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Fuel cells for military and space applications

Seminar
by Tadej Stepišnik on 26 April 2011

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Transcript of Fuel cells for military and space applications

Fuel Cells for military and space applications Why to use fuel cells High efficiency
No pollution
Low noise Military Applications Infantry
Vehicles
Stationary units Infantry New age C4ISR soldiers use:
headphones
mag lite
radio
night vision, ... Samsung
1800kWh
3,5kg
2010 only for military applications
ULTRACELL

2 models - EVM and Rev.A.

RMFC
67% methanol / 33% water
dry weight 1,5kg
start up time - 23min

Main differnce is, that one is 20W and other 25W


SMART FUEL CELL

DMFC - 100%methanol
Instant start up
Rated power 20W
dry weight 1,18kg
PROTONEX

PEM fuel cell
Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4)
rated power 30W
start up time <1min
dry weight 0,96kg Comparrison Development:

Mostly USA
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)
CERDEC (Communications-Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center)
Vehicles in order to reduce dependance on carbon-based fuels
auxilery vehicles - trucks
two hydrogen fuel cells and two electric motors
50 percent efficiency
good speed - 95 mph
small milage - 125 miles
Chevrolet Silverado Submarines Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) operating without the need to surface or use a snorkel to access atmospheric oxygen
replacing the diesel-electric propulsion system
nuclear vessels excluded auxiliary source - driving electric motors
"hotel services": ventilation, lighting, heating etc AIP AIP • Closed cycle Diesel engines
• Closed cycle steam engines
• Stirling cycle engines
• Fuel Cell engines
Type 212 Type 212 produced my Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG, using Siemens PEM
submerged for up to three weeks without surfacing
be vibration-free, extremely quiet and virtually undetectable Type 212 • Length: 56 m (183.7 ft), 57.2 m (187.66 ft) (2nd batch)
• Beam: 7 m (22.96 ft)
• Draft: 6 m (19.68 ft)
• Propulsion:
• 1 MTU 16V 396 diesel-engine
• 9 HDW/Siemens PEM fuel cells, 30-40 kW each
• 2 HDW/Siemens PEM fuel cells 120 kW
Type 214 Type 214 less high-tech version for other countries
Greece, South Korea, Pakistan, Portugal and Turkey Turkish Type 214TN 6 submarines
$3.5 billion project
80% of Turkish parts
Gölcük Naval Shipyard in Kocaeli
ordered in 2009 - in use in 2015
Space applications Early use - from 1965 on
both Gemini and Appolo mission used it
Appolo crew used output water for drinking Shuttle use 3 separate alkaline fuel cells power plants
3substacks per 96 cells
simultaneously operating 28-volt dc bus
21,000 watts with 15-minute peaks of 36,000 watts
potassium hydroxide and water as electrolyte Shuttle 2003 NASA paper
volume/mass savings
power dense” and “energy dense” ability
Lightweight, small, high-pressure tanks
Fun fact Space shuttle is the most complex machine ever built, the space shuttle has more than 2.5 million parts, including almost 370 kilometers of wire, more than 1,060 plumbing valves and connections, over 1,440 circuit breakers, and more than 27,000 insulating tiles and thermal blankets.
If the shuttle’s main engines pumped water instead of fuel, they would drain an average-sized swimming pool every 25 seconds. Questiones? Thank you!
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