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Atomic assignment

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by Nicholas Welch on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of Atomic assignment

By Nicholas Welch Atomic models and element properties Aristole Democritus John Dalton Henri Becquarel 31 OCT 384
An ancient greek philosopher named Aristole wrote about many subjects. His work proved accurate pre 20th century and was also responsible for helping in the discovery of atoms. Aristole first believed that all materials on earth could be put in a category. This generalization of everything being made up of either four elements: Ffire, water, earth, air. Aristotle also believed that these elements had qualities to them that made them what they are. These qualities were: Hotness, dryness, coldness, and wetness. This theory was used for nearly 200 years before it was even revised and improved by other scientists. 483BC


Democritus was another ancient Greek philosopher who was very influential to science. He worked eith his mentor Leucippus and he is sometimes considered the father of modern scientist. Democris and Leucippus’ work is very hard to separate from each other but it is said that Democritus formulated the firt know atomic theory. He believed that the two major atomic features of the world were, actual atoms, and a void of empty space. His theory suggests that these atoms move around in the void, bumping into each other, sometimes joining up. He also believed that the shape and properties of an object was effected by the atoms its made up of. For example, sharp atoms in sharp objects and wet atoms in water. This was the basis of his theory of atoms and what they were made up of. 1800’s
In the 1800’s, an English scientist called John Dalton made some huge developments in to the atomic theory. John Dalton confirmed work from ancient Greek philosophers that atoms are extremely small particles and they make up absolutely everything. He stated that all atoms of a particular element are the same size and mass however, when the element changes, the mass and size changes. He found that atoms could not be destroyed, subdivided or created. His atomic theory also suggests that when atoms are combined, a chemical reaction occurs and that the atoms can be re-arranged or separated. Henri Becquerel is a French scientist that helped with the development of atomic theorys. Henri Becquerel made the discovery of radioactivity which helped with understanding atoms. He inherited an amount of Uranium Salts from his father and he used these in his experimentation. He discovered that when the salts were exposed to X-ray light, it created a foggy phenomenon on photogenic plates. A foggy effect was found on all uranium salts and he decided that this was a physical property of the uranium atom. This aided in the understanding of atoms as he knew that the radiation consisted of particles unlike normal light. Sir Joseph John was an English physicist that made a huge discovery in 1897. He made the discovery of electrons in public. He examined Cathode rays in a tube and found that the particles are moving extremely fast. He measured these particles and found their speed and charge. He found that these are negatively charged and are 2000 timees smaller than any other know particles at the time.
Joseph john also discovered isotopes. These are different variations of the same element. Isotopes are created from a change in protons in the nucleus. The electrons do not change in isotopes as that would change the element.Differentt isotopes also can have a different density. For example carbon 12 would contain 12 protons and carbon 14 would contain 14 in the nucleus.
Joseph John formed the Plum pudding model as his theory of the atom. His model showed a sphere of positive electrification, with electrons contained inside it. These were like plums in a plum pudding. Sir Joseph John Nagaoka, a Japanese scientist, figured that if negatively charged electrons are contained in an atom, there has to be a positive charge in the atom as well. Nagaoka disagreed with Joseph Johns’ theory of the plum pudding and he formed his own model. Nagoaka used the analogy of saturns rings to base his model on that the electrons orbit a mass in the centre. Nagoaka predicted that the center of the atom is much larger than the electron that are orbiting the nucleus as this is similar to the moos of Saturn. His theory was very successful and helped develop theories from people such as Rutherford and Bohr. Hantaro Nagaoka Niels bohr was a Danish physicist that constructed a model of the atom that is inspired by planets orbiting the sun. Bohr won a noble prize of physics for his work in the development of the atom in 1922. Bohr also was a lead physicist involved with the Manhattan project developing the first nuclear bombs. Bohrs model of the atom is very similar to how a hydrogen atom looks. He showed a positively charged nucleus with negatively charged electrons orbiting the centre. Bohrs model was extremely accurate to how a real atom actually looks Niels Bohr Neon is a gas that is ouderless and cannot be seen by the naked eye. Neon is two thirds the density of air. Neon is a very rare gas on earth but is very common in the universe outside of earth. Neon is used in making neon lighting for signs and it usually emits a orenge - red colour.

Symbol: Ne
Atomic number: 10
Discovered: 1898
Atomic mass: 20.1797 NEON Uranium is a silver colored metal and is a very dense element. Uranium is 70% denser than lead and ocures naturally, in low amounts. Uranium is commonly used in nuclear energy and weapons. This is because of its heavy properties that provides a large amount of stored energy.

Depleated uranium has a lower fissile isotope that reduces it radioactivity and stablizes the metal. This type of uranium can then be used in rounds and armor plating. The reason it is so effective is that it is very dense and has good penetrating properties in heavy ammunition such as from aircraft cannons.

Symbol: U
Electron configuration: [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Atomic number: 92
Discovered: 1789
Atomic mass: 238.02891 ± 0.00003 u URANIUM
James Chadwick was a British scientist that first discovered the neutron in 1932. Chadwick also was the lead physicist in charge of the Manhattan project.
JAMES CHADWICK
Scientists that contributed to the atomic model timeline | Timetoast timelines. 2013. Scientists that contributed to the atomic model timeline | Timetoast timelines. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/scientists-that-contributed-to-the-atomic-model. [Accessed 10 May 2013].

Plum pudding model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2013. Plum pudding model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plum_pudding_model. [Accessed 10 May 2013].

File:Chadwick.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2013. File:Chadwick.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chadwick.jpg. [Accessed 10 May 2013].

Niels Bohr - Biography. 2013. Niels Bohr - Biography. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1922/bohr-bio.html. [Accessed 10 May 2013].

What is Uranium? How Does it Work . 2013. What is Uranium? How Does it Work . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Introduction/What-is-Uranium--How-Does-it-Work-/#.UYzI9LXYJ8E. [Accessed 10 May 2013
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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