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Sodium Polyacrylate Diapers

Chem 12 project
by Karan Huynh on 21 December 2012

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Transcript of Sodium Polyacrylate Diapers

Sodium Polyacrylate conclusion - In my opinion Main component:
Sodium Polyacrylate Main component that allows for diaper super absorbancy.
Its molecular formula is (C3H3NaO2)n.
Exists as random coiled molecules in repeated units.
This polymer can absorb up to 800 times its own weight in distilled water, 300 times in tap water and 60 times in diapers, differing depending on the sodium concentration. Physical Properties When dry: White powder When wet: Gel like substance Dissolution of polyacrylate/
How it works Chemical Formula: [-CH2-CH(COONa)-]n Applications Thickening agent Sequestering agent Fuel Tanks Astronaut suit Coating Agriculture Fake snows Sodium atoms are
linked to oxygen atoms The link breaks when
it dissolves in water :The polymer is folded
in a dense coil Powder state When it dissolves in water, sodium detaches from polymer and the chain becomes negatively charged and unfolded. Gel state: Na Polymer Applications Diapers Sodium Polyacrylate
Properties Qualitative Properties
Odorless
Solid White Powder
Crystalline solid [14] Bonding
C = O -> "carybonyl bond"
Intramolecular forces -> polar covalent bond
Intermolecular forces -> dipole dipole forces
C – C -> "sigma bond"
Intramolecular forces -> pure covalent bond
Intermolecular forces -> london dispersion forces
C – H -> hydrocarbon
Intramolecular forces -> non polar covalent bond
Intermolecular forces -> dipole dipole forces Quantitative Properties
pH: 5.5 – 6.5
Stability: stable at SATP but moisture sensitive
Solubility: miscible in alcohol, ethyl ether, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and water
Density is 1.22g/cm3 at 25°C
Melting point 12.5°C
Boiling point 141°C [14] Quantum Mechanical Model Sodium – metal on left side of periodic table
Atomic number: 11
Atomic radius: 190pm
First Ionization Energy: Na -> Na1+ = 495.8 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 0.93
Electron Affinity: 117.2 kJ/ mol [15] Oxygen – non metal on right side of periodic table
Atomic number: 8
Atomic radius: 48pm
First Ionization Energy: O -> O1+ = 1313.9 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 3.44
Electron Affinity: 141.8 kJ/ mol [15] Quantum Mechanical Model Carbon – non metal on right side of periodic table
Atomic number: 6
Atomic radius: 67pm
First Ionization Energy: C -> C1+ = 1086.2 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 2.55
Electron Affinity: 119.7 kJ/ mol [15] Hydrogen – non metal on left side of periodic table
Atomic number: 1
Atomic radius: 53pm
First Ionization Energy: H -> H1+ = 1312 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 2.20
Electron Affinity: 67.4 kJ/ mol [15] Life cycle - During manufacturing It is manufactured by the polymerization of a mixture of sodium acrylate and acrylic acid, and a cross linker such as trimethylol propanetriacrylate[1]: polymerization: chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer The diapers, pulp and cotton wool are mixed together, woven together, and then cut. The addition of sodium polyacrylate is pressed between two layers of the woven pulp , followed by a layer of fleece for comfort. The polymer absorbs water based on osmotic pressure
Within the molecule, 50–70% of the COOH acid groups have been converted to their sodium salts (sodium bonding chains).
The higher concentration of water outside the polymer draws the water into the center of the molecule via osmosis until there is an equal concentration of water inside and outside the polymer [2].
Urine has a saline concentration that reduces sodium polyacrylate's absorbency and that's why diapers can leak. Medical Use life cycle -
Impacts During Disposal Environmental Impacts
Diapers are biodegradable.
Are not toxic and do not require special disposal.
Often in landfill because they are one time use.
Portion of diapers are made from plastics that take years to degrade.

Social Health Impacts
Diapers are compatible with incineration of municipal solid waste
expensive process.
Workers exposed to the release of the toxic chemical, dioxin which can cause hormonal imbalances and damage the immune system [9] [10] [11]. Green Chemistry/ New application Diapers are accepted in Toronto's Green Bin Program.
Companies are trying to create 100% biodegradable diapers.
gDiaper's Diapers only takes 180 days for 95% biodegradation that doesn’t release harmful toxins to the earth during decomposition [12].
Sodium polyacrylate is biodegradable [9] as well as the wood pulp. life cycle - Impacts during manufacturing
Social Health Impact
For factory workers
Possibility for respiratory tract irritation.
Exposure cannot exceed 8 hours a day [8].
Need to wear protective equipment. life cycle - Impacts During usage Social Health Impacts
Sodium polyacrylate was removed from tampons because they had links to toxic shockc syndrome.
Diapers
have harmful chemicals like xylene, ethyl benzene, styrene, and isopropylene
endocrine, neurological and respiratory toxins
linked with cancer.
Plastics and glues on diapers can cause irriation.
Increased temperature from diapers cause lower sperm count. Environmental Impacts
Large companies mass distribute and the transporation by large trucks cause smog and acid rain Sodium Polyacrylate Fact Sheet
Eyes – Can cause itching, burning, and reddening of the eyes.
Skin – During the manufacturing, exposure to dust can dry out the skin and aggravate it.
Ingestion – Non toxic if ingested.
Inhalation – Dust can cause respiratory tract and lung irritation [8]. Canadian Research New application Chemical Institute of Canada - Agrilizer’s Inc.
The company uses post industrial polyacrylates to supply moisture and fertilizer on demand.
Fertilizer elements (nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus) are incorporated into the hydrated SAP structure, which is then dried to trap these ingredients within.
When exposed to water (ex. rain), chemicals will slowly diffuse out.
Polyacrylate SAP and alters the molecular composition of the material creating a product, which is 100 per cent fertilizer and sponge.
Agricultural trials are conducted in Canada and USA [16] -Sodium polyacrylate can be mixed with Al2O3 nanoparticles and water in a specific ratio to obtain lower cooling temperatures.
-This allows for a lower heat transfer rate.
-Current patents are being processed in 2010.
- Used for water treatment and as a cooling water treatment dispersant Mass Spectroscopy -The mass spectrometer is a very sensitive machine
- Used as a technique to separate the components of a sample by their mass - isotopes.
- Sample is first vaporized into a gas under a vacuum and then ionized[19]. Steps with major components Ionization - An electron gun is fired at the sample, knocking off an outer shell electron forming a positive ion.
Acceleration - The positive ions are passed through an electric field.
Deflection - The fast moving positive ions are deflected by a strong magnetic field. Lighter ions are deflected more than heavier ions.
Detection - The positive ions are detected using an ion counter [19].
Mass spectrometry can be used with chromatography is used as an ideal technique for the determination of organic contaminants in waste water due to the separation capability.
Can be used to monitor environmental pollutants ex. pesticides.
Mass selective detection of many contaminants in parts-per-trillion (ppt) [20].
Currently no environmental issues have occurred.
Looks at protein characterization to look at the specific sequence.
Pharmacokinetics to look at the complex nature of blood and urine.
To determine isotopes because it separates ions where we can determine a mass to mass ratio.
It has helped our understanding of atomic and molecular structure [22]. Environmental Impact Social impact Bibliography [20] [19] [24] [18] [18] [18] [23] [23] [1] Gilani, Natasha. "Commercial Uses of Sodium Polyacrylate." eHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/list_6462516_commercial-uses-sodium-polyacrylate.html>.
[2] Ph.D. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "How Do Disposable Diapers Work? Why Do They Leak?." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingsworkfaqs/f/diapers.htm>.
[3] Nelson, Carl. "How do baby diapers work?." Imagination Station. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.imaginationstationtoledo.org/content/2011/03/how-do-diapers-work/>.
[4] "Hydrogels." Newcastle University. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/r.w.harrington/hydrogels.html>.
[5] King, Joe. "What Is Sodium Polyacrylate & How Is It Used?." LIVESTRONG. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/458401-what-is-sodium-polyacrylate-how-is-it-used/>.
[6] "Solving the Diaper Dilemma." Green America. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.greenamerica.org/livinggreen/diapers.cfm>.
[7] Brown, Eric, and Nhung Pham. "Diapers and the Environment." Nearta. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. <www.nearta.com/Papers/DiaperEnvironment.pdf>.
[8] "Material Safety and Data Sheet LiquiBlock™ 44-OC." Hospital Marketing Services. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <www.hmsmedical.com/images/44-OC%20MSDS.pdf>.
[9] Sharratt, Anna. "Disposable diapers: Are they dangerous?." Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2010/05/28/f-disposable-diapers.html>.
[10] "Sodium Polyacrylate." Mother Nature Products. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mothernatureproducts.co.za/benefits_health.html>.
[11]Corriher, Thomas. "Toxins In Disposable Diapers: Dioxin and Sodium Polyacrylate." The Health Wyze Report. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://healthwyze.org/index.php/component/content/article/475-toxins-in-disposable-diapers-dioxin-and-sodium-polyacrylate.html>.
[12] "gRefills are 100% biodgradable." gDiapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.gdiapers.com/feel-good/earth-friendly-diapers/biodegradable-diapers>.
[13] "Carbonyl Group." Purdue University College of Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/2organic/carbonyl.html>.
[14] "Sodium Polyacrylate." Mother Nature Products. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mothernatureproducts.co.za/benefits_health.html>.
[15] "Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities and Electronegativies of the Elements." Tulane University. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tulane.edu/~bmitche/book/ietab.html>.
[16] "Sodium Polyacrylates in Horticulture -- Agrilizer Time Release Fertilizers." Free Online Library. Chemical Institute of Canada, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Sodium+Polyacrylates+in+Horticulture+--+Agrilizer+Time+Release...-a063262211>.
[17] "THE MODIFICATION OF SODIUM POLYACRYLATE WATER SOLUTION COOLING PROPERTIES BY Al2O3." Quenching Research Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://qrc.fsb.hr/publication-education/publications-3/the-modification-of-sodium-polyacrylate-water-solution-cooling-properties-by-al2o3/>.
[18] "Polymers - What is a Hydrogel? Sodium Polyacrylate and Hydrogen Bonding." GCSE SCIENCE. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.gcsescience.com/o70.htm>.
[19] "Atomic structure and the mass spectrometer." Oxford University Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/oxed/Chem_revision.pdf>.
[20] Kand, Rakesh, and Richard Glendinning. "Mass spectrometry for environmental and wastewater monitoring." Spectroscopy Europe/Asia. N.p., 20 Oct. 2010. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <http://www.spectroscopyeurope.com/articles/55/3049-mass-spectrometry-for-environmental-and-wastewater-monitoring>.
[21] "SELECTED APPLICATIONS OF MASS SPECTROMETRY TO CLINICAL ANALYSES OF DRUGS AND OTHER BIOACTIVE MOLECULES." Washington University in St. Louis. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <msr.dom.wustl.edu/Research/pdf/MS.DRUG.ANALYSES.01.30.08.pdf>
[22] Ph.D. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "Spectroscopy Introduction - Introduction to Spectroscopy and Types of Spectroscopy." About.com Chemistry - Chemistry Projects, Homework Helm, Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/analyticalchemistry/a/spectroscopy.htm>.
[23] “What Properties of Disposable Diapers Enable Them to Hold so Much Liquid? What Impact Has the Widespread Use of Disposable Diapers Had on the Environment?"" YMCICHEM. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012.
[24] "Sodium Polyacrylate." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds Beneficial Applications Beneficial Applications water absorbency life cycle - during use before we start... - define osmosis
- what is the strongest intermolcular force?
- name an organic solvent we learned
- what is so unique about diapers? Quiz 1. Sodium polyacrylate can absorb ___x its own weight in distilled water, ___x in tap water, and __x in diapers.
2. What two components are involved in the manufacturing of sodium polyacrylate?
3. What bonds are formed when sodium polyacrylate is exposed to water?
4. What harmful toxin is released from diapers when they are incinerated? 1. 800x, 600x, 60x 2. sodium acrylate & acrylic acid 4. dioxins which causes
hormonal imbalances and damages to the immune system 3. hydrogen bonds! For diapers - more negatives and is not worth it.
Convenience factor when having to clean up after babies. Hands are not dirtied in the process (most of the time).
They cause irritation to the baby.
It contains toxic chemicals that impose a risk to the baby and in the environment when burned.
Mainly because of the pollution. It can`t be reused and creates too much trash in landfills.
It hurts wildlife. Especially the marine life when improperly disposed.
Contain plastics that do not biodegrade entirely. For sodium polyacrylate - more benefits and is worth it
It can irritate the lungs and skin but the effects are minor and not too serious.
It is non toxic.
It is 100% biodegradable , creating low pollution and not being a threat to the environment.
The super absorbency helps with fuel efficiency. It is a scarce resource that we need to use efficiently and sodium polyacrylate does that.
There are medical applications that help patients.
Extremely useful in agriculture to ensure healthy growth of plants.
Very versatile in society.
It is not difficult to produce. [24] [18]
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