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Introduction to Diversity

Exploration of the tree of life. Images from WikiCommons, used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
by Christopher Himmelheber on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Diversity

Tree of Life
LUCA: Last Universal Common Ancestor (3.5 - 3.8 Ga)
Domain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain Eukarya
1.8 Ga
Aquifex
Thermotoga
Bacteroides Cytophaga
Planctomyces
Cyanobacteria
Proteobacteria
Spirochetes
Gram positives
Green Filamentous Bacteria
Pyrodicticum
Thermoproteus
T. celer
Methanococcus
Methanobacterium
Methanosarcina
Halophiles
Animals
Fungi
Plants
Ciliates
Flagellates
Trichomonads
Microsporidia
Diplomonads
Slime Molds
Entamoebae
Solid Earth forms (4.6 Ga*)
*Billion Years Ago
First Cells (3.8 Ga)
Liverworts
Mosses
Hornworts
Lycophytes
Ferns
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
E. coli
Salmonella
Heliobacter
Chytridiomycota
Zygomycota
Glomeromycota
Ascomycota
Basidomycota
Porifera
Cnidaria
Ctenophora
Phronida
Ectoprocta
Brachiopoda
Echinodermata
Chordata
Platyhelminthes
Annelida
Arthropoda
Mollusca
Rotifera
Nemertea
Nematoda
Urochordata
Cephalochordata
Myxini
Hyperoartia
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia
Photo by Tom Oates
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030102
Prototheria
Marsupials
Eutherians
Xenarthra
Epithera
Ferae
Lipotyphla
Archonta
Ungulata
Primates
Scandentia
Dermoptera
Chiroptera
Lemurs and Lorises
Tarsiers
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
Gibbons
Orangutans
Gorillas
Chimpanzees
Humans
Photo by Terry Goss
Photo by Stan Shebs
How Are These Built?
Phylogenetics: Evolutionary history of a species (or group of related species)
Most modern phylogenetic trees are built using molecular data
Early phylogenetic tree
Haeckel, 1866
Monophyletic group: ancestral species and ALL descendants
(ex: all reptiles, including birds)

Paraphyletic group: ancestral species and SOME descendants
(ex: non-avian reptiles)

Polyphyletic group: lacks a common ancestor

(ex: warm-blooded animals [birds and mammals])
Cladogram
Maximum Parsimony
The most correct tree has the fewest independent evolutionary events

Also called Occam's Razor
Not always true...
Clade: Group of related species
Species begin divergence from common ancestor
Mutations!
DNA sequences don't look very similar anymore....
but computers are really smart. (actually its the programmers)
Slightly more accurate version reflecting horizontal gene transfer
See the full transcript