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Copy of Chemistry Review
Transcript of Copy of Chemistry Review
This chemistry review is made by Sarah Waldron:
Unit 2: Gases
Unit 1: Matter
Law of Conservation of Mass:
Matter cannot be added or destroyed
how much matter there is in an object
how much space an object takes up
Volume: mL or cm3
1 step conversion problems:
12g = ________
1000g / 1kg = 12g /
For every statement: 1 kg for every 1000g, so
for every 12g
2 step conversion problems:
.5 kL = __________
1000L / 1kL =
1L / 1000mL = 500L /
For every statement: 1000L for every 1kL, so 500,000mL for every 500L
does not result in a new substance
results in a production of a new substance
what kind of change is this?
ice and water:
what kind of change is this?
burned steel wool:
when ice is melted, there is not a new substance being created so it would be a physical change
burning steel wool is a chemical change because rust is created and that is a chemical change
Volume, Mass, and Density
Property: Relationship: Reasoning:
Box B will weigh more than Box A
There are more particles in Box B than there are in Box A
The particles in both boxes have an equal amount of distance between them
The greater the density, the lower down the substance goes when put in a cylinder
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Temperature affects the motion of particles either by speeding them up or slow them down.
The higher the pressure in a container, the faster the particles with move. When the pressure isn't as high, the particles move slower
The smaller the volume, the faster the particles will move because they have less room to move around. When the volume is greater, the more room they have to move.
small volume= less room to move
large volume= more room to move
Kelvin Molecular Theory:
1. Gases consist of particles
2. Temperature is related to speed of the particles
3. The particles move independently from one another
4. Pressure= number of collisions a gas produces
1 atm = 760mmHg = 101.3kPa = 14.7psi
325 mmHg = _______ atm
732 mmHg = _______ kPa
732 mmHg 760 mmHg
x 101.3 kPa
x = 97.57
Pressure and Volume:
A gas with a volume of 4.2 L at .61 atm is allowed to expand until the pressure drops to .25 atm. What will the new volume be?
.61 = .25
x = 1.72 L
Ideal Gas Law:
combined gas law problems:
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
R= gas constant
(730) (45) = (2.49) R (343)
Unit 3: Energy
Unit 4: Describing/ Counting Particles
Unit 6: Internal Structures of particles (bonding)
Unit 7: Chemical Reactions
Unit 8: Stoichiometry
Unit 9: Solutions
1. A substance- like quantity that can be stored in a physical system
2. It can "flow" or be "transfered" from one system to another and cause changes.
3. Maintains it's identity after being transferred
1. Thermal energy- energy stored by moving particles
2. Phase energy- energy stored due to the arrangement of particles that exert attractions on one another
3. Chemical energy- energy due to attractions of atoms within molecules
when energy is transferred between macroscopic (large enough to be seen) objects that exert forces on one another
when energy is transferred by the collisions of countless microscopic objects.
the process in which energy is transferred by the absorption or emission of photons
Bar charts represent the way that energy is stored in the system and flows into or out of the system
A cup of hot coffee cools as it sits on the table
How many boxes will go in the temperature column?
2 bars of energy were lost because the coffee was cooled. The phase did not change because it is still a liquid.
Heating/ Cooling Curve:
In what part of the heating curve does this example occur? Which energy storage mode is this an example of?
This was part of the liquid stage. It only changed the temperature, not the phase. This was an example of thermal energy.
~at the atom level
~own specific material
~several atoms stuck together
~more than one type of particle in them
~it is mixed
Example: consider the four containers below:
1. Which of these are mixtures?
2. Which contain only compounds?
3. Which are pure substances?
4. Which are only elements?
1. C, D
-water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen by using electricity
-this is a chemical reaction, not a physical separation
-separates particles based on magnetic properties
- keeps magnet separated from magnetic substances
-uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
-separates based on solubility
-to separate a substance dissolved in another
-change liquid into gas and leaves dissolved substance in a residue
-Boil off and condense the liquid with lower boiling point in a liquid mixture
-separation based on boiling points
To find the molar mass of a compound or mixture, you must add together the molar mass of each element
1mole = moles
Example: How many CO2 molecules are in 10.30 moles of CO2?
1 = 10.3
x = 6.2006x10^24
Mole-ty Step Problem Example:
Calculate the number of molecules contained in 107g of NaCl.
1mole NaCl = x
x = 1.83moles of NaCl
1mole of NaCl = 1.83
x = 1.10x24 molecules of NaCl
Empirical Mole Formula Calculations
Example: What is the empirical formula of a compound composed of 10.12g of aluminum and 17.93g of sulfur?
1mol Al = x
x = .375mol Al
1mole S = x
x = .559mol S
.375mol Al : .559mol S
2x (1mol Al) : (1.5mol S) x2
2mol Al : 3mol S
Conductor vs. Nonconductor:
positive and negative charged particles that are free to move
a substance that doesn't conduct electricity
Ionic vs. Molecular:
dissolves in water and breaks apart into positive and negative charged ions
does not break down when dissolved in water so it does not conduct electricity
Neutral atoms can become either positively or negatively charged by the loss or gain or electrons.
-usually have 1-3 electrons in outer shell
-lose electrons easily
-good electrical and heat conductors
-usually have 4-8 electrons in outer shell
-gain and share electrons easily
-poor conductors of heat and electricity
How to Name Ionic and Covalent Compounds:
Naming Covalent Compounds:
-find the name of the first element
-find the name of the second element
-see what the atomic number is
-change each word to match atomic number
-put them together
Naming Ionic Compounds:
-anion ends with -ide
-cation then anion
-use numeral if there's more than one possible charge
-charges must cancel each other out
Given the Formula, write it's name:
1. Beryllium Iodide
2. Calcium Chloride
3. Sodium Oxide
1. Carbon Dioxide
2. Sulfur Hexaflouride
3. Heptacarbon Nonasulfide
Given the Name, write it's Formula:
1. Copper (I) Chloride
2. Silver Chloride
3. Iron (III) Fluoride
1. Tetraphosphorous Decoxide
2. Sulfur Hexafluoride
3. Silicon Dioxide
Chemical changes occur when atoms are rearranged to form new substances
when H2 and O combine to make H2O, that is a chemical reaction taking place
Subscripts in Formulas: H
Coefficients in Formulas:
Balancing Chemical Equations:
You must insert a coefficient in order to balance the equation.
The Coefficients in a chemical equation describe the quantities of:
a. the individual atoms or molecules involved
b. the moles of the substances involved
2 H2 + O2 --> H2O
S8 + 12 O2 --> 8 SO3
2 HgO --> 2 Hg + O2
2 H2O2 --> 2 H2O + O2
Single- Replacement Reactions:
Double- Replacement (ionic) Reactions:
BCA Tables in Stoicheometry:
2 C8H18 + 25 O--> 16 CO2 = 18 H2O
final step: 1mol 280
22.4 L x
x = 6272 CO2
first step: 1mol x
0 xs 280 315
a. write the balanced chemical equation
b. identify what is given (with units) and what you want to find (with units)
c. use coefficients from balanced equations to determine mole ratio
d. show set up
Mole Relationships Examples:
2 H2S + 3 O2 --> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O
1. Hydrogen sulfide gas, which smells like rotten eggs, burns in air to produce sulfur dioxide and water. How many moles of oxygen gas would be needed to completely burn 8 moles of hydrogen sulfide?
Moles- Mass Calculations:
1. How many grams of calcium carbonate are required to prepare 50g of calcium oxide?
CaCO3 --> CaO + CO2
Stoichiometry: Percent Yield
% Yield = actual/theoretical x 100
4NH3 + 5O2 --> NO + 6H20
In the reaction between 1 gram of lead(II) nitrate and .8 grams of potassium iodine, how much lead (II) iodide can be produced?
Pb (NO3)2 + 2KI --> PbI2 + 2 KNO
.003mol .005mol 0
Components of Solutions:
Acids: any substance that releases H+ ions as the only positive ion
Bases: forms hydroxide ions (HO-)
Arrhenius Acids and bases:
Factors that affect rate of Solubility:
temperature affects solubility in a major way, by either slowing it down, or speeding it up
How many grams of solute are required to saturate 100g of water in each of the following solutions?
1. KCl at 80 degrees:
2. KI at 20 degrees:
Example of Dilutions:
Example of Neutralization Reactions:
A 50mL solution of nitric acid is neutralized by 75mL of sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide has a concentration of 2.6 M. What is the concentration of the nitric acid?
HNO3 + KOH ---> KNO3 + H2O
0 0 1.95 1.95