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Observational Learning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Transcript of Observational Learning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Jessica Times
PSY310- Dr.Bradley Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning In classical conditioning a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit an unconditioned response, through repeated pairings of these stimuli the neutral stimulus eventually becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response (Powell, Honey, & Symbaluk, 2007). Operant conditioning on the other hand is focused on the consequences of one's behavior (either reinforcement or punishment) as learning tools and predictors of future behavior (Powell, Honey, & Symbaluk, 2007). Theory proposed by Alfred Bandura (1977) - through a variety of experiments he was able to show that the use of consequences is not necessary for learning to take place Observational Learning at Work! However, many of these processes occur simultaneously. Let's look at the difference in observational learning under the two different umbrellas. Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning - The level to which learning occurs depends on:
1. consequences of the model’s behavior
2. characteristics of the model
3. reinforcement for attending to behavior Operant Conditioning "In Observational Learning the behavior of a model is witnessed by an observer and the observer's behavior is subsequently changed" (Powell, Honey, & Symbaluk, 2007, p.435) - The main process occurring is vicarious emotional responses
ex. Jellyfish: Look of fear in other ---> fear in oneself
Jellyfish ---> fear in oneself
So, in other words... the emotional cues exhibited by the model act as the CSs that elicit vicarious CRs. Pictures might be easier to understand.... IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT THE BELL EVENTUALLY ELICITS SALVATION Major Pioneers of this Theory B.F. Skinner Ian Pavlov John B. Watson Major Pioneers of this Theory Edward Thorndike There are 4 types of contingencies within operant conditioning: 1. Positive Reinforcement - a behavior is strengthened following the presentation of a stimulus
2. Positive Punishment - behavior is weakened following the presentation of a stimulus
3. Negative Reinforcement - a behavior is strengthened following the removal of a stimulus
4. Negative Punishment - a behavior is weakened following the removal of a stimulus A few examples...