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Unit 8: Human Lifespan Development

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by David Howard on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Unit 8: Human Lifespan Development

What do you already know about ‘Life Stages’?
THE LIFE STAGES
Assessment:

Your assessment for this unit will consist of 3 assignments which covers all the learning outcomes

Your 1st assignment will consist of you finding out as much information as you can about the development of one particular person. This person can either be famous or somebody you already know

Your second assignment will ask you to focus on 5 factors that have influenced the development of a persons self concept

Your final assignment will ask you to explore the potential different care needs for an individual

UNIT 8: HUMAN LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
UNIT 8: HUMAN LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
Knowledge of development through the life stages is important for learners who are considering careers in health and social care because it will help their understanding of the differing needs of individuals. It will broaden their perspective of the different influences on an individual’s development and how this relates to the care needs of people who use services. Learners are encouraged to be reflective during the study of this unit and to relate theoretical study to their own life experiences.

This unit provides a broad overview of human growth and development and explores some of the different aspects of physical, intellectual, emotional and social development that occur across the main life stages. It also encourages learners to consider some of the positive and negative influences on human growth and development and the impact these can have on the development of an individual’s self-concept. Learners should be able to take account of these factors when considering the changing care needs of individuals at different life stages. The unit gives learners opportunities to apply their knowledge in practical caring situations, which should be encouraged wherever possible.
UNIT 8: HUMAN LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
A person can develop in a variety of ways, such as physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially.

Most people experience a life course where all these components come together as one whole.

Holistic development comes from the idea of ‘holism’ – that people need to be understood as a whole

It is possible to analyse human development under separate aspects such as physical, intellectual, social and emotional development, but all these aspects interact with each other in the life stories of real people.
DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFE STAGES
Task: Using the life stages as a guide, write your life story so far (up until today), and then for the rest of the stages make predications how your life is going to turn out
THE LIFE STAGES
THE LIFE STAGES
Life Expectancy
Growth
Life Course
Development
Maturation
Developmental
Norms

In pairs match up the key terms with the definitions
KEY TERMS
A map of what is expected to happen at the various stages of the human life cycle
Norms describe an average set of expectations with respect to an infant or child’s development
Means an increase in some measured quantity- such as height or weight
Used to describe complex changes involving quality as well as straightforward increases in some measured quantities
An estimate of the number of years that a person can expect to live (on average). Males- 77, Females-82
Term used when development is assumed to be due to a genetically programmed sequence of change
Life Expectancy
Growth
Life Course
Development
Maturation
Developmental Norms
KEY TERMS
The testes produce 1,000 sperm
every second
Each ovary in women contains 100,00 eggs
The average person can remember a 100 million items
The brain is made up of 100 billion brain cells
As a brain cell fires, the electrical impulses travels at 400km an hour
The brain uses up to one fifth of all the food that we consume
It’s been estimated that 200,000 frowns are enough to etch in brow line on a forehead
Without a supply of blood, the brain fails within 5 minutes
5 out of 6 embryos do not survive beyond 8 weeks in the womb
There are about 500 million sperm in a single ejaculation
Every day over 100 millions acts of sexual intercourse takes place in the world and these result in around 910,000 conceptions
The milk produced in a mother’s breast can be activated merely by the sound of the baby crying
A baby’s skull is made up of 22 different bones
Talk continuously for 12 years
Live for 79 years
Shed 19kg of dead skin
Grow 950 kilometres of hair on the head, and 2 metres up the nose
The average person takes 8,000 to 10,000 steps a day. Those cover several miles, and they all add up to about 115,000 miles in a lifetime -- equal to circling the globe nearly five times
On average, you breathe 23,000 times a day. You take about 600 million breaths during your lifetime.
By the age of 70, we have lost a third of our muscle strength
The human heart pumps 7,500 litres of blood a day
We now live twice as long as we did 100 years ago
The average toddler learns
10 new words a day
The average baby crawls about 200 metres per day
The top speed of a crawling baby is about 2 kilometres per hour
Have 2 children and 4 grandchildren
Fall in Love twice
Have sex 2580 times- with 5 different people
Be able to name 2,000 people and call 150 of them friends
Grow 28 metres of finger nails
Kiss for 2 weeks
Produce 40,000 litres of urine and spend more than 6 months on the loo
Spend 3 and a half years eating
During their lifetime, the average human will.......
Please switch off your phone to help maintain a positive learning environment and show respect for your class mates!!
Your phone should be in your bag and your bag on the floor.

Is your mobile phone switched off???
Lesson Aims

Introduction to Unit
Understand key terminology
Start to understand different types of development (PIES)

Lesson Aims
To understand the terms conception and pregnancy
To know about the different stages of pregnancy
To know the development needs of a baby

Lesson Aims
Know about the development needs of a baby and infant referring to the PIES model

Are you wearing your College ID?
Conception and Pregnancy Quiz
1. How many eggs do fertile women usually produce each month?
2. What ratio of embryos do not last up to 8 weeks in the womb?
3. After how many weeks of pregnancy is the embryo referred to as a foetus?
4. How many days per year is it possible to become pregnant?
5. Which gland signals to the ovary to release an egg?
6. Name two things that happen to the breasts during pregnancy?
Make a list of the things that you think a baby needs to develop.
Unit 8: Human Lifespan Development

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-esteem:
Self-esteem, personal worth, sense of identity, need for respect, achievement

Self-actualisation:
Self-fulfilment, mental stimulation, purpose, interests, hobbies

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physical needs:
Food, water, shelter, clothing, warmth

Safety and security needs:
Feeling safe, secure, protected from danger, financially secure

Social Needs:
Love, affection, friendship, being valued, belonging
Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) designed a hierarchy of needs in the 1930s.

This is a pyramid of human needs with the most important at the bottom and the most complicated at the top.

Maslow believed that basic physical needs such as food, drink, air to breathe, sleep and warmth must be met before people can grow and develop.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self actualisation
Physical needs
Safety and security needs
Social needs
Self-esteem
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factos and lifestyle factors
PIES
Physical
Intellectual
Emotional
Social

This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factos and lifestyle factors
Physical
This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factors.

This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factos and lifestyle factors
Intellectual
Intellectual development is to do with the growth of the brain and the development of your thought processes.

This includes things like memory, problem solving and an understanding of the world around us.

This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factos and lifestyle factors
Emotional
Emotional development is about the growth and understanding of feelings.

The ability to receive and give love, care and affection and to feel secure is found in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Emotional development is closely linked to the development of self-esteem.

This refers to things to do with your body.

It will include the development of each of your body systems and is affected by both inherited or genetic factos and lifestyle factors
Social
Social development is about making connections with people and becoming a part of society.
It includes your immediate family and friends as well as the community in which you live.

7. An embryo's heart beats how many times per minute?
8. How many eggs does a woman release during her lifetime?
9. Name 2 functions of the placenta
10. During pregnancy the uterus grows to how many times its' usual size?
11. In order for the baby to be
born, the cervix has to dilate from closed to ____ cms.
During the first 18 months of life, infants develop an
emotional bond with their carers. This boding process
ties the infant emotionally to familiar carers.
The most important intellectual development a child makes is the ability to use and understand language. Babies understand simple words such as ‘bye-bye’ at 6-9 months.
At two years old, most children will start using two word statements ‘ZOE SLEEP’.
Intellectual development is helped by play. Children can look at books to help stimulate them and increase their ability to recognise objects.
During the first three years babies learn to control their muscles and movements. The control of large muscles, such as in the arms and legs, is called GROSS MOTOR SKILLS.
The control of smaller muscles and movements, such as those in the fingers, is called FINE MOTOR SKILLS.
Q1) What are reflexes?.
Q2) Describe the reflexes of a new born baby.
Q3) Describe and give 3 examples of a fine motor skill.
Q4) Describe and give 3 examples of a gross motor skill.
Q5) What is parallel play?.
Q6) What is cooperative play?.
Occurs satisfactorily if a secure attachment relationship has been made in the first years of life.
As the child gets a little older, he or she will begin to be interested in other children. By the age of two her or she will play alone with other children, this is called PARALLEL PLAY.
A child is about 4 before he or she can play properly with another child. This is called CO-OPERATIVE PLAY.
A type of play that allows children to learn about their world.
For example, playing house.
Is when children play together, for example a game of tag.
Is when chidlren play next to each other, but not together.
For example, one child may play with building blocks and
another with a doll.
A baby will grasp an object placed in it's hand.
When startled, a baby throws out it's arms and legs, then pulls them back with fingers curved.
The baby turns it's head in the direction of the touch, enabling it
to find the nipple of it's mother's breast to obtain food.
Babies develop very rapidly during the first three years of life. They are born with a number of physical reflexes.

A reflex is an automatic uncontrollable response to a physical change
(E.G. Moving your hand away from a hot plate).
Normally occurs during infancy, infants will play by themselves.
Match the correct reflex to the correct description
WALKING REFLEX
GRASP REFLEX
MORO REFLEX
ROOTING REFLEX
When a baby is held with it's feet touching the ground it's
legs will make forward movements, as if walking.
Birth and Infancy Quiz (0-3 years)
1. How long is the baby's journey from the womb to the outside world?
2. How many bones are there in the skull?
3. Name 3 automatic responses (reflexes):
4. At approximately what age do babies smile?
5. At approximately what age do babies start teething?
6. Why is the mouth the most sensitive area of the body for babies?
7. Name 2 types of crawling motion.
8. What is the top speed for crawling?
9. At approximately what age do children try to walk?
10. Name 3 types of movement that the balance organs in the ear have to cope with:
11. What is another name for the voice box?
12. How far does this have to drop before a child is able to develop proper word formation?
13. The human skill of working out how other people are feeling i.e. learning that others see things differently is called:
During the first 18 months of life, infants develop an
emotional bond with their carers. This boding process
ties the infant emotionally to familiar carers.
The most important intellectual development a child makes is the ability to use and understand language. Babies understand simple words such as ‘bye-bye’ at 6-9 months.
At two years old, most children will start using two word statements ‘ZOE SLEEP’.
Intellectual development is helped by play. Children can look at books to help stimulate them and increase their ability to recognise objects.
During the first three years babies learn to control their muscles and movements. The control of large muscles, such as in the arms and legs, is called GROSS MOTOR SKILLS.
The control of smaller muscles and movements, such as those in the fingers, is called FINE MOTOR SKILLS.
Q1) What are reflexes?.
Q2) Describe the reflexes of a new born baby.
Q3) Describe and give 3 examples of a fine motor skill.
Q4) Describe and give three examples of a gross motor skill.
Q5) What is parallel play?.
Q6) What is cooperative play?.
Occurs satisfactorily if a secure attachment relationship has been made in the first years of life.
As the child gets a little older, he or she will begin to be interested in other children. By the age of two her or she will play alone with other children, this is called PARALLEL PLAY.
A child is about 4 before he or she can play properly with another child. This is called CO-OPERATIVE PLAY.
A type of play that allows children to learn about their world.
For example, playing house.
Is when children play together, for example a game of tag
Is when chidlren play next to each other, but not together.
For example, one child may play with building blocks and
another with a doll.
A baby will grasp and object placed in it's hand.
When startled, a baby throws out is arms and legs, then pulls
them back with fingers curved.
The baby turns it's head in the direction of the touch, enabling it
to find the nipple of it's mother's breast to obtain food.
Babies develop very rapidly during the first three years of life. They are born with a number of physical reflexes.

A reflex is an automatic uncontrollable response to a physical change
(E.G. Moving your hand away from a hot plate).
Normally occurs during infancy, infants will play by themselves.
Match the correct reflex to the correct description
WALKING REFLEX
GRASP REFLEX
MORO REFLEX
ROOTING REFLEX
When a baby is held with it's feet touching the ground it's
legs will make forward movements, as if walking.
Birth and Infancy Quiz (0-3 years)
1. How long is the baby's journey from the womb to the outside world?
2. How many bones are there in the skull?
3. Name 3 automatic responses (reflexes):
4. At approximately what age do babies smile?
5. At approximately what age do babies start teething?
6. Why is the mouth the most sensitive area of the body for babies?
7. Name 2 types of crawling motion.
8. What is the top speed for crawling?
9. At approximately what age do children try to walk?
10. Name 3 types of movement that the balance organs in the ear have to cope with:
11. What is another name for the voice box?
12. How far does this have to drop before a child is able to develop proper word formation?
13. The human skill of working out how other people are feeling i.e. learning that others see things differently is called:
Lesson Aims
Know about the development needs of a child referring
to the PIES model.
Childhood (3-11 years)
Physical development
Growth continues to be rapid during this phase, although not as fast as in the first three years, and body proportions are beginning to be more adult-like.
The main feature of this stage is that gross and fine motor skills are becoming more advanced.
Intellectual development
As children get older they are able to carry out more
logical activities
.

They can begin to
understand different concepts
but often need to actually see concrete objects in order to understand them.
As children progress through this stage they become more fluent in language and may develop a good vocabulary

They become able to construct sentences and use grammar fairly well, which is what psychologists call true language - it involves more than just knowing words.

Interest in reading and wirting develops.
It is also during this stage that children to be able to see things from perspectives other than their own (become less egocentric).

They also have a sense of past, present and future.
Moral development
is something that also begins during this phase.

This is the process by which children adopt the
rules and expectations
of the society in which they are brought up and develop a sense of
right and wrong
.

This is learned from the people around them.
Emotional development
They begin to loosen the bonds with their main carers although they still need their support.

They begin to be more independent and start to develp a sense of 'self'
Group Task
1. In pairs/small groups, research the PIES development for childhood (3-11)

2. Find out about Piaget's different stages of development. You could do this in the form of a table.
Do you agree with the ages and things Piaget proposed we can (and cannot) do at each stage?

Some psychologists suggest that when he carried out his research he asked questions in a way which children could not understand.

Some people think we may not all reach the last stage - what do you think?
Most of our emotional responses are learned form our primary caregivers.

Children learn to be in control of their emotional responses and to resolve conflict.

Children begin to show signs of compassion and empathy.

Children also develop the ability to talk about their feelings.
Social Development
As children develop into social beings they go through what is termed socialisation.

Primary socialisation takes place within the family although there are many different types of family.

Relationships with people outside the family become more important as children move through this stage.
Adolescence (11-18 years)
Adolescence (11-18 years)
Lesson aims
Adolescence is the stage during which we move from
childhood to adulthood
.

It is a time of important
physical changes
which include puberty, after which we are biologically able to reproduce.

There are also
intellectual changes
, which develop as we learn more complex concepts,
emotional changes
, during which we develop our individuality and
social changes
which, in some cultures, change our status in society. This is often marked by a rite of passage.

Can you think of any?
Adolescence (11-18 years)
Physical development
At puberty, chemicals in your body called
hormones
trigger many physical changes, including
growth spurts
and
weight increases
, and boys and girls begin to change and look different as they grow into young men and women.
What physical changes take place in boys and girls during puberty?
Intellectual development
This is the stage at which people develop the ability to work with abstract concepts and develop problem-solving skills.
Activity: Questions

Young children would find it hard to answer the question below. How about you?

Anna is taller than Eleanor.

Eleanor is taller than Alison.

Who is tallest?
Intellectual development
Ideas about religion and politics may also begin to occupy the minds of teenager as they realise that the world is more complex than it might have seemed when they were younger and that issues are not 'black and white'.

Long-term memory also develops which enables teens to study for and pass exams.
Intellectual development
Adolescents are able to start thinking about possibilities for both their immediate and long-term
futures
and plan ahead.

Decisions such as whether or not to continue in
education
or to go out to
work
may be options for some, for example.
Emotional development
Erik Erikson (1902-94) saw adolescence as the most important period in the development of adult personality. Many other psychologists have described this period as one of
storm and stress
as young people try to develop their own
individual identity
and emotional
intelligence
.

Often teenagers alternate from behaving like children and then behaving as adults
. They also often feel
misunderstood
and may
challenge parental values
, deliberately pushing against boundaries which are often perceived as too restrictive or controlling. This in turn is perceived as
rebelliousness
by carers and family tension can result.
Emotional development
Teenagers become less dependent on family for emotional support and turn to their friends for advice. This is called the influence of the peer group. Young people want to be accepted by their friends and this can sometimes lead to difficult situations, affecting both self-esteem and self-concept.
Social development
Social and emotional development are intertwined and, as teenagers gain independence, they spend more time with friends. This allows them to practise social skills, sometimes called social intelligence.

Albert Bandura (born 1925) is a psychologist who called learning from our social environment
social leaning
and and its influence depends very much on the culture in which we were born. For some adolescents factors such as living in poverty, living in a dysfunctional family and/or living in an area of high crime make this period of life more difficult.
Social development
As teenagers turn more to their peers they often struggle because they want to be liked. Peer recognition is very important and things like the types of clothes worn and interests that are followed become significant.

Peer pressure can also present difficulties as it can challenge many of the ideas learned from families. This is often a period during which issues such as experimenting with alcohol, sexual orientation and attitudes towards education are examined.
Know about the development needs of an adolescent referring to the PIES model.
Case study: Tamara
Tamara was 15 when she met Joe at a local youth club. He was several years older than her and she found him very good looking and mature. He asked her out and before long they were meeting regularly. Tamara felt very grown up now she had a boyfriend like Joe although her friends were worried about her. Tamara's parents were also very unhappy and there started to be frequent rows at home. Tamara's parents were keen for her to concentrate more on her schoolwork and to get good grades.

Joe soon persuaded Tamara to sleep with him and Tamara started lying to her parents about where she was and who she was with. Joe also encouraged Tamara to start drinking and she soon found it difficult to concentrate on her schoolwork.

A few months later Joe suddenly stopped wanting to see Tamara and seemed to be hanging around with another set of friends. Tamara was shocked and upset and felt let down and used. A few weeks later Tamara discovered she was pregnant.

1. What should Tamara do?
2. Do you think adolescents can make good parents?
3. How do you think Tamara's parents might deal with this situation?
Think about it
What does it feel like when a girl gets her period for the first time?

How does a boy feel when his voice cracks when he is talking?

How does it feel to get a spot on your face just before going out to meet up with friends?

How does a short boy feel when his friends seem to grow faster than he does?
Key terms
Puberty

- time of rapid growth during adolescence when a young person becomes physically able to reproduce.

Peer group
- a group of people who share at least one identifying characteristic for example, age group, gender, job role or living environment.
1. What is meant by social learning?

2. What is meant by emotional intelligence?
Questions
Write down all the words you can think of that are used to describe teenagers in today's society. Are these positive or negative?

How would you describe your relationship with your parents/carers?

What are/were the good things about being an adolescent?

What are/were the biggest sources of unhappiness?

What do/did the adults get wrong when dealing with you?

What do/did they get right?
Think about it
Questions

1. What is meant by an 'abstract concept'?

2. What is moral development?
Adulthood (18-65)
Adulthood (18-65)
Lesson aims

Know about the development needs of an adult
referring to the PIES model
Group task
1. In pairs/small groups research PIES development in adulthood - add to PIES chart.
Physical development
Intellectual development
Emotional development
Social development
This is a stage of great change because it covers such a wide age range. Before people have reached this stage there is a tendency to think it must be so easy: you can go out and do what you like, go to bed when you want, have money, etc. But ask any adult if they think it is easy and many will say that there so many big decisions that they have to make.
Adulthood (18-65)
People in their twenties and thirties (early adulthood) are usually at the peak of their physical development. They are fully mature and it is at this stage that many people have children.

Most elite athletes perform at their best in their twenties and even have to think about retiring after this! Good exercise regimes and a healthy lifestyle can help to extend this an many individuals decide to start to develop their fitness after this age.

From about the age of 30 the physical ageing process begins and people begin to notice a number of changes.

What physical changes would you expect to see?
Physical development
wrinkling of skin
greying and thinning hair
hearing and sight decline
bones lose calcium
circulatory system not as efficient
flexibility reduces
the menopause for women over 50
Adulthood (18-65)
Think of
five
decisions you think an adult might need to make. Are they easy ones? Are there things that might stop you being able to achieve your goals?
Can you think of some examples of things that people do to make themselves look younger?

Are some of these more socially acceptable than others?

Why do you think people feel the need to do these things?
Intellectual development certainly does not stop after the age of 18. Most people in our society either continue with their education or start work at this stage.

Many young adults continue with their education at a college or university. Here they study a wide variety of programmes which may be purely academic or more vocational. Even after this, intellectual development does not stop. Once at work, many new skills will be developed and individuals may well also follwo a number of more formal training courses. Young adults continue to develop problem-solving and decision-making skills.
Intellectual development
Many adults return to formal education even if circumstances have prevented them from achieving all they wanted when they were younger. They be juggling work and families as well as studying, which requires considerable organisation and commitment (which are intellectual skills in themselves).
There is some evidence that memory declines with age and, just as your physical self needs exercise to keep flexible, so your mind also needs to be kept active.

Intellectual health is as important as physical health. It includes creativity, general knowledge and common sense and does not just involve knowing a lot of academic facts.
Activity: Intellectual health
Answer the following questions:

1. Are you easily bored?
2. What do you do to 'exercise your mind?
3. Do you enjoy reading?
4. What TV programmes do you reguarly watch?
5. Do you have a job? How long do you work and do you find it challenging?
Asking questions, playing games and reading informally are all ways to stimulate your mind and to keep you intellectually healthy.
Erikson
looked at people's emotional development throughout the life stages.
This is often know as
Erikson's 'Eight Stages of Man'
.

Erikson
divided adulthood into two
, with individuals in their
twenties and thirties
thinking about
life partners
and developing close emotional bonds with one person. This is also the time when many people decide to
start a family
, which means new responsibilities. This is usually a positive experience although there are often conflicting pressures on young families. Most young adults have the emotional maturity to manage these, although there are sometimes too many pressures and they may need to access outside help.
Emotional development
Middle adulthood
, from the forties onward, is also a period of change and for some these changes can cause a
mid-life crisis
. People will start to become aware of their
physical ageing
, women will go through the meonpause, there are
fewer job options
, many
children are thinking of leaving home
and middle-aged adults may be helping
look after their own ageing parents
, who are themselves experiencing difficulties.

But for most people it is a
positive time
. Their experience is valued, they have been productive, there is
more freedom
as children leave home and individuals are usually established in their communities. Individuals can look at the contribution they have made to society which gives them a sense of belonging and well-being.
Activity: Emotional development
1. Look up Erik Erikson and read about his eight stages of development.

What are the outcomes for adulthood?

Do you agree with the outcomes he describes for each of the other stges?

2. Draw a timeline with as many of the different emotional changes you can think of that take place during adulthood. (Use a computer to create the timeline)
2. Look up Erik Erikson and read about his eight stages of development.

What are the outcomes for adulthood?

Do you agree with the outcomes he describes for each of the other stages?
Social development: Social networking
Social development
Social changes are significant
throughtout this life stage. In our
twenties
we usually
do not have too many responsibilities
and most people are able to spend quite a lot of their
free time socialising
. Friendships are important, both same sex and opposite sex, and meeting new people is often an exciting activity.

There are many
different types of relationships
that develop, both personal and public. The personal ones will be the extended family, long-term friends and, possibly, a life partner.

Public relationships are those that take place in the wider world, including the world of work. Social networks are developed and maintained through a number of different ways.
How many different examples can you think of where you are developing or maintaining your social network?

Can you think of how technology has changed this over the years?

Do you think that maintaining social networks is different for 20-year-olds and 50-year-olds?
Social development
In our society ther are
norms of behaviour
- what society expects. For example, it is the norm that people in this society will work for a living. This gives us a role and a sense of identity as well as extending our social world. When people meet for the first time one of the questions that is often asked is 'What do you do?'
Work is seen as very important
as it gives a
social identity
,
social status
and
contact outside the family.

It can be hard to balance all the demands of family and work and still have time for fun and personal relationships. However,
communication
makes all the our social interactions possible and there are many different types of communication depending on the situation.
Activity: Communication
Try writing a short holiday postcard to:
1. Your best friend
2. An elderly relative
3. A small child

Is the way you have written this different for each?
Older adulthood 65+
Lesson aims

Know about the development needs of an older adult
referring to the PIES model
Older adulthood 65+
Physical development
The ageing process progresses more quickly once most people reach their sixties. At some point almost all older people will have to deal with some sort of disability as they are no longer able to do the same things they did when they were younger. But it is important to remember that being older is not an illness!
Physical development
Activity: Effects of ageing

Complete the table on some of the different physical effects of ageing and what can be done to remedy these.

Can you add some more to the list?
Intellectual development
Think of many of our senior politicians or judges - they are older but still contribute to our society in a positive way.

Many people do not retire until much later and often act as advisors due to long life experience and wisdom.
Intellectual development
Older people can still learn different skills and hobbies, which has been shown to help age in a positive way.

They can learn foreign language, play scrabble or bridge, learn to play a musical instrument, or join a paintingor pottery class.

Many of these activities also involve increased interactions with other people, which in itself provides mental stimulation.
Intellectual development
But there is also evidence that some older people are less able to solve problems as quickly.

Often they are less flexible in their approach and may sometimes be described as 'set in their ways'.

The risk of memory loss increases with age and most cases of dementia are recorded in older people.
Intellectual development
Some lifestyle factors seem to be important.

For example, studies have shown that older people who walk regularly, who eat a lot of leafy green vegetables and who eat fish at least once a week keep more mentally active than those who do not.
Intellectual development
Social factors can also be important.

Older people who live with family members and who have a lot of human interactions tend to do better both in terms of physical and intellectual health than those who are more isolated in old age.
Intellectual development
Just checking

1. Describe five physical changes that we associate with older age?

2. Why is it important for an older person to keep mentally active?
Emotional development
As with all aspects of development in older age there are
positives
and
negative
aspects to emotional development.

In many societies the
wisdom of old age is valued
so those individuals feel they are making a
contribution to their communities
.

But if this is not the case it can make people feel that they are just a
burden
.
Case study: Monica
Monica is 78 years old and her husband died eight years ago. She has osteoarthritis which affects her fingers, hands and back. This causes her pain when she tries to carry out regular daily living activities. She also becomes breathless when she walks to the shops. Monica is a little forgetful and worries about making mistakes when she has to do things like pay bills.

Monica has little social contact. Her son lives abroad and although he contacts her regularly he rarely visits. Monica's daughter, son-in-law and their three children live nearby. Monica does get visits from them but finds the children tiring after a while.

Monica has been feeling a little depressed lately.

1. Have you got any suggestions for Monica which might make her happier?

2. What could Monica's family do to help?
Group Activity: In Control
Studies have shown that having a sense of control over one's life makes you feel happier. One group of older people in a care home were told they didn't have to worry about anything and that everything would be taken care of for them. Another group were told that they would have to organise all their own activities although they would be supported.

Can you guess which group were happier?
Social development
Not working usually means less social contact but more time to spend with friends and family.

Many people prepare for retirement by developing interests that can be followed by later and others may do voluntary work.

These kind of social interactions have been shown to be important for a healthy older age.
Social development
Social isolation can, however, still happen.

If families do not live nearby, when partners and friends die or health problems make it difficult to get out, it is easy to become isolated and depressed.

But there are now many services designed to help avoid this situation.
Social development
There are many ageist assumptions made about older people which are not true.

For example, most older people do not suffer from dementia or have a physical disability and many do not have to use the health service particularly often.
Activity: Social encounters
Talk to an older person and ask them how often they go out, who they go out with and what they do. For example, they may have coffee with a friend, go shopping or start on a DIY project.

You could also compare this with adults and teenagers.

Based on this information which group would you say were the most social?

Which group had the most variety of activities?

What kind of organised activities for older people are there in your neighbourhood?
Just checking
1. What is meant by the term 'ageism'?

2. Describe three different activities older people might do in order to keep socially engaged?
What does being an older person mean to you?

Think of words which are used to describe old people - Make a list

Are they stereotypically negative or positive?

Why do you think we have these views?
Group activity
Did you know?

The study of ageing is called gerontology.
Family relationships

Becoming a parent is a natural and fulfilling role

However, its a huge commitment (another person is totally dependant on you)

Sibling relationships (between brothers and sisters) can teach you how to co-operate, which is a useful skill for later relationships

1st relationships are usually with your parents/carers and are really important for later relationships
People-Relationships
Types of relationships:-

Friendships

Sexual relationships

Family relationships

Working relationships
People-Relationships
Task: Think of all the different people involved in your life, make a list of these and write next to their name the type of relationship you have with them
People-Relationships
Working relationships

Most adults spend a lot of time working and so form relationships with the people they work with

There will be formal relationships with managers and the influence these have on your development will depend on how that manager makes you feel

Good managers will make you feel valued and part of a team and a good atmosphere in work is important
People-Relationships
Sexual relationships

Intimate relationships develop as people get older and begin to be able to put someone other than yourself 1st

Long lasting relationships develop

Sexual intercourse is an expression of physical attraction but also intimacy

Many young people often get confused that sex means love and distinguishing between the 2 can be difficult

Sexual orientation can have a major affect on a person if it goes against the cultural norm (gay people for example)
People-Relationships
Friendships

During childhood: often same sex groups

Adolescence: puberty changes things (you start being physically attracted to others)

Adult: often develop through work, hobbies and through activities carried out with children

Older adulthood: need friends when they retire, some will be lost during illness and death, will meet new friends though through social activities
People-Relationships
People need relationships to feel happy and thrive and we have a wonderful skill which allows us to be sociable, friendly and co-operative with each other. (remember how people develop their social skills during adolescence!!!)

Many different types of relationships, some formal and some informal.

Also, different types of relationships form at different life stages and each of these affect our growth and development in different ways, sometimes positively, sometimes negatively
People-Relationships
Gender and sex are 2 different things

Sex is genetically determined whereas gender is about the expectations of behaviour of that sex

Task: in groups, label two pieces of paper ‘Be ladylike’ on the 1 and ‘Act like a man’ on the other

Then use post it notes and stick on all the words that are often used to describe men and women.

You might include words such as ‘strong’ and ‘don’t cry’ for a man and ‘sensitive’ for a women

If your struggling think about the types of jobs men and women do and what toys do each play with
Gender
UK is classed as a multicultural society

This can sometimes lead to problems as people do not always understand the ways of other cultures

This is called culture clash

This can also occur between different generations within the same culture
(different expectations for their children etc)
Culture
Rituals are carried out by all societies

For example:-

Good manners
Bar mitzvah’s
Weddings ceremonies
Funerals
Culture
Task: How many different ways can you categorise yourself? For example:

I’m........

Male,
British
Straight
Muslim
A geek?
Culture
Everyone is influenced by the family and friendship groups we grow up in
Every family & friendship group is different
Families and small groups are also influenced by the culture that surrounds them
Culture involves the pattern of behaviour and thinking shared by people living in the same group.
This includes their beliefs, language, style of dress, religion and the rules they live by
People are often categorised by themselves and others in different ways:-
Race, social class, ethnicity or religion
Sometimes this can lead to stereotyping and people may make generalisations about others
Culture
Post 16 many people decide to go onto further education, college, university etc

How may this help the development of people?
Education
In the UK, education is compulsory between the ages of 5-18

Although many people study beyond that age

Once in work many people continue to develop their skills through training courses which could provide opportunities for promotion
Education
What other environmental factors do you think might influence development?
Living in overcrowded areas with no recreation space
Living near busy roads can lead to noise pollution
Living near a source of pollution
Living along way away from hospitals, doctors etc
Environment
As well as the type of home in which you live, the local community and environment also affect your growth and development

People often make assumptions about you based on your address

What assumptions might you make about the people living here?
Environment
Task: Consider the place you live now, and the places you’ve lived before
(if you’ve lived anywhere else)

Imagine you have children in the future, where would you prefer them to grow up, in a town/ city or the countryside?

Which do you think would be better in terms of PIES development?
Housing/ where you live
Where you live affects many aspects of growth and development

Some people live in cities and towns, some people live in the suburbs and some live in rural areas (countryside)

Where you live may be because of where you grew up, due to your job or down to your choice

How do you think the place you live might affect your development?
Housing/where you live
Task: now look at your spider diagram, consider how each of your branches affect your PIES development

For example: Having enough money allowed my parents to offer me a good food diet which consisted of all the necessary food groups, carbohydrates, protein, fats, fruit & veg etc. This affected my development in many ways:-

Physical development: a good diet will allow my body to grow and be healthy

Intellectual development: Without food my body wouldn’t be able to function and I wouldn’t be able to learn new things such as language maths etc

*Now look at the other stuff on your spider diagram and do the same*
Is having money important? Why?
Income is the money a person has to pay for what they need to live their life.

This usually comes from paid employment (jobs) or benefits a person may receive (child support) from the government.

According to the Office for National Statistics the average weekly earnings in the UK (in 2009) are:-

£531 per week (27,612 per year) for men

£426 per week (22,152 per year) for women
Income
We’ve already looked at the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of people over their lifespan.

Obviously where and how we live our lives will affect this development.

These factors as known as socio-economic factors and they can sometimes be a positive influence or a negative influence
Socio-economic factors
Learning Outcome 2: Positive & negative influences on individuals at different life stages
Friendships

Throughout your lifetime you will make friends

They provide stimulation and certainly influence you

Can be reassuring but can sometimes make you feel bad

People usually choose friends from those they meet regularly and those who they share interests with
People-Relationships
Task: Can you think of 2 examples of culture clashes around the world?

Northern Ireland

Garza Strip

Western World & Muslim extremists?
Culture
Key components of culture are values and norms

Values: ideas about what in life seems important to a particular group of people

Norms: expectations of how people behave. If people do not conform to such norms then they may be snubbed by your peer group (which will affect your self-esteem)

Other sanctions imposed by society include fines or even being sent to prison
Culture
Why is education important to development?

Affects job opportunities

Higher educational achievement usually gives people more choice of the type of career or employment they can follow
Education
Housing/where you live
Low income is considered to be 60% of average income or below.

Many people find themselves in debt because they cannot afford to live on the money they have

National Minimum Wage in UK:
£6.31 an hour for workers aged 21 and over
£5.03 an hour for workers aged 18 to 20
£3.72 an hour for workers under 18
£2.68 for apprentices
Income
Having enough money
Travel to health facilities
Pay for heating
Afford a holiday
Access to computers
Good diet
Afford nice clothes
Socialise with friends
Leisure activity
Pay rent or mortgage
Less stress
Is having money important? Why?
Predictable life events
Predictable life events

They may also differ in terms of whether a life event will be positive or negative

There are a number of predictable life events that take place during your lifespan and I'm sure you will be able to think of even more

There may also be some different ones in different cultures
Predictable life events
Activity

Using the large piece of paper draw a line across it and divide the line evenly with a mark for each year of your life .

For each year, think of something that happened to you and write it on the paper.

Write it either
above the line (if it had a positive influence on your life) or below the line if it had a negative influence on your life)

You might include things like starting school, birth of a sibling, parents separating etc
Life events
Life pushes us through changes at particular points

These are often referred to as transition points (which can be a little unsettling).

These changes make us feel awkward or even painful but they are necessary
Life events
Reactions such as anger and frustration are common

Research has suggested that it is better to allow the grief that is usually associated with these events to be expressed and form part of the healing process
Unpredictable life events
Dealing with these unplanned events can often be difficult and can lead to people asking the question ‘why me?’
Unpredictable life events
Euro millions jackpot tonight: 112 million

Imagine you won the jackpot, what would you spend the money on?

Do you think this would have a positive or a negative impact?
Unpredictable life events
If these events do occur they can change your life forever
Unpredictable life events
We may see them taking place in other people’s lives but never think it will happen to us
Unpredictable life events
Sometimes events happen that take us by surprise and we will not have any preparation for them
Unpredictable life events

How do we prepare for expected life events?

Do we prepare?

What normally happens before you have a baby?

What do you do in school?

How else might we prepare?
Predictable life events
Predictable life events
Predictable life events
Expected life events tend to happen at particular points in your life.

We have already looked at how we have physically developed throughout the lifespan

Now we will look at expected events rather than developmental changes

Obviously not all life events will happen to everyone.
Predictable life events
By the end of this lesson you should be able to:-

Identify predictable and unpredictable life events
Explain the influence life events have on people’s development
Life events
(Predictable & Unpredictable)
Learning Outcome 2: Positive & negative influences on individuals at different life stages
However, most of unpredictable life events seem to be ones which involve some sort of loss and require a great deal of adjustment
Unpredictable life events
Some change is inevitable

For example, you body changes as you grow and develop; you learn many new things and you become more independent and develop different types of relationships as you grow up. These changes are
predictable
and our society generally prepares us for them.

However other life events are
unpredictable
and are usually more stressful because they are unexpected and you may have little control over them
Life events
Bereavement
Redundancy
Divorce
Abuse
Serious illness or injury
Unpredictable Life events
Unpredictable life events

Self-esteem is really about how you value yourself

It is certainly not fixed and can be different in different areas of your life.

For example, you may feel that your clever because you have always done well at school and this would raise your self-esteem. But you may not be very popular with boys or girls which might lower your self-esteem.
Self-Esteem

Observing your own behaviour: The ability to do this is something that develops as you become more mature. You may not always like how you act in certain situations and try to do something differently

A lot of work in health and social care depends on this ability to be self reflective
Self-Image



Social Comparison: We often compare ourselves to others in order to build up a picture of who we are. For example, comparing your assignment grades with other people in your class to see how well you compare. Or, if your running a race, your sense of sporting ability depends on how well you’ve done
Self-Image
When you are describing yourself to someone you usually use 4 types of description. These might describe:-

Your social role: for example, I am a student

Your personality: for example, I am outgoing

Your physical self: for example, I am sporty

Your intellectual ability: for example, I am good at maths
Self-Image
Self-concept is the knowledge you have about who you are; it
is sometimes described as self-awareness.

Self-concept is usually thought of as being based on 3 things:-

Self-image: which is your idea of who you are


Ideal-self: which is who you would like to be


Self-esteem: which is how you like and value yourself
Self-Concept
YOUR 2ND ASSIGNMENT WILL CONSIST OF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA:-

P3: State factors that influence an individual’s self-concept
 
 
M2: Outline how factors can influence the development of an individual’s self-concept
 
D1: Describe how factors can influence the development of an individual’s self-concept
 
LEARNING OUTCOME 3: FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL’S SELF-CONCEPT
There are many factors that can influence your self concept, just as there are many factors that influence your growth and development

In your groups, research factors that can influence a persons self-concept. You will need to look at factors such as:-

Age, Appearance, Media, Culture, Gender, Education, Income, Relationships & Abuse
Task
How do you rate yourself on the questions below? Rate yourself from 1 to 5 with 1 being the lowest opinion and 5 being the highest

Physical self: how good are you generally at sport and physical activity?

Intellectual self: how good are you at general academic stuff?

Emotional self: how good are you at understanding other people’s feelings?

Social self: how good are you with relationships with your peers?
Task
Task:
We learn our roles through socialisation and we learn attitudes, behaviours and skills from our role models.

From about the age of 8 we start to choose who we will imitate rather than those in our immediate surroundings. It is important, therefore that we have positive role models

Complete the table in your handout by saying how the role models provided can have either a positive and negative influence
Ideal Self

Of course, unless you know them very well (parents, siblings etc), you will only be seeing a very small aspect of their lives.

But they can still have a big influence on your ideal self.

If your self image and ideal self are close then you are likely to feel good about yourself.

But, if they are not, then you may have low self esteem
Ideal Self

Your ideal self is the kind of person you would like to be. This may well be influenced by a variety of role models

There will be people you admire and you may wish to be like them
Ideal Self
Information about your self image comes from many places but there are 3 main ones. These include:-

Reactions of others: Your idea of who you are depends a lot on how you think other people see you. As you interact with people you build up an idea of the kind of person you think you are based on peoples gestures, words, actions and facial expressions
Self-Image
We’ve already looked at how different factors influence who you are and how you developed

Its important to have a sense of yourself because it affects what you say and do in relation to others.

It can make you feel self confident or anxious

It can help you lead an enjoyable life or lead you into difficulties

It can motivate you to do better at things or stop your from getting into trouble
Self-Concept
Today’s lesson we will be looking at:-


What we mean by the term ‘Self Concept’


Start looking at factors that affect a person’s self concept.  
LEARNING OUTCOME 3: FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL’S SELF-CONCEPT
 
Mirror Mirror on the wall, who's the fairest one of all......

Imagine your looking in the mirror. How would you describe yourself? Do you like what you see? Do you wish you were different?
Task:
Who are peoples likely role models? If you could be one person other than yourself, who would you be?
Task: Poster

Design a poster which explains how this factor can influence a person's development. Show evidence that you have planned the design of your poster
Lesson aims
Know influences of income and expenditure, housing and environment on PIES development
Know influences of family, friends and peer pressure on PIES development
Know influences of media, culture, gender, descrimination, education and access to services
Complete the care plan for one of the service users you know (This could be someone off work placement or a relative you might know)
Care Assessment Cycle
Once a person starts receiving care the Care provider
must draw up a detailed care plan, which explains
how the clients needs can be meet
A multidisciplinary team (MDT) is a group of doctors and other health professionals with expertise in different areas, who together discuss and manage an individual patient’s care. They plan the treatment that’s best for the patient.
Multidisciplinary working
When a person is thought to need care they will need to start by having a care Assessment to determine their needs


This may be done by a Social Worker together with the Service User (or family member)


Once the care needs have been identified a plan is drawn up to help meet that persons needs
Care Planning
How could you show respect / maintain dignity when helping a client with each of the following activities?

Bathing
Toileting
Feeding
Communicating
Respect and Dignity
Have you ever heard of learned helplessness?


Write down why it important to help a person to maintain their independence
Independence

Think about your typical day from the moment you open your eyes. How many choices do you make in a typical day – up to and including the time you go to bed?


Remember that these choices must not be taken away from clients!
Promotion of Choice

Health Professional (Doctor/Nurse)
Occupational therapist
Physiotherapist
Social Worker
Multidisciplinary working:
Recognition of d___________
Active s________
Promotion of c______
Promotion of i________________
Pro__________
R______ and d________
What can you remember?
Define the terms ‘respect’ and ‘dignity’

Respect: due regard for the feelings, wishes, or rights of others

Dignity: a sense of pride in oneself; self-respect
Respect and Dignity
What kinds of help can we give? -
4 Types:
Physical
Intellectual
Emotional
Social
Active Support

Give 2 examples to show how you can value diversity in a care setting
Recognition of Diversity
Recognition of diversity
Active support
Promotion of choice
Promotion of independence
Protection
Respect and dignity
There are 6 approaches to Care
APPROACHES TO CARE
List all the ways in which we can protect a client from harm
Emotional harm
Physical harm
Protection
Intellectual
Social
Emotional
Physical
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