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The Leveson Inquiry

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by beth symons on 15 February 2013

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Transcript of The Leveson Inquiry

Structure & Ownership BBC vs NEWS CORP PUBLIC vs PRIVATE
STRUCTURE Pay Per View
Customers Subscription
Customers Indirect Public Advertising Channels Public Government BBC The BBC is funded
through a TV Licensing fee.
This fee is charged to all
British homes, organisations
and companies who use any
kind of equipment to recieve and/or
record television broadcasts.
The fee is set anually by the
British Government and agreed
upon by Parliament. Sky is mostly funded
by the Public paying for
Pay Per View viewings and
monthly Subscriptions.
The public indirectly give
money to Advertisers through buying thier products. The Advertisers then pay for thier product to be shown on the Sky channels. All of Skys proceeds
then goes to its owner
News Corporation. Vertical & Horizontal
Intergration Vertical A business structure where
companies are united through a
common parent company. i.e. in
film production vertical intergration
is when the production,
distribution and exhibition are owned
by the same parent company. Horizontal Horizontal intergation is where
a company takes over a seperate, similar
company in order to increase
thier market share. For example
Coca Cola also owns Dr Pepper. News Corporation uses both Horizontal
and Vertical intergration. 2010 June 14-16 The of Telegraph breaks the
story of Rupert Murdochs plans
to take full control of BSkyB with
initial 675p-a-share bid, later
raised to 700p, which is rejected.
BSkyB board asks for at least 800p. July 6 MPs call for a debate and
regulatory investigation
into the proposed bid. July 29 BSkyB unveils near trebling
of profits to £1.17bn in the
year to end of June. Vince Cable, the Business Secretary, is urged to scrutinise the proposed takeover of BSkyB by Claire Enders, founder of media consultancy Enders Analysis, who says deal would give one company too much control of the media if it went through. September 13 November 3 November 3: News Corporation
notifies the European Commission
of its intention to acquire the shares
in BSkyB that it does not already own. November 4: Vince Cable intervenes
in proposed bid to gain full ownership
of BSkyB, ordering media regulator
Ofcom to review deal on the grounds
of “media plurality”. November 4 James Murdoch warns the Government that if it blocks bid, News Corp could focus future investments overseas, adding that Government must decide whether it wants to risk “jeopardising an £8bn investment in the UK” with a prolonged investigation. November 18 December 21-22: Vince Cable is stripped of his role in deciding on the takeover after The Telegraph reveals he has “declared war on Mr Murdoch”. The European Commission clears takeover on competition grounds, and responsibility for media competition issues is passed to Jeremy Hunt, the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Broadcaster's shares closed up 14½p - nearly 2pc - at 743p. December 21-22 News Corp sidesteps media plurality concerns by spinning off Sky News into separately listed company, bypassing need for a Competition Commission inquiry and Jeremy Hunt all but nodding through the takeover in the long term. Analysts call for higher offer, around 850p. March 1-2 Government says its ready to give clearance to deal. Jeremy Hunt gives opponents one final week to raise objections. However, he has provisionally agreed to proposals that will see Sky News be spun off as an independent company to allay fears the deal would give Mr Murdoch’s News Corporation too much control of the media. After the consultation ends on July 8, Mr Hunt is expected to wave the merger through once and for all. He is keen to give final confirmation by July 19 when the summer parliamentary recess begins. July 1 Ofcom intervention fuels fears the deal will not go ahead as the phone hacking scandal hits the proposed takeover. The News of the World closes down and other News International titles become embroiled in allegations. Ofcom says it has “a duty to be satisfied on an ongoing basis that the holder of a broadcasting licence is 'fit and proper’”, putting further pressure on the deal. Ofcom’s surprise intervention rattles investors for the first time since the shocking revelations that journalists from the tabloid paper hacked into the voicemail of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler. July 6-12 July 13 News Corp withdraws its
proposed bid. An internal enquiry is launched into the News of the World phone hacking scandal 2011 The BSkyB Bid Horizontal Integration Definition | Investopedia . 2012. Horizontal Integration Definition | Investopedia . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/horizontalintegration.asp#axzz1n6yHTe9N. [Accessed 22 February 2012]. Phone hacking: timeline of News Corp's failed BSkyB takeover bid - Telegraph. 2012. Phone hacking: timeline of News Corp's failed BSkyB takeover bid - Telegraph. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/phone-hacking/8650113/Phone-hacking-timeline-of-News-Corps-failed-BSkyB-takeover-bid.html. [Accessed 22 February 2012]. Competitors &
Customers Approximately 25 million households in the UK have Sky. Thats 36 % of households in the UK.


Because Sky is such a conglomerate it doesn't have many competitors in TV and Broadcasting. Its competitors would be any channels or broadcasting services where the money doesn't end up filtering up to News Corporation.
The main competitor like this is Virgin Media. Below is a table which compares the two in what they offer, the costs, the Digital TV service and Broadband. Virgin is the only cable
company that provides:
Landline, fiber optic
broadband and virgin media
tv services in the UK BskyB is the parent company
of sky digital. The largest
communication abd sky tv
packages provider in UK Who is What services Virgin media provides virgin
media tv, broadband and
landline services in cabled
areas. Sky provides sky television,
broadband and telephone services
most parts of the UK Digital TV service Virgin media provides virgin
media tv services through its
cable network. A cale connection
has to be on your foot path
outside your home to avail
virgin media TV Sky provides sky television
services through satellite dish.
A small dish is installed outside
your home and a decoder is
installed inside your home for your
Sky television Broadband Virgin media broadband is
fibber optic based. You do not
need a phone line to get virgin
media broadband. Virgin media
will run a cable in your home and
provide you the services Sky provides ADSL broadband. You
must have to have a telephone line,
to avail sky broadband, either from
sky or BT Monthly Cost TV M+: 75 channels = £9.50
a month
TV L: 115 channels = £15.50
a month
TV XL: 175 channels = £27.50
a month
Free TiVo 500GB Box
Free instillation
+ Virgin phone line for £13.90
a month Sky Entertainment = £20/pm
Sky Entertainment
Extra = £25/pm Movies
Pack = £16/pm/ 2 months free
with HD Sports pack
= 20/pm Full Oack = £63.25 Special Offers If you take virgin media tv, you
will get £50 credit in your bill. Sky is offering Free Sky+ HD box
and from time to time Sky offer free
installationas well. Contract Length Minimum contract 12 months Minimum contract 12 months Virgin or Sky - Compare Sky and Virgin Media | Tv Broadband and Phone Packages UK. 2012. Virgin or Sky - Compare Sky and Virgin Media | Tv Broadband and Phone Packages UK. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.virginorsky.co.uk/. [Accessed 05 March 2012]. How Many People Have Sky | ask.co.uk/how. 2012. How Many People Have Sky | ask.co.uk/how. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ask.co.uk/how/how_many_people_have_sky. [Accessed 05 March 2012]. Ethics and Legal
considerations http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/13/internal-inquiry-phone-hacking
Link to the first news article on the Phone hacking scandal published in The Gaurdian on the 13th of July 2011 Main Competitors for 'The Sun' (ranked 1st) Nationally and Daily (in ranked order from January to December 2010):
2. The Daily Mail
3. The Daily Mirror
4. Metro
5. The Daily Telegraph
6. The Times
7. Daily Star
8. Daily Express
9. The Gaurdian
10. The Independant Main competitors for the former 'News
of the World' (ranked 1st) on a Sunday (in
ranked order from January to December 2010):
2. The Mail on Sunday
3. The Sunday Mirror
4. The Sunday Times
5. Sunday Express
6. The Sunday Telegraph
7. The People
8. The Observer
9. Sunday Mail
10. Daily Star Sunday The most popular newspapers in the UK. 2012. The most popular newspapers in the UK. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mediauk.com/article/32696/the-most-popular-newspapers-in-the-uk. [Accessed 08 March 2012]. The Sun had approximately 7,772,000 readers from January to December in 2010
The News of the World had approximately 7,537,000 readers from January to December in 2010
Publishing differs to Broadcasting in that there are a lot of independant News Papers where as in Broadcasting usually a group of channels and programmes have one parent company (like News Corporation) Libelous & Slanderous Libel and Slander occur when something untrue is stated or written that may harm or damage the reputation of another person. The Law refers to this as Defamation and legal action can be taken when something Libelous or Slanderous is said/written someone. Libelous Slanderous Slander is when somebody makes a false statement that harms anothers reputaion slanderous - definition of slanderous by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. 2012. slanderous - definition of slanderous by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slanderous. [Accessed 08 March 2012]. Libel is a false publication presented to the public, that damage anothers reputation. It can be in; writing, pictures or signs. libel - definition of libel by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. 2012. libel - definition of libel by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/libel. [Accessed 08 March 2012]. Defamation To take legal against Libelous or Slanderous behaviour is proving the statement/publication as defamatory. To do this the plaintiff has to first prove that what was stated/written was believed to be damaging to thier reputation by one person who read/heard the false information. They must then prove that the defamatory was published; the statement has to either be read or heard by one person other than the plaintiff to be considered as published. The final stage to the defamatory is to prove that it was damaging to the plaintiffs reputation and they have suffered damages because of it. Libel And Slander - eNotes.com. 2012. Libel And Slander - eNotes.com. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.enotes.com/first-amendment-law-reference/libel-and-slander. [Accessed 08 March 2012]. Broadcasting Act 1990 The broadcasting act was brought in to prevent only a few people having ownership across the media.
National newspaper owners can only own up to a 20% stake in TV companies.
Similar restrictions on cross-ownership between satellite TV, national radio stations and commercial TV.
A contraversial loophole meant that Rupert Murdoch was protected against this due to Sky not being defined non-UK service. Continental companies are allowed to bid for liscenses or take-over liscense holders.
Companies that are allowed to own more than one license are: holders of one of nine 'large' franchises, also are allowed to control one of six 'small' franchises. Independant Television Comission (ITC) the new 'light touch' regulator governing the Terrestrial and cable-satelite services with tasks like having to award 15 ITV regional licences and national breakfast licence by auction. The licence goes to the highest bidder, as long as it meets the 'quality threshold' and ITC doesn't invoke 'special circumstances' to choose an underbidder. It led to the birth of channel 5 and a growth of satllite TV Channel 4 lost it's links to ITV by being able to sell it's own advertising but was not to be privatised.
Channel 4 has to source 25% of it's programs from independant production houses Broadcasting Act, 1990 | Media | The Guardian . 2012. Broadcasting Act, 1990 | Media | The Guardian . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2000/nov/20/broadcasting.mondaymediasection2. [Accessed 08 March 2012]. Professional Codes of
Practice A Code of Professional Practice has been created within the BBC. The code recognizes that:
- It is in the interest of the UK television audience that there is a competitive and thriving independent production supply market.
- The BBC has a role as the nation's principle public service broadcaster to help stimulate and support the development of the independent productions sector.

The Code is in place to make sure that relations between the BBC and independent producers are conducted on a fair basis.

In line with the provisions of the BBC agreement it includes details of how the following issues will be dealt with:

a. The timetable for negotiations of the commissioning agreement

b. The rights that are acquired together with the payment for, duration and exclusivity of those rights

c. The arrangements for reviewing, monitiroing and ensuring complaince with the code under the auspices of OFCOM

d. The provisions for resolving any disputes arising in respects of the code

The codes effectiveness depends on both the BBC and independent producers which it commissions being reasonable in thier dealings with eachother, with both obeying the principles contained in the code and undertaking to operate them in good faith.

The link below shows the full code of practice. http://www.bbc.co.uk/commissioning/tv/how-we-work/business-requirements/code-of-practice.shtml BBC - Commissioning TV - Code of Practice. 2012. BBC - Commissioning TV - Code of Practice. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/commissioning/tv/how-we-work/business-requirements/code-of-practice.shtml. [Accessed 12 March 2012]. Consumer Choice
(Taste and Decency) Before the phone hacking scandal story broke the public enjoyed the stories that The News of the World printed telling the tales of celebrities, drugs and sex scandals. They didn't seem to have too much of a problem with the story of Kerry Katona snorting drugs in her bathroom, dispite the fact that to get this story, without it being libelous, and the picture to go with it a NOTW investigator had to break into Kerry's home and plant a camera in her bathroom. But as far as most were concerned this was fine, because she's a celebrity. Once the phone hacking scandal broke on the 5th of July 2011 however peoples opinions soon changed. The public were outraged that they had been hacking into private details of peoples lives to get a story, because of the stories already delicate situation the News of the World empire began to fall apart as more and more skeletons were dragged out from the back of Rupert Murdoch's cupboard.
People found it horrifying to think that they could have listened in on thier personal conversations and they could know all of thier problems and issues. It's interesting however that it took them to hack a missing girls voicemail and then a member of the Royal's privacy for the public to stop and think about whether it is acceptable or not, it seems for celebrities it's okay but for us, the public, and those we hold dear, the Royals, it is most certainly not tolerable. What a mentality these news people have to believe they are in the right to do these kind of investigation on people private accounts and phone messages???

These is abuse of power and they all should go to jail and pay a right price .

We should boycott all newspaper relate with these kind of mentality.

lialammas 8 months ago Paul McMullen "Bribing the police
isn't really corruption." Wow.

dan91709 8 months ago I find it amazing Paul McMullin
doesn't really see a problem with
these practices.

Cosbibi 8 months ago Have we woken up to late?this level of
corruption can it ever be got out of the system,when the media ,MPs , police and big business collude little chance now to stop it.Once the cancer of corruption takes over it infests everything , the rigging of our power companies,the teqniques of complicating normal things is obvious they take us all for fools.I will cancel my sky subscription as a start

firbolg1963 3 months ago he shouldn't have come on the show
it shows journalist scum as they are

pathj1 8 months ago This interview from This Morning shows an Ex News of the World Journalist talking with Anne Diamond and the presenters. I've picked out some of the comments left on the video to show how the public have been reacting to the scandal and thier excuses for what the did. This Morning discuss News Of The World phone hacking! - 7th July 2011 - YouTube . 2012. This Morning discuss News Of The World phone hacking! - 7th July 2011 - YouTube . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpO4f4REjYo. [Accessed 12 March 2012]. Regulation of the
Media Sector PCC- The PCC is an idependant body that has no legal power, they are self regulators for the press. They deal with complaints about the editorial content of newspapers and magazines and the conduct of journalists.
The purpose of the PCC is to protect the rights of individuals, while preserving the freedom of expression for the press who fund it.

The PCC is made up of seventeen members, the majority of which (ten members) are public members. The chairman is a public member with no connections to the newspaper or magazine industry. The PCC acts by:

•negotiating remedial action and amicable settlements for complainants;
•issuing rulings on complaints;
•using published rulings as a means of guiding newsroom practice across the industry;
•publicly censuring editors for breaches of the Code;
•passing on pre-publication concerns to editors to prevent the Code being breached;
•passing on requests to editors that their journalists cease contacting individuals, and so prevent media harassment;
•issuing formal guidance, based on its interpretation of the Code, to the industry on important issues;
•instigating its own investigations under the Code in the public interest where appropriate;
•conducting training seminars for working journalists and editors;
•and liaising with other press councils internationally.
Sanctions

The PCC can enforce a range of sanctions, summarised below:

•negotiation of an agreed remedy (apology, published correction, amendment of records, removal of article);
•publication of a critical adjudication, which may be followed by public criticism of a title by the Chairman of the PCC;
•a letter of admonishment from the Chairman to the editor;
•follow-up from the PCC to ensure that changes are made to avoid repeat errors and to establish what steps (which may include disciplinary action, where appropriate) have been taken against those responsible for serious breaches of the Code;
•formal referral of an editor to their publisher for action. The following information is taken straight from
the PCC's website: . 2012. . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pcc.org.uk/AboutthePCC/WhatisthePCC.html. [Accessed 13 March 2012]. Ofcom is the communications regulator for the UK. They regulate TV, Radio, mobiles, postal services, and the airwaves over which wireless devices operate. Ofcom operates under the Communications Act 2003, they can do no more or less than what is stated in the act. Ofcom is funded by fees from industry for regulating broadcasting and communication networks, and in grant-in-aid from government. The main decision making body is the board which has a non-executive chairman, executive directors (including the chief executive) and non-executive directors. .
What we do

Our main legal duties are to ensure:

the UK has a wide range of electronic communications services, including high-speed services such as broadband;
a wide range of high-quality television and radio programmes are provided, appealing to a range of tastes and interests;
television and radio services are provided by a range of different organisations;
people who watch television and listen to the radio are protected from harmful or offensive material;
people are protected from being treated unfairly in television and radio programmes, and from having their privacy invaded; and
a universal postal service is provided in the UK – this means a six days a week, universally priced delivery and collection service across the country; and
the radio spectrum (the airwaves used by everyone from taxi firms and boat owners, to mobile-phone companies and broadcasters) is used in the most effective way.
What we do not do We are not responsible for regulating:

disputes between you and your telecoms provider;
premium-rate services, including mobile-phone text services and ringtones;
the content of television and radio adverts;
complaints about accuracy in BBC programmes;
the BBC TV licence fee; or
post offices; or
newspapers and magazines. The following information is taken straight from
Ofcom's website: Ofcom | About. 2012. Ofcom | About. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/about/. [Accessed 13 March 2012]. Ofcom | What is Ofcom?. 2012. Ofcom | What is Ofcom?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/about/what-is-ofcom/. [Accessed 13 March 2012]. Ofcom | How Ofcom is run. 2012. Ofcom | How Ofcom is run. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/about/how-ofcom-is-run/. [Accessed 13 March 2012]. Freedom of information/speech On January 1st 2005 five new rights to information came into force:
- The Freedom of Information Act 2000
- The Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2004
- The Enviromental Information Regulations 2004
- The Enviromental Information (Scotalnd) Regulations 2004
- Amendments to the Data Protection Act 1998

The Freedom of Information Act means that the public have the right to see information held by the government. You can use it find out about problems affecting your community and to check if the authorities are doing enough to deal with the issues; to see if and how effective the policy has been; to find out about what the authority's spending; to check if the authority is doing what is says it is and to learn more about the real reasoning behind decisions. The only time the authorities can withhold information is if an exemption in the Act allows them to, however even exempt information may be disclosed in the public interest. . 2012. . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.cfoi.org.uk/pdf/foi_guide.pdf. [Accessed 13 March 2012]. Former News of the World journalists claimed that the phone hacking scandal was merely them expressing the publics right to freedom of information. They believed that the public had a right to hear these stories which is thier reasoning for publishing them. Freedom of speech is considered a basic right that all Humans are entitled to. When the Phone hacking scandal broke The News of the World used the excuse (similar to how they used the freedom of information excuse) freedom of speech is a basic human right and by writing these stories they are reinforcing this right. With this excuse combined with the freedom to information it seems as though as far as The News of the World were concerned they were simply giving the public the stories they have the right to know. Privacy Law-
'right to respect for privacy and family life' One of the main issues many people had with the Phone hacking scandal was that it was a gross invasion of peoples privacy. So many people were outraged at the idea of them having thier personal and private messages hacked into and made into news. The scandal was particularily enraging because the main subjects were a missing school girls family and a member of the Royal family, the public viewed the scandal as imoral. The News of the World would argue that the people they've hacked (who are mostly celebrities) lost thier right to privacy when they hired a publicist because they pay this publicist to get them in newspapers and on the tv so why should they be aloud to pick and choose what stories/pictures they want to be released and what ones they want to keep hidden away. This theory is highly contraversial and has split many peoples opinions. A look into the expansion of 'the popular press' as popular entertainment, considering the way it continually pushes the boundries of taste and legality Beth Symons May 2000
Rebekah Brooks, nee Wade,
becomes NoW editor Rebekah Brooks (Wade, as she was then) is appointed editor of the News of the World. Gains a profile for her controversial "Sarah's law" campaign in which the paper began naming sex offenders. During her three years as editor, it's alleged that NoW reporters hacked the phones of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler and the parents of the Soham murder victims. She moves to the Sun in 2003. January 2003
Andy Coulson appointed
NoW editor Andy Coulson becomes editor at the News of the World. Appears with Wade before a Commons committee, where Wade admits to paying police for information. In 2005 NoW named newspaper of the year. Mr Coulson tells the awards ceremony: "The News of the World doesn't pretend to do anything other than reveal big stories and titillate and entertain the public, while exposing crime and hypocrisy." 2005
Origins of the scandal In November, the newspaper's royal editor, Clive Goodman, writes a story about Prince William suffering a knee injury. Buckingham Palace suspects the prince's voicemail was hacked to get the story and in December calls in Scotland Yard. In August 2006, police arrest Goodman and private investigator Glenn Mulcaire for illegal phone hacking 2007
NoW tries damage
limitation On 26 January Clive Goodman, the News of the World's former royal editor, and private investigator Glenn Mulcaire are jailed for illegally accessing the royal phone messages. As editor of the newspaper at the time, Andy Coulson resigns. Colin Myler takes over. In March, Les Hinton, a senior aide to Rupert Murdoch, tells a Commons committee that a "rigorous internal investigation" found no evidence of widespread hacking at the paper. 15 May 2007
Press watchdog backs
NoW line On 15 May the Press Complaints Commission, the newspaper regulation watchdog, published a report on hacking but said it found no evidence of wrongdoing at the NoW. Later in May, Harbottle and Lewis, News International's lawyers, also reviewed internal emails between Mr Coulson and executives but found "no evidence" they were aware of Goodman's actions. 31 May 2007
Coulson joins the
Conservatives Four months after he resigned over the royal hacking scandal Mr Coulson is appointed as the Conservative party's director of communications and planning. A few days later David Cameron, then leader of the opposition, chooses Mr Coulson as his media advisor. 7 Dec 2007
Nearly £1m paid to 'keep story'
out of headlines On 7 December 2007 Rupert Murdoch's youngest son, James Murdoch, becomes the chief executive of News Corp's European and Asian operations. In April of the following year, he agrees a payment to Gordon Taylor of the Football Association reported to be £700,000, to settle a phone hacking claim. The deal included a gagging order preventing Mr Taylor from discussing the case. Mr Murdoch later says that he "did not have a complete picture" of the situation at the tabloid 8 July 2009
NoW payments revealed Details of the payments to Gordon Taylor and two other football figures totalling £1m are published in the Guardian. The money was paid to settle legal cases that would have named other journalists who hacked phones. NoW says the allegations are "false". The next day Assistant Met commissioner John Yates says after "the most careful investigation by experienced detectives" no further investigation is required. 21 July 2009
Coulson repeats denial of
widespread hacking The Guardian newspaper reveals up to 3,000 people may have had their voice mails hacked by NoW journalists. The Commons culture, media and sport committee interviews News International executives about the claims.Mr Coulson tells the committeethat he has "never condoned the use of phone hacking and nor do I have any recollection of incidences where phone hacking took place." 1 Sept 2009
Rebekah Brooks promotion Ex-NoW editor Rebekah Brooks leaves The Sun to become the chief executive of News International, a further elevation for one of Rupert Murdoch's favourites. Appearing before the Commons committee, News International chairman Les Hinton denied former royal editor Goodman was paid to keep quiet about the affair. A second PCC report on hacking concluded that it was not misled by NoW. This report has now been formally withdrawn. 2010
NoW story begins to
crumble In February a Commons culture, media and sport committee report finds no evidence that Mr Coulson knew phone-hacking took place at the News of the World. However, it says it is "inconceivable" that no one apart from Goodman was aware of it. On 9 March the Guardian reports that PR supremo Max Clifford was paid £1m to drop legal action that could have revealed more NoW reporters hacked phones. September 2010
More revelations On 1 September a New York Times investigation quotes an ex-NoW reporter - Sean Hoare - who says phone hacking was encouraged at the tabloid. Mr Hoare also tells the BBC that phone hacking was "endemic" at the paper and that Mr Coulson asked him to do it. Another ex NoW reporter, Paul McMullan, tells the Guardian that other illegal reporting techniques were widespread. 14 September 2010
Clamour for action
increases Scotland Yard re-opens the inquiry to question Mr Hoare and Mr McMullan as witnesses but later announces that no new evidence has been found. Later, on 17 September, Lord Prescott and others launch legal action seeking judicial review of Scotland Yard investigation. In December, Sienna Miller's lawyers say they have found new evidence in the material seized by Scotland Yard in August 2006. 5 January 2011
NoW suspends reporter The News of the World suspends Ian Emondson, its assistant editor, news, in the first indication that the paper is taking the mounting scandal seriously. It is reported that Glenn Mulcaire says he was commissioned to hack phones by Mr Emondson. 21 Jan 2011
Coulson resigns a
second time Mr Coulson resigns from his post at Number 10, blaming coverage of the phone-hacking scandal. He said continued coverage of events connected to his old job at the News of the World had made it difficult for him to do his job properly. He added: "I stand by what I've said about those events but when the spokesman needs a spokesman, it's time to move on." February 2011
High Court orders investigator
to tell more On 25 February the High Court orders former private investigator, Glenn Mulcaire, to reveal who commissioned him to hack phones. In March, BBC Panorama broadcasts allegations that former senior executive editor Alex Marunchak is implicated in the scandal. April 2011
NoW reporters
arrested Three former News of the World journalists are arrested. Ian Edmondson, the former news editor at the Sunday tabloid, and Neville Thurlbeck, a senior reporter, are arrested on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and unlawfully accessing voicemail messages. James Weatherup, another NoW journalist is also arrested. News International admits liability and apologises "unreservedly" to several public figures. June 2011
Stars get compensation Actress Sienna Miller settles for £100,000 damages and costs from NoW. Sky football pundit Andy Gray accepts £20,000 in damages after his voice mail was intercepted by the tabloid. On 20 June some 300 NoW emails from NI's solicitors Harbottle & Lewis are given to Scotland Yard. They allegedly show that Mr Coulson had authorised payments to police officers. 4 July 2011
NoW 'hacked' Milly
Dowler's phone The Guardian reports allegations that NoW hacked into the voicemails left for murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler when Rebekah Brooks was editor. She says it is "inconceivable" that she knew of the activity. 7 July 2011
Murdoch closes NoW In a bid to rid his company of a "toxic" brand, the chief executive of News International, James Murdoch, announces that, after 168 years in print, the News of the World will close. The Sunday's editor Colin Myler pays tribute to his staff after publishing the final edition of the paper, on 10 July, describing them as "the best". The paper says sorry for its conduct and admits: "We lost our way." 8 July 2011
Coulson arrested Mr Coulson is arrested over phone hacking and making illegal payments to police and questioned for nine hours. Clive Goodman is also arrested on suspicion of making illegal payments to police. The prime minister announces two inquiries into the scandal -one to be led by a judge. 11 July 2011
NI scandal widens The scandal spreads to other News International papers. The Sunday Times is alleged to have illegally "blagged" private financial and property details of Gordon Brown when he was the chancellor. Its Sun stable mate is accused of accessing private medical records about Mr Brown's son Fraser. In an effort to keep its bid for the remainder of BSkyB alive, NI gets its bid referred to the Monopolies Commission. 13 July 2011
Murdoch withdraws
BSkyB bid Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation withdraws its planned bid to take full ownership of satellite broadcaster BSkyB. The move came as MPs were to vote for a motion with cross party support calling on him to scrap the bid. News Corp deputy chairman Chase Carey said the bid had become "too difficult to progress in this climate". 14 July 2011
Crisis spreads to US US politicians call for the FBI to investigate whether UK journalists broke US wiretap laws. It follows reports that the News of the World approached a New York police officer attempting to buy phone records of people who died in the 9/11 attacks. There are also calls for a US investigation into reported payments to British police, which could expose News Corporation to charges under US anti-corruption laws. 15 July 2011
Brooks resigns News International chief executive Rebekah Brooks resigns. In a statement she says: "I feel a deep sense of responsibility for the people we have hurt." Tom Mockridge is her successor. Another senior News Corp executive, Les Hinton, also resigns. He was in charge of News International from 1995-2007 when the NoW was hacking phones. On the same day, Rupert Murdoch makes a personal apology to Milly Dowler's family. 17 July 2011
Met chief resigns, Brooks
arrested Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Paul Stephenson resigns. Britain's most senior police officer decides to step down after criticism of his links to former News of the World deputy editor Neil Wallis. Earlier on Sunday, ex-News International chief executive Rebekah Brooks is arrested on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and on suspicion of corruption. 18 July 2011
Met officer John
Yates resigns Met Police Assistant Commissioner John Yates resigns. The Independent Police Complaints Commission has been asked to investigate four former officers, including former commissioner, Sir Paul Stephenson and Mr Yates over their handling of the scandal. Ex-NoW reporter Sean Hoare is found dead at his home in Watford. Police say the death is not being treated as suspicious. 19 July 2011
Murdochs face MPs
questions News Corporation chiefs Rupert Murdoch and son James appear before MPs to face questioning over the phone-hacking scandal. Rupert Murdoch told MPs he was not aware of the extent of phone hacking and had been misled by staff. Former News International chief Rebekah Brooks told MPs the NoW used private detectives, "like many other papers". Earlier, former Met chief Sir Paul Stephenson told MPs he regretted the appointment of Neil Wallis, a former NoW executive arrested last week. 20 July 2011
Cameron 'regret' over
hiring Coulson Prime Minister David Cameron cuts short a visit to South Africa so he can make a Commons statement on the phone-hacking affair. He says with hindsight he would not have appointed Andy Coulson as his communications chief. He also announces the names of the inquiry panel into phone hacking. They include a civil rights campaigner, former chief constable and journalists. 22 July 2011
James Murdoch faces further
questions David Cameron says James Murdoch has more questions to answer about hacking after two former News of the World senior executives say he knew about a key email - contradicting evidence he gave to MPs. Mr Murdoch says he stands by what he said. The Commons culture, media and sport committee chairman writes to Mr Murdoch about the contradiction. Labour MP Tom Watson asks police to investigate. 28 July 2011
Sara Payne on the
hacking list The police inform Sara Payne, the mother of eight-year-old murder victim Sarah Payne, that she may have been the victim of phone hacking. Sara Payne had worked with the News of the World to campaign for a law disclosing the addresses of known paedophiles, known as "Sarah's Law". It appears her details have been found in notes compiled by Glenn Mulcaire, the private detective at the centre of the scandal. 29 July 2011
NoW investigator 'told
to hack' Glenn Mulcaire, the private investigator at the centre of the News of the World phone-hacking row says he "acted on the instructions of others", according to his lawyers. Their statement continued: "Any suggestion that he acted in such matters unilaterally is untrue." Mr Mulcaire was jailed in 2007 after admitting to phone hacking while he was working for the paper. 2 August 2011
NoW managing
editor arrested Stuart Kuttner, 71, who served as the NoW's managing editor for 22 years before resigning in July 2009 to focus on specialised projects, is arrested on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and corruption. In the following weeks, police make further arrests of former NoW staff in connection with the hacking inquiry, including former NoW news editor Greg Miskiw, James Desborough, ex-NoW US editor, Dan Evans, a former NoW reporter, and an unnamed 30-year-old. 17 August 2011
Letter alleges News of
the World cover-up The Guardian says Rupert Murdoch, James Murdoch and their former editor Andy Coulson "face embarrassing new allegations of dishonesty and cover-up after the publication of an explosive letter written by the News of the World's disgraced royal correspondent, Clive Goodman". 6 September 2011
James Murdoch 'told
of hacking email' Former NoW editor Colin Myler and the paper's former legal manager, Tom Crone, tell the Home Affairs Select Committee that James Murdoch must have known hacking was widespread because they had told him about the "for Neville" email. This is said to have implied that the NoW's chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck was also implicated in malpractices. 19 September 2011
News International offers
£2m to Dowler family News International says it is close to agreeing a £2m settlement with the family of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler, whose phone was hacked. It is reported that Rupert Murdoch also wishes to make a personal donation of £1m to charity. 21 September 2011
Police drop demands on
the Guardian to reveal sources Scotland Yard decides not to pursue a legal bid to force the Guardian newspaper to reveal the sources it used for stories about phone hacking. Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger said the paper welcomed the Met's decision "to withdraw this ill-judged order". 25 October 2011
News Corp shareholders
rebuke Murdoch sons A third of News Corporation investors vote against James and Lachlan Murdoch being re-elected to the board. The vote is seen as a rebuke over News Corp's handling of the phone-hacking scandal at the News of the World. 3 November 2011
Police revise up number
of hacking victims The Metropolitan Police reveals that a total of 5,795 people may have had their phones hacked by the News of the World newspaper. The figure is "very likely" to be revised in the future following further analysis, the police say. 4 November 2011
Sun journalist arrested
over pay to police Detectives investigating claims of payments to police officers question Sun journalist Jamie Pyatt. He is then released on bail until March. He is held as part of Operation Elveden, which is looking at allegations of inappropriate payments to police. 5 November 2011
NoW spied on
hacking lawyers The BBC reveals that the News of the World hired an ex-police officer in 2010 to carry out surveillance on two prominent lawyers representing victims of phone hacking. The BBC's Newsnight reports that Derek Webb covertly followed lawyers Mark Lewis and Charlotte Harris. 10 November 2011
James Murdoch appears before
MPs for a second time During his second appearance before a parliamentary select committee, News Corporation chief James Murdoch insists he was unaware of widespread phone-hacking at the News of the World newspaper and rejects suggestions News International operated like the Mafia. He also says two former executives gave MPs "misleading" evidence. 14 November 2011
Inquiry into press
ethics opens The "culture, practices and ethics of the press" are being examined by a panel led by the appeal court judge Lord Justice Leveson. Alleged phone-hacking victims will give evidence to the inquiry, which is expected to report within a year. 21 November 2011
Hugh Grant accuses
Mail on Sunday of hacking The actor tells the Leveson Inquiry he could not think of any way the Mail on Sunday could have got a 2007 story about his conversations with a "plummy-voiced" woman other than by hacking his phone. The paper denies his claim. Meanwhile, Sally Dowler, mother of murdered schoolgirl Milly, tells the inquiry she did not sleep for three days after discovering her daughter's phone had been hacked. 18 December 2011
Call for Guardian corrections
on Milly stories News International asks the Guardian to correct articles alleging the News of the World deleted Milly Dowler's voicemails, after the Met Police tell the Leveson Inquiry the messages were "most likely" deleted automatically. The original allegation was a turning point in the hacking affair. 20 December 2011
Piers Morgan says Mirror
did not hack phones Former Daily Mirror editor Piers Morgan tells the Leveson Inquiry he is not aware of any phone hacking having taken place at the paper while he was in charge. Addressing the hearing from the US, where he is a TV presenter for CNN, he denies claims the practice was "endemic" at the Mirror. 7 February 2012
Met Police admits it
failed hacking victims The Metropolitan Police Service formally accepts it failed to warn people in 2006 and 2007 that they were the victims of phone hacking by the News of the World at a judicial review. Ex-Deputy PM Lord Prescott, Labour MP Chris Bryant, ex-Scotland Yard deputy assistant commissioner Brian Paddick and two others had pushed for a review. 24 February 2012
Mulcaire hacked
phones 2,226 times,
papers suggest News of the World journalists asked private investigator Glenn Mulcaire to hack phones 2,226 times over five years, according to court documents. Mr Justice Vos ordered that the papers relating to civil phone-hacking cases be released to the BBC and other media at a High Court hearing. The claimants' documents include allegations that even after Mulcaire was arrested in 2006, a NoW journalist continued to hack voicemail messages. 27 February 2012
Church agrees hacking
settlement Charlotte Church and her parents agree damages and costs of £600,000 with News Group Newspapers - publishers of the defunct News of the World. It was agreed at the High Court that 33 articles in the paper had been published as a result of her family's voicemails being hacked. The settlement includes £300,000 in legal costs and a public apology. 13 March 2012
Brooks and husband
arrested Rebekah Brooks, the former News International chief executive, and her husband are arrested on suspicion of conspiracy to pervert the course of justice, along with four other people. Mrs Brooks was previously arrested and released on bail in July 2011, on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and suspicion of corruption. THE LEVESON ENQUIRY TIMELINE BBC News - Phone-hacking scandal: Timeline. 2012. BBC News - Phone-hacking scandal: Timeline. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14124020. [Accessed 13 March 2012].
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