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Scaffolding:

Scaffolding for Student Success
by Dabareh Vowell on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Scaffolding:

Step One
Step Four

Use visual aids
"
Graphic organizers, pictures, and charts
can all serve as scaffolding tools. Graphic organizers are very specific in that they help students visually represent their ideas, organize information, and grasp concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect.

"A graphic organizer shouldn't be The Product, but rather it's a
scaffolding tool
that helps guide and shape the student's thinking so that they can apply it.

"Some students can dive right into the discussion, or writing an essay, or synthesizing several different hypotheses without using a graphic organizer of some sort, but many of our students benefit from using them with a difficult reading or challenging new
information.

Think of graphic organizers as
training wheels
; they are
temporary and meant to be removed."
Step Three

Take time to save time
Take time
to go over assignments and projects thoroughly - it will improve student performance and save you time later.

Use a
think-pair strategy
to allow students to discuss questions and clarify information
What is Scaffolding?
It is:
breaking up tasks or learning into chunks
providing a tool or structure for each chunk
Step Two

Tap into prior knowledge
Ask students to share how they would approach an assignment based on their
experience

Ask students to
determine areas
where they may be confused or need help

Have them make
a list
of what they know already about the project and what they might need to know
Scaffolding:
Building Student Success

The opposite of scaffolding....
Read the chapter and write a five-page paper on the three main concepts, citing at least 10 sources.
Even in higher ed...students need
connection to the targeted learning
outcomes
necessary
background information
description
of the tasks/products students will complete
requirements
resources
to use
criteria
for grading
examples
of success
Prior what?
Test
background knowledge
by asking some questions to determine their understanding so far.

Test
misconceptions and preconceptions
with a short questionnaire pointing to common faulty knowledge.

Do a "one-minute paper" to determine

student understanding
of the
concept, assignment, or
process.
Communicating clear expectations
Use class time to answer questions about your expectations and have students write “The five most important things I need to focus on to complete this assignment are ____.”

Share in pairs for a minute and then report out.

Work on making criteria increasingly objective, linking a score or grade to specific criteria like “Evidence exists for 90% of the above criteria and throughout 90% of the project,” or “No more than 3 to 4 errors (in grammar, passive verbs, sentences with unneeded words; and/or sentence structure) were found in the work.”

Show and Tell
Discuss/provide a
finished product
for an example (yes, best practice even in college)

Talk through the process
as if you were going to do the project

Provide a "
step-by-step" list
of steps
The University of Texas at Austin
https://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching/assessment/effective_assignments
DePaul University, Teaching Commons
http://teachingcommons.depaul.edu/Classroom_Activities/priorknowledge.html
Adapted from Idea Education
http://www.theideacenter.org/research-and-papers/pod-idea-notes-instruction/idea-item-7-explaining-reasons-for-criticisms
De Montfort University
http://www.library.dmu.ac.uk/Images/HEAT/HEAT_Stage1.pdf
Edutopia, Six Scaffolding Strategies to Use with Your Students
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber
Finally....
Want more info?
Northern Illinois University
Instructional Scaffolding to Improve Learning
http://www.niu.edu/spectrum/2008/fall/scaffolding.shtml

Tomorrow's Professor
Supporting Student Success Through Scaffolding
http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/cgi-bin/tomprof/posting.php?ID=849

Huntington University

Anatomy of a Lesson Plan
http://www.huntington.edu/Education/Instructional-Scaffolding-Bruner/

American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Instructional Scaffolding to Improve Students’ Skills in Evaluating Clinical Literature
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138344/

Social Science Research Network
Examples of Scaffolding and Chunking in Online and Blended
Learning Environments
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1608133



Explain
Pause
Ask questions
Pause
Review
Pause
TO REVIEW!

Scaffolding

Provides clear direction and reduces students’ confusion – Educators anticipate problems that students might encounter and then develop step by step instructions, which explain what a student must do to meet expectations.

Clarifies purpose – Scaffolding helps students understand why they are doing the work and why it is important.

Keeps students on task – By providing structure, the scaffolded lesson provides pathways for the learners. The student can make decisions about which path to choose or what things to explore along the path but they cannot wander off of the path, which is the designated task.

Clarifies expectations and incorporates assessment and feedback – Expectations are clear from the beginning of the activity.

Points students to worthy sources – Educators provide sources to reduce confusion, frustration, and time. The students may then decide which of these sources to use.

Reduces uncertainty, surprise, and disappointment – Educators review their lessons to determine possible problem areas and then make adjustments to provide the needed scaffolding.

Teaching-Learning Toolkit: Equipped for the Future
http://eff.cls.utk.edu/toolkit/support_scaffolding.htm (quote)
Scaffolding can also be giving assignments that "build" into a bigger assignment.
For instance, before writing a five-page paper, students will submit a one-page plan, a table of contents, an outline, a list of resources,then write the paper.
Steps from:
Edutopia: Six Scaffolding Strategies to Use with Your Students
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber
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