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Copy of Chemistry Review

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by James Teague on 5 July 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Chemistry Review

Chemistry Review
This chemistry review is made by Sarah Waldron:
Unit 2: Gases
Unit 1: Matter
INTRODUCTION
Law of Conservation of Mass:
Matter cannot be added or destroyed
Mass:

how much matter there is in an object
Volume:
how much space an object takes up
Mass: grams
Volume: mL or cm3
Metric Conversions:
1 step conversion problems:
12g = ________
1000g / 1kg = 12g /
x
kg
x
= 12/1000
For every statement: 1 kg for every 1000g, so
0.012kg
for every 12g
2 step conversion problems:
.5 kL = __________
1000L / 1kL =
x
/ .5kL
x
= 500L
1L / 1000mL = 500L /
x
x= 500,000mL
For every statement: 1000L for every 1kL, so 500,000mL for every 500L
Physical Change:
does not result in a new substance
Chemical Change:
results in a production of a new substance
what kind of change is this?
ice and water:
what kind of change is this?
burned steel wool:
PHYSICAL!
when ice is melted, there is not a new substance being created so it would be a physical change
#1
#2
CHEMICAL!
burning steel wool is a chemical change because rust is created and that is a chemical change
#1
#2
Volume, Mass, and Density
Property: Relationship: Reasoning:
Mass

Volume

Density
A<B

A<B

A=B
Box B will weigh more than Box A
There are more particles in Box B than there are in Box A
The particles in both boxes have an equal amount of distance between them
A
B
Substance
water
ethanol
corn oil
corn syrup
Density
1.00g
.789g
.992g
1.35g
The greater the density, the lower down the substance goes when put in a cylinder
ethanol
water
corn oil

corn syrup

P
.
1
V

Temperature:
P
.
T
Formulas:
V
.
T
P= Pressure
V= Volume
T= Tempurature
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Temperature affects the motion of particles either by speeding them up or slow them down.
Pressure:
The higher the pressure in a container, the faster the particles with move. When the pressure isn't as high, the particles move slower
Volume:
The smaller the volume, the faster the particles will move because they have less room to move around. When the volume is greater, the more room they have to move.
small volume= less room to move
large volume= more room to move
Kelvin Molecular Theory:
1. Gases consist of particles
2. Temperature is related to speed of the particles
3. The particles move independently from one another
4. Pressure= number of collisions a gas produces
P
P
V
V
T
T

Measuring Pressure:
1 atm = 760mmHg = 101.3kPa = 14.7psi
325 mmHg = _______ atm
Example #1:
1atm x

760mmHg 325mmHg
=
x= .421
Example #2:
732 mmHg = _______ kPa
732 mmHg 760 mmHg
x 101.3 kPa
=
x = 97.57
Pressure and Volume:
Example:
A gas with a volume of 4.2 L at .61 atm is allowed to expand until the pressure drops to .25 atm. What will the new volume be?
Initial

Final
Pressure
Volume
.61 atm
.25 atm
4.2 L
x
.61 = .25
4.2 x
x = 1.72 L
Ideal Gas Law:
PV=nRT
combined gas law problems:
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
T1 T2
P= pressure
V= volume
n= moles
R= gas constant
T= temperature
Example:


P= 730mmHg
V= 45L
n= 2.49moles
R= ?
T= 343K
(730) (45) = (2.49) R (343)
R= 38.46
Unit 3: Energy
Unit 4: Describing/ Counting Particles
Unit 6: Internal Structures of particles (bonding)
Unit 7: Chemical Reactions
Unit 8: Stoichiometry
Unit 9: Solutions
Energy:
1. A substance- like quantity that can be stored in a physical system
2. It can "flow" or be "transfered" from one system to another and cause changes.
3. Maintains it's identity after being transferred
Energy Storage:
1. Thermal energy- energy stored by moving particles
2. Phase energy- energy stored due to the arrangement of particles that exert attractions on one another
3. Chemical energy- energy due to attractions of atoms within molecules
Transferring Energy:
1. Working:
when energy is transferred between macroscopic (large enough to be seen) objects that exert forces on one another
2. Heating:
when energy is transferred by the collisions of countless microscopic objects.
3. Radiating:
the process in which energy is transferred by the absorption or emission of photons
Energy Bars:
Bar charts represent the way that energy is stored in the system and flows into or out of the system
A cup of hot coffee cools as it sits on the table
How many boxes will go in the temperature column?
Example:
Answer:
2 bars of energy were lost because the coffee was cooled. The phase did not change because it is still a liquid.
Heating/ Cooling Curve:
Example:
In what part of the heating curve does this example occur? Which energy storage mode is this an example of?
Answer:
This was part of the liquid stage. It only changed the temperature, not the phase. This was an example of thermal energy.
Element
Compound
Mixture
~pure substance
~at the atom level
~own specific material
~pure substance
~several atoms stuck together
~more than one type of particle in them
~it is mixed
Example: consider the four containers below:
1. Which of these are mixtures?
2. Which contain only compounds?
3. Which are pure substances?
4. Which are only elements?
Answers:
1. C, D
2. A
3. A,B
4. B
Separation Techniques:
Electrolysis:
-water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen by using electricity
-this is a chemical reaction, not a physical separation
Magnetic Attraction:
-separates particles based on magnetic properties
- keeps magnet separated from magnetic substances
Separation Techniques:
Separation Techniques:
Filtration:
-uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
-separates based on solubility
Separation Techniques:
Evaporation:
-to separate a substance dissolved in another
-change liquid into gas and leaves dissolved substance in a residue
Separation Techniques:
Distillation:
-Boil off and condense the liquid with lower boiling point in a liquid mixture
-separation based on boiling points
Molar Masses:
Example:
Carbon
MgCl2
12.0107
95.2104
To find the molar mass of a compound or mixture, you must add together the molar mass of each element
Mole Calculations:
1mole = moles
6.02x10^23 molecules
Example: How many CO2 molecules are in 10.30 moles of CO2?
1 = 10.3
6.02x10^23
x
x = 6.2006x10^24
Mole-ty Step Problem Example:
Calculate the number of molecules contained in 107g of NaCl.
1mole NaCl = x
58.44g NaCl
107g NaCl
x = 1.83moles of NaCl
1mole of NaCl = 1.83
6.02x10^23
x
x = 1.10x24 molecules of NaCl
Empirical Mole Formula Calculations
Example: What is the empirical formula of a compound composed of 10.12g of aluminum and 17.93g of sulfur?
Step 1:
1mol Al = x
26.98g Al
10.12g Al
x = .375mol Al
Step 2:
1mole S = x
32.06g S
17.93g S
x = .559mol S
Step 3:
.375mol Al : .559mol S
.375
.375
2x (1mol Al) : (1.5mol S) x2
2mol Al : 3mol S
Al2S3
Conductor vs. Nonconductor:
conductor:
positive and negative charged particles that are free to move
nonconductor:
a substance that doesn't conduct electricity
Ionic vs. Molecular:
Ionic:
dissolves in water and breaks apart into positive and negative charged ions
Molecular (covalent):
does not break down when dissolved in water so it does not conduct electricity
Neutral atoms can become either positively or negatively charged by the loss or gain or electrons.
METALS
NONMETALS
-usually have 1-3 electrons in outer shell
-lose electrons easily
-good electrical and heat conductors
-malleable
-ductile
-usually have 4-8 electrons in outer shell
-gain and share electrons easily
-poor conductors of heat and electricity
-brittle
-nonductile
How to Name Ionic and Covalent Compounds:
Naming Covalent Compounds:
-find the name of the first element
-find the name of the second element
-see what the atomic number is
-change each word to match atomic number
-put them together
Naming Ionic Compounds:
-anion ends with -ide
-cation then anion
-use numeral if there's more than one possible charge
-charges must cancel each other out
Given the Formula, write it's name:
Ionic:
Covalent:
1. BeI2
2. CaCl2
3. Na2O
1. CO2
2. SF6
3. C7S9
1. Beryllium Iodide
2. Calcium Chloride
3. Sodium Oxide
ANSWERS:
ANSWERS:
1. Carbon Dioxide
2. Sulfur Hexaflouride
3. Heptacarbon Nonasulfide

Given the Name, write it's Formula:
Ionic:
Covalent:
1. Copper (I) Chloride
2. Silver Chloride
3. Iron (III) Fluoride
1. Tetraphosphorous Decoxide
2. Sulfur Hexafluoride
3. Silicon Dioxide
Answers:
1. CuCl
2. AgCl
3. FeF3
Answers:
1. P4O10
2. P2O5
3. SiO2
Chemical changes occur when atoms are rearranged to form new substances
Example:
when H2 and O combine to make H2O, that is a chemical reaction taking place
Subscripts in Formulas: H
2
O
Coefficients in Formulas:
2
H2O
Balancing Chemical Equations:
You must insert a coefficient in order to balance the equation.
Example:
1.
4
SO2 +
2
O2 --->
4
SO3
2.
3
CCH4 +
5
O2 --->
3
CO +
6
H2O
3.
2
P +
3
Cl2 --->
2
PCl3
The Coefficients in a chemical equation describe the quantities of:
a. the individual atoms or molecules involved
b. the moles of the substances involved
Synthesis Reactions:
examples:
2 H2 + O2 --> H2O
S8 + 12 O2 --> 8 SO3
Decomposition Reaction:
Examples:
2 HgO --> 2 Hg + O2
2 H2O2 --> 2 H2O + O2
Combustion Reactions:
Single- Replacement Reactions:
Double- Replacement (ionic) Reactions:
BCA Tables in Stoicheometry:
Examples:
2 C8H18 + 25 O--> 16 CO2 = 18 H2O
B (before):
C (change):
A (after):
final step: 1mol 280
22.4 L x
=
x = 6272 CO2
first step: 1mol x
114.08 4000
=
x= 35
35
xs
-35
-437.5
0 0
+280
+315
0 xs 280 315
Mole Relationships:
a. write the balanced chemical equation
b. identify what is given (with units) and what you want to find (with units)
c. use coefficients from balanced equations to determine mole ratio
d. show set up
Mole Relationships Examples:
B:
C:
A:
2 H2S + 3 O2 --> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O
8
xs
0
0
-8
-12
+8
+8
0
xs
8
8
1. Hydrogen sulfide gas, which smells like rotten eggs, burns in air to produce sulfur dioxide and water. How many moles of oxygen gas would be needed to completely burn 8 moles of hydrogen sulfide?
Moles- Mass Calculations:
B:
C:
A:
1. How many grams of calcium carbonate are required to prepare 50g of calcium oxide?
CaCO3 --> CaO + CO2
.89
0
0
-.89
+.89
+.89
0
.89mol
.89mol
Stoichiometry: Percent Yield
% Yield = actual/theoretical x 100
E:
B:
C:
A:
4NH3 + 5O2 --> NO + 6H20
.93
-.93
0
xs
-1.16
xs
0
0
+.93
+1.39
.93
1.39
Limiting Reactants:
In the reaction between 1 gram of lead(II) nitrate and .8 grams of potassium iodine, how much lead (II) iodide can be produced?
E:
B:
C:
A:
Pb (NO3)2 + 2KI --> PbI2 + 2 KNO
.003mol .005mol 0
0
.0025
-.005mol
.0025
.005
.0005mol
0
.0025mol .005
Components of Solutions:
Acids: any substance that releases H+ ions as the only positive ion
Bases: forms hydroxide ions (HO-)
Arrhenius Acids and bases:
Factors that affect rate of Solubility:
temperature affects solubility in a major way, by either slowing it down, or speeding it up
Solubility Curves:
How many grams of solute are required to saturate 100g of water in each of the following solutions?
1. KCl at 80 degrees:
2. KI at 20 degrees:
1. 52g
2. 144g
Example of Dilutions:
Example of Neutralization Reactions:
A 50mL solution of nitric acid is neutralized by 75mL of sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide has a concentration of 2.6 M. What is the concentration of the nitric acid?
E:
B:
C:
A:
HNO3 + KOH ---> KNO3 + H2O
1.95
1.95
0
0
-1.95
-1.95
+1.95
+1.95
0 0 1.95 1.95
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