about 85 degrees
- shoulder, hip knee and ankle of the shooting side are lined up vertically
- the ball will slowly be raised up to shoulder level, while trunk flexion and knee flexion remain the same
Expert
Force Producing Movements
-knee extension
-upper arm raises to be 90 degrees between trunk through
-elbow flexion of about 80 degrees
Critical Instant
-trunk and knee fully extended
-non-shooting hand guides ball
-fingers of shooting hand roll under
ball to produce backspin
-wrist extension
-feet flat
Follow Through
-body is fully upright
-shooting hand is pronated
-wrist is 900 flexed forward
-full elbow extension
-feet flat
Rookie
Preliminary
-focused
- right toe slightly forward
- ball held slightly too far from body
-feet shoulder width apart
- ball held with two hands
-shooting hand to much on the side of the ball
Back Swing
-knees flexed at 90o
-ball is brought closer to trunk
-greater elbow flexion
-looking at target
- knee, shooting arm and trunk line up vertically
-non-shooting hand is beside the ball
-angle between thigh and trunk is about 150o
Force Producing Movements
-knee extension
-Elbow flexion of 90 degrees
-wrist is under the ball
Critical Instant
-fully extended trunk and knee
-non-shooting hand guides the ball
-shooting hand fingers roll under
ball to produce backspin
-still flat footed
Follow Through
-full upright position
-plantar flexion
-Shooting hand is pronated
-right knee, side of trunk
and arm are vertically aligned
Basics of a Free Throw
Center of Mass
Rookie
Expert
Center of Mass
Center of Mass
The expert and rookie's center of mass is nearly in the exact same spot, meaning that both are well balanced during the critical instant
Measuring Human Motion
Rookie
Pre-Observation Stage
Overall Comparison
Phase Comparison of Differences
Expert
Biomechanic Principles
The following are principles that apply to a basketball free throw:
1. Stability
- shoulder width base, line of gravity between base and a low center
of gravity
3. Max Velocity
- using muscles from largest to smallest in order to get the proper
height and distance
8. Pressure differentials
-Spin on ball, caused by the ball rolling off the finger tips beneath it,
creates curve and lessens impact of ball (more likely to go in)
Purpose
Why: To ensure that play remains fair and safe, and reimburse a player they were hit while taking a shot
When: A free throw is taken after a foul is committed by the opposing team at any time during the game
Where: Always take from the foul line straight out from the hoop(4.6m)
How much: a free throw is worth 1 point if it goes in
Observation Plan
Preliminary- mental preparing, focusing, may including dribbling, ball spinning. relaxed breathing, etc.
Back Swing- knee flexion, ball at waist level, trunk flexion, elbow flexion
Force Producing Movements-knee extension, trunk extension, elbow flexion, ball in front of body with shooting hand directly behind ball (ball will also be raised to forehead height),
Critical Instant- full knee and trunk extension, elbow extension, vertical trunk
Follow Through- joints continue movement through full range of motion, elbow at full extension, wrist flexion, hand pronation
Obtaining Videos and Pictures- two females were videotaped and photographed performing a foul shot. Camera was at the same distance for both
High speed shutter used to get necessary image for each phase
Common Errors
1. Poor Alignment- Failure to line up with hoop (shooting shoulder, knee, elbow)

2. Lack of Backspin- application of side spin, or no spin effect ball bath and bounce at release.

3. Low arc on the shot- without proper shoulder flexion or elbow and trunk extension the ball will not have enough arc to sail easily into the hoop

4. Relaxation of the shooting arm- important to relax shooting arm, too much tension and the release will not be smooth

5. Full follow-through after release- need to finish with hand pronated and vertical elbow extension

6. Interference from non-shooting hand - two handed shooting, or not removing the guide hand soon enough

7. Ball shot too hard- When a player is excited or tired they may release the ball too fast and it will bounce off the back of the rim and miss the basket.

8. Too much tension in shooting arm- full shoulder flexion, with wrist and elbow extension

9. Taking off at an angle- player should take off and land in to same place, without any directional movement

10. Leaning at Release- Player is either leaning forward, backwards or sideways during the release of the ball, which will produce an off center force on the ball at release.
Joint Angles
Rookie Improvements
1. A pre-shot routine to relax and mentally visualize
2. The shooting hand should always be behind the ball
3. Stay in line with the net vertically
4. Use knee extension and plantar flexion to get power for the shot
5. Ensure shooting arm follow-through finishes vertically, with hand pronated and wrist flexed
http://www.coachesinfo.com/index.php?option=com_content&id=10009&Itemid=202
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