Master's Students Ph.D. students Postdoctoral Students Research Staff
Pam Barald; 1969 Julie Miller; 1976 Satoru Kawamura; 1978-80 Ann Gordon-Walker
Ken Konzak; 1973 Michael Woodruff; 1978 Heidi Hamm; 1980-83 Joan Dawes
Marc Karrel; 1981 Arthur Polans; 1979 Ric Cote; 1980-1986 Ann-Claude Gaide
Eric Brewer; 1985 Phyllis Robinson; 1981 Patricia Witt; 1980-1986 Ann Brodie
Brad Binder; 1989 Grant Nicol; 1983-1988 Alex Shedlovsky
Mark Grey-Keller; 1991 Paul Schnetkamp; 1984-6 Bill Robinson
Peter Calvert; 1995 Vadim Arshavsky; 1989-95 Mark Stahlman
Vadim Klenchin; 1992-95 Don Palmer
Yun Tzu; 1993-95 Reinhard Paulsen
Michael Biernbaum (deceased, in lab from 1980-1992)
Teresa Ho 1963-66. First modern protein chemistry of rhodopsin, defining peptide site of attachment of retinal 1970-71. Systematic purification and analysis of frog photoreceptor membranes (6-9). 1971-75. Finding light-induced rhodopsin phosphorylation (10,11,12,13,14,16,19,30,31,40) and an in vitro assay for transduction (15,17,18). 1974-77. Correlations of light sensitive enzymology and electrophysiology of visual transduction, implicating enzymes of the cGMP pathway. (12,14,15,16,17,18) 1. Bownds, D. and Wald, G. (1965) Reaction of the Rhodopsin Chromophore with Sodium Borohydride. Nature 205:254-257.
2. Hubbard, R., Bownds, D. and Yoshizawa, T. (1965) The Chemistry of Visual Photoreception. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium XXX, p. 301-315.
3. Bownds, D. (1967) Site of Attachment of Retinal in Rhodopsin. Nature 216:1178-1181. Postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical
Neurobiology Department 1967-68 4. Hall, Z.W., Bownds, M.D. and Kravitz, E.A. (1970) The Metabolism of gamma Aminobutyric Acid in the Lobster Nervous System. Enzymes in Single Excitatory and Inhibitory Axons. J. Cell Biol. 46:290-299. 5. Kravitz, E.A., Slater, C.R., Takahashi, K., Bownds, M.D. and Grossfeld, R.M. (1970) Excitatory Transmission in Invertebrates - Glutamate as a Potential Neuromuscular Transmitter Compound. Proc. 5th Int. Neurobiol., pp. 85-93 10. Bownds, D., Dawes, J., Miller, J., and Stahlman, M. (1972) Phosphorylation of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes Induced by Light. Nature New Biol. 237:125-127.
11. Bownds, D., Dawes, J. and Miller, J. (1973) In vitro Physiology of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. In: "Biochemistry and Physiology of Visual Pigments", Springer-Verlag, p. 267-273.
12. Bownds, D., Brodie, A., Robinson, W.E., Palmer, D., Miller, J. and Shedlovsky, A. (1974) Physiology and Enzymology of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. Exp. Eye Res. 18:253-269.
13. Miller, J.A. and Paulsen, R. (1975) Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of Frog Rod Outer Segment Membranes as Part of the Visual Process. J. Biol. Chem. 250:4427-4432.
14. Paulsen, R., Miller, J.A., Brodie, A.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1975) The Decay of Long-Lived Photoproducts in the Isolated Bullfrog Rod Outer Segments: Relationship to Other Dark Reactions. Vision Res. 15:1325-1332.
15. Bownds, D. and Brodie, A.E. (1975) Light-Sensitive Swelling of Isolated Frog Rod Outer Segments as an in vitro Assay for Visual Transduction and Dark Adaptation. J. Gen. Physiol. 66:407-425.
16. Miller, J.A., Brodie, A.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1975) Light-Activated Rhodopsin Phosphorylation May Control Light Sensitivity in Isolated Rod Outer Segments. FEBS Letters 59:20-23. 6. Bownds, D. and Gaide-Huguenin, A.C. (1970) Rhodopsin Content of Frog Photoreceptor Outer Segments. Nature 225:870-872
7. Bownds, D., Gordon-Walker, A., Gaide-Huguenin, A.C. and Robinson, W. (1971) Characterization and Analysis of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 58:225-237.
8. Hubbard, R., Brown, P.K. and Bownds, D. (1971) Methodology of Vitamin A and Visual Pigments, In: "Methods in Enzymology", Academic Press, New York, p. 615-653.
9. Robinson, W.E., Gordon-Walker, A. and Bownds, D. (1972) Molecular Weight of Frog Rhodopsin. Nature New Biol. 235:112-114. 1976. Demonstration that the kinetics, light-sensitivity and stoichiometry of cGMP changes in photoreceptors are those required of an hypothesized internal messenger that mediates between light absorption by rhodopsin in an internal disc membrane system and the plasma membrane of the cell. (18,21,36,41,46). 17. Brodie, A.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1976) Biochemical Correlates of Adaptation Processes in Isolated Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 68:1-11.
18. Woodruff, M.L., Bownds, D., Green, S.H., Morrisey, J.L. and Shedlovsky, A. (1977) Guanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate and the in vitro Physiology of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 69: 667-679.
19. Miller, J.A., Paulson, R. and Bownds, M.D. (1977) Control of Light-Activated Phosphorylation in Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. Biochem. 16:2633-2639.
20. Hubbell, W.L. and Bownds, M.D. (1979) Visual Transduction in Vertebrate Photoreceptors. Ann. Rev. Neuros. 2:17-34.
21. Woodruff, M.L. and Bownds, M.D. (1979) Amplitude, Kinetics, and Reversibility of a Light-Induced Decrease in Guanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate in Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 74:629-653.
22. Polans, A.S., Hermolin, J. and Bownds, M.D. (1979) Light-Induced Dephosphorylation of Two Proteins in Frog Rod Outer Segments: Influence of Cyclic Nucleotides and Calcium. J. Gen. Physiol. 74:595-613. 1979. Discovery of several new light-sensitive protein phosphorylations (22,35,40). 1978-82. Biochemical studies of putative adaptation mechanisms in rod photoreceptors, demonstrating regulation of light-sensitive cGMP enzymes by calcium and cGMP. Suggestion that calcium decreases on illumination and development of the contrarian "backwards cell" model, subsequently verified by experiments in other labs. (publications 23-33,39). 23. Biernbaum, M.S. and Bownds, M.D. (1979) Influence of Light and Calcium on Guanosine 5'-Triphosphate in Isolated Frog Road Outer Segments. J. Gen. Physiol. 74:649-669.
24. Bownds, M.D. (1980) Biochemical Steps in Visual Transduction: Roles for Nucleotides and Calcium Ions. Photochem. and Photobiol. 32:487-490.
25. Robinson, P.R., Kawamura, S., Abramson, B. and Bownds, M.D. (1980) Control of the Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 76:631-645.
26. Polans, A.S., Kawamura, S. and Bownds, M.D. (1981) Influence of Calcium on Guanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate Levels in Frog Rod Outer Segments. J. Gen Physiol. 77:41-48.
27. Kawamura, S. and Bownds, M.D. (1981) Light Adaptation of the Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase of Frog Photoreceptor Membranes Mediated by ATP and Calcium Ions. J. Gen. Physiol. 77:571-591.
28. Bownds, M.D. (1981) Molecular Mechanisms of Visual Transduction. Trends in Neurosci. 4:214-217.
29. Bownds, M.D. (1981) Biochemical Pathways Regulating Transduction in Frog Photoreceptor Membranes, In: "Current Topics in Membranes and Transport", Volume 15, Academic Press, New York, p. 203-214.
30. Hermolin, J. (1981) Light-Influenced Outer-Segment Protein Phosphorylation in Frog Retina: Effects of Cyclic Nucleotides and Calcium. In: "Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Cell Proliferation, Volume 8, Protein Phosphorylation", Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, p. 1347-1360.
31. Hermolin, J., Karell, M.A., Hamm, H.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1982) Calcium and Cyclic GMP Regulation of Light-Sensitive Protein Phosphorylation in Frog Photoreceptor Membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 79:633-655.
32. Hargrave, P.A., D. Bownds, J.K. Wang and J.H. McDowell (1982) Retinyl Peptide Isolation and Characterization. Meth. Enzymol. 81:211-214. 1982-85. Development of monoclonal antibodies that lesion the transduction pathway as tools for its analysis (publications 34, 35). 33. Kawamura, S. (1983) Involvement of ATP in Activation and Inactivation Sequence of Phosphodiesterase in Frog Rod Outer Segments. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 732:276-281.
34. Witt, P.L., Hamm, H.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1984) Preparation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Several Frog Rod Outer Segment Proteins. J. Gen. Physiol. 84:251-263.
35. Hamm, H.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1984) A Monoclonal Antibody to Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Inhibits the Light-Activated Cyclic GMP Pathway in Frog Rod Outer Segments. J. Gen. Physiol. 84:265-280. 1982-84. Systematic analysis and listing of the protein complement of frog rod outer segments. (publication 42). 36. Cote, R.H., Biernbaum, M.S., Nicol, G.D. and Bownds, M.D. (1984) Light-Induced Decreases in cGMP Concentration Precede Changes in Membrane Permeability in Frog Rod Photoreceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 259:9635-9641.
37. Biernbaum, M.S. and Bownds, M.D. (1985) Frog Rod Outer Segments with Attached Inner Segment Ellipsoids as an In Vitro Model for Photoreceptors on the Retina. J. Gen. Physiol. 85:83-105.
38. Biernbaum, M.S. and Bownds, M.D. (1985) Light-Induced Changes in GTP and ATP in Frog Rod Photoreceptors. Comparison with Recovery of Dark Current and Light Sensitivity During Dark Adaptation. J. Gen. Physiol. 85:107-121.
39. Robinson, P.R., Radeke, M.J., Cote, R.H. and Bownds, M.D. (1986) cGMP Influences Guanine Nucleotide Binding to Frog Photoreceptor G-protein. J. Biol. Chem. 261:313-318.
40. Bownds, M.D. and Brewer, E. (1986) Changes in Protein Phosphorylation and Nucleoside Triphosphatesduring Phototransduction - Physiological Correlates. The Molecular Mechanism of Photoreception. H. Stieve (ed), Springer-Verlag, pp. 159-169.
41. Cote, R.H., Nicol, G.D., Burke, S.A. and Bownds, M.D. (1986) Changes in cGMP Concentration Correlate with Some, but Not All, Aspects of the Light-regulated Conductance of Frog Rod Photoreceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 261:12965-12975.
42. Hamm, H.E. and Bownds, M.D. (1986) Protein Complement of Rod Outer Segments of Frog Retina. Biochem. 25:4512-4523. 1983-87. Development of in vitro preparation of purified living truncated rod outer segments, permitting simultaneous assay of chemical and electrophysiological changes. Preparation made possible a new generation of quantitative rapid kinetic experiments on the roles of calcium, ATP, GTP, cGMP, and protein phosphoryation in transduction. (publications 36,37,38,40,41,44,45,46). 43. Witt, P. and Bownds, M.D. (1987) Identification of Frog Photoreceptor Plasma and Disk Membrane Proteins by Radioiodination. Biochem. 26:1769-1776.
44. Nicol, G.D., Kaupp, U.B. and Bownds, M.D. (1987) Transduction Persists in Rod Photoreceptors After Depletion of Intracellular Calcium. J. Gen. Physiol. 89:297-319.
45. Schnetkamp, P.P.M. and Bownds, M.D. (1987) Na+- and cGMP-Induced Ca2+ Fluxes in Frog Rod Photoreceptors. J. Gen. Physiol. 89:481-500.
46. Bownds, M.D., Nicol, G.D. and Cote, R.H. (1987) Biochemical Pathways Mediating Excitation and Adaptation of Vertebrate Rod Photoreceptor Cells. In: Retinal Proteins, Proceedings of an International Conferences, Irkutsk, USSR, Y. A. Ovchinnikov (ed), VNU Press, pp 95-108.
47. Nicol, G.D., Schnetkamp, P.P.M., Saimi, Y., Cragoe, E.J. Jr., and Bownds, M.D. (1987) A Derivative of Amiloride Blocks Both the Light- and Cyclic GMP-regulated Conductances in Rod Photoreceptors. J. Gen. Physiol. 90:651-669. 1984-87. Discovery that changes in intracellular calcium are not required for the excitation of rod photoreceptors - the closing and re-opening of channels in the plasma membrane - definitively disproving the calcium hypothesis which had persisted in the field since 1971. (44). Demonstration that basic chemistry of adaptation works in the absence of intracellular calcium transients, but can be modulated by calcium in the living cell. 1985-87. Characterization of the sodium calcium exchange mechanisms and the light and cGMP sensitive conductances of frog rods. (publications 45,47). 48. Bownds, M.D. and Thomson, D. (1988) Control of the Sensitivity and Kinetics of the Vertebrate Photoresponse During Light Adaptation - Calculations from Simple Molecular Models. In: Molecular Physiology of Retinal Proteins, T. Hara (ed.) Proc. XXI Yamada Conf., pp. 241-246, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Osaka.
49. Binder, B.M., Brewer, E., and Bownds, M.D. (1989) Stimulation of Protein Phosphorylations in Frog Rod Outer Segments by Protein Kinase Activators. J. Biol. Chem. 264:8857-8864.
50. Nicol, G.D. and Bownds, M.D. (1989) Calcium Regulates Some, But Not All, Aspects of Light Adaptation in Rod Photoreceptors. J. Gen. Physiol. 94:233-259.
51. Cote, R.H., Nicol, G.D., Burke, S.A., and Bownds, M.D. (1989) Cyclic GMP Levels and Membrane Current During Onset, Recovery and Light Adaptation of the Photoresponse of Detached Frog Photoreceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 264:15384-15391.
52. Gray-Keller, M.P., Biernbaum, M.S. and Bownds, M.D. (1990) Transducin Activation in Electropermeabilized Frog Rod Outer Segments is Highly Amplified, and a Portion Equivalent to Posphodiesterase Remains Membrane-Bound. J. Biol. Chem. 265:15323-15332. 53. Binder, B.M., Biernbaum, M.S. and Bownds, M.D. (1990) Light Activation of One Rhodopsin Molecule Causes the Phosphorylation of Hundreds of Others: A Reaction Observed in Electropermeabilized Frog Rod Outer Segments Exposed to Dim Illumination. J. Biol. Chem. 265:15333-15340.
54. Arshavsky, V.Y., Gray-Keller, M.P., and Bownds, M.D. (1991) cGMP Suppresses GTPase Activity of a Portion of Transducin Equimolar to Phosphodiesterase in Frog Rod Outer Segments - A putative feedback mechanism of the photoresponse. J. Biol. Chem. 266:18530-18537.
55. Biernbaum, M.S., Binder, B.M., and Bownds, M.D. (1991) Dim Background Light and Cerenkov Radiation from 32P Block Reversal of Rhodopsin Phosphorylation in Intact Frog Retinal Rods. Visual Neuroscience 7:499-503.
56. Arshavsky, V.Y. and Bownds, M.D.(1992) Regulation of Deactivation of Photoreceptor G Protein by Its Target Enzyme and cGMP. Nature 357:416-417.
57. Arshavsky, V.Y., Dumke, C.L., and Bownds, M.D. (1992) Noncatalytic cGMP-binding Sites of Amphibian Rod cGMP Phosphodiesterase Control Interaction with Its Inhibitory -Subunits. J. Biol. Chem. 267:24501-24507.
58. Cote, R.H., Bownds, M.D., and Arshavsky, V.Y. (1994) cGMP Binding Sites on Photoreceptor Phosphodiedsterase: Role in Feedback Regulation of Visual Transduction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:4845-4849.
59. Dumke, C.L., Arshavsky, V.Y., Calvert, P.D., Bownds, M.D., and Pugh, E.N. Jr. (1994) Rod Outer Segment Structure Influences the Apparent Kinetic Parameters of cGMP Phosphodiesterase. J. Gen. Physiol. 103:1071-1098.
60. Arshavsky, V.Y., Dumke, C.L., Zhu, Y., Artemyev, N.O., Skiba, N.P., Hamm, H.E., and Bownds, M.D. (1994) Regulation of Transducin GTPase Activity in Bovine Rod Outer Segments. J. Biol. Chem. 269:19882-19887.
61. Bownds, M.D. and Arshavsky, V.Y. (1995) What are the mechanisms of photoreceptor adaptation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:415-424.
62. Klenchin, V.A., Calvert, P.D., and Bownds, M.D. (1995) Inhibition of rhodopsin kinase by recoverin. Further evidence for a negative feedback system in phototransduction. J. Biol. Chem. 270:16147-16152.
63. Calvert, P.D., Klenchin, V.A., and Bownds, M.D. (1995) Rhodopsin kinase inhibition by recoverin. Function of recoverin myristoylation. J. Biol. Chem. 270:24127-24129.
64. Slepak, V.Z., Artemyev, N.O., Zhu, Y., Dumke, C.L., Sabacan, L. Sondek, L., Hamm, H.E., Bownds, M.D. and Arshavsky, V.Y. (1995) An effector site that stimulates G-protein GTPase in photoreceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 270:14319-14324.
65. Bownds, D. (1999) The Biology of Mind. Bethesda: Fitzgerald Science Press.
66. Leskov, I.B., Klenchin, V.A., Handy, J.W., Whitlock, G.G., Govardovskii, V.I., Bownds, M.D., Lamb, T.D., Pugh, E.N. Jr., and Arshavsky, V.Y. (2000) The gain of rod phototransduction: Reconciliation of biochemical and electrophysiological measurements. Neuron 27:525-537. 1988-96. Enzymology, dissociation, reconstitution, controls of transduction enzymes that regulate rhodopsin and PDE inactivation. Gamma subunit of PDE as a GAP protein. (53-66) Time Capsule of 1969 -1996 for Bownds' Laboratory reunion in 2012
Please email me (firstname.lastname@example.org) corrections, amendments, additions, dates, further photos
You can proceed through the paste up by clicking on the arrows at the bottom of the window. Clicking "More" at bottom right of the initial screen lets you go full screen, Esc. key reverses that. Clicking on an area of the screen lets you move it about on your own. Click plus down arrow zooms out, click plus up arrow zooms back in. (Or, If you move the cursor to the left margin zoom buttons appear.) Taniguchi Symposium 1988 Taniguchi Symposium 1993 Brain Behav. Sci. Portland 1994 Signal Transduction Meeting, Titisee 1995 FASEB 1987 ARVO, early 90's Dahlem Conference, 1984 Now, I suggest you just wander about on your own, click on screen to move it about, click plus up or down arrows to zoom in or out. Or, continuing to click takes you through the photographs to a list of people who were in the lab, and some current websites. A few links to lab alumni...(if you click on a link, it opens in a new tab. Press esc. to look at it, then return to the presentation tab.) Please send corrections, additions. Mike Woodruff http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21920434 http://www.neurobio.ucla.edu/~edirksen/woodruff.htm Arthur Polans http://www.ophth.wisc.edu/faculty/aspolans Phyllis Robinson http://umbc.edu/biosci/general/user/probinso Satoru Kawamura http://www.bio.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp/en/dbs01/re-paper-temp.php?id=12 Ric Cote http://www.cote.unh.edu/ Heidi Hamm http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=hammlab Vadim Arshavsky http://www.duke.edu/~arsha001/ Mark Keller http://www.biochem.wisc.edu/newsletters/2010/attie.aspx Vadim Klenchin http://www.biochem.wisc.edu/faculty/rayment/lab/default.aspx Grant Nicol http://www.indiana.edu/~alldrp/members/nicol.html Peter Calvert http://upstate.edu/research/pillars/pillar_nervous.php?empID=calvertp Brad Binder http://www.bio.utk.edu/binderlab/ Deric Bownds http://mindblog.dericbownds.net http://dericbownds.net Reunion pictures can be found at http://tinyurl.com/7y3r9m9See the full transcript