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Intermediate Geography Urban Overview

Overview of Intermediate 1 + 2 Geography Urban Topic
by H. McFarlane on 30 May 2011

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Transcript of Intermediate Geography Urban Overview

Urban Site/Situation/Function
Case Study - Edinburgh Site: - The actual land that the settlement is built on.

Defensive - Castle built on volcanic plug as easy to defend and see enemies approaching.

Fresh Water Source - Nor Loch supplied Edinburgh with water for drinking/cleaning. Situation: - The location of a settlement in relation to its surroundings.

Fertile land of East Lothian provides source of food through agriculture.

Trade from the Port of Leith and the Firth of Forth (especially during the industrial revolution)

The gap between the Firth of Forth to the North and the Pentland Hills to the South channel people through the city

Coalfields in West Lothian provide power source. Function: - Human factors influencing the growth of a settlement.

Historical functions of Edinburgh include: -
Governmental (Seat of parliament), Education (University), Military (Castle), Religious (St. Giles' Cathedral), Residential (People lived there!), Trading (during the industrial revolution through the Port of Leith)

Major Modern Day functions of Edinburgh: -
Financial (Headquarters of international banks such a R.B.S.), Tourism (through Edinburgh festivals), Retail (shopping!) More Economically Developed Countries Traffic - Edinburgh Problems: -

Edinburgh's population is rapidly increasing - therefore more cars, pollution, congestion
In the past 10 years car ownership in Edinburgh has risen by 57%
There is no bypass to the North of the city increasing congestion
Over 40,000 commuters enter Edinburgh every day Solutions: -

Getting more people to use public transport
Bus lanes and Park & Ride schemes (Wallyford) encourage more public transport use
Reducing the number of cars carrying just the driver through car pools
Reducing traffic movement in the city centre
Working with neighbouring local authorities and rail companies to improve train links for commuters
Building the by-pass to reduce congestion as vehicles now go around the city rather than through the centre Trams: -
Trams being introduced to improve public transport and reduce levels of congestion as well as pollution.

Trains: -
Trains being improved by building bigger platforms for bigger trains so more people can use them.
A new station was built (Edinburgh Park) to encourage greater use of public transport.
Increase from 24 to 28 trains per hour through Waverley station. Shopping Out of Town Shopping Centres
- Gateshead Metro Centre/Fort Kinnaird

Advantages: -
Next to good transport links so very easy to get to.
Very convenient for commuters
Flat open land to build on with room for expansion
Cheaper land to development than in the city centre

Disadvantages: -
Loss of business for commuter village shops Changes to City Centre Shopping - Edinburgh

Out of Town Shopping Centres (The Gyle) have taken customers away and some businesses have been forced to shut down.
Modern city centre arcades have been built to encourage shoppers (St. James' Centre).
High order shops (Harvery Nichols) found in centre but not in edge of town shopping centres.
Pedestrianised streets make the city centre a nicer environment to visit (Rose Street) Urbanisation: - the rapid growth of cities helped by rural to urban migration. Recently it has been greatest in LEDCs.

Urban Sprawl: - when a city gradually expands and takes up more of the surrounding countryside. Less Economically Developed Countries Rural - Urban Migration: - The movement of people from the countryside to cities.

Push Factors: - Negative reasons why people leave the countryside.

Pull Factors: - Positive reasons why people move to cities Case Study: -

Kenya (Country) Nairobi (City) Kibera (Shanty Town) Push Factors: -

Lack of machinery makes farming very hard work
Wealthy land owners buy machinery so fewer workers needed
Plots of land are too small to feed growing families
Natural Hazards destroy crops
Poverty Pull Factors: -

Children can go to school
Reliable supply of food
Doctors, Medicine and access to hospitals
More jobs
More money
Better lifestyle Problems caused by Rapid Urbanisation: -

Lack of housing in Nairobi means shanty towns (slums) such as Kibera are formed.
Poor Housing conditions made out of scrap metal.
Open sewers + lack of sanitation
Lack of fresh water supply
Disease from dirty water spreads quickly in crampt conditions
Lack of money for medicines
Inhabitants with disease cannot work
Unemployment
Crime
Land Kibera is built on is often prone to flooding Solutions to problems in Kibera: -

UK government has funded a sanitation project (Building clean showers/toilets)
A charity has funded the building of a community centre and health clinic
A charity has built a primary school
Sports coaching schemes have been set up
Nairobi Council have set up a market stall project to boost employment
Residents are offered loans to build and improve their homes
New homes have concrete blocks, tiled roofs, glass windows, metal sewage pipes, sink for washing, rain water tank.
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