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Leveraging Social Media in Education

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by Kelley Cotter on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Leveraging Social Media in Education

Stats, Stats and more Stats
Personal Learning Environments
Social Media in Education
The evolving learning environment...
...learners and the learning environment are changing.
Millennials & Generation Z
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
43% of teens found it "easiest to learn from the Internet"
38% of teens preferred a combination of the Internet and books
16% of teens preferred books alone (Sulake, 2010)
62% of online teens go online for news and political information (Lenhart, et. al., 2010, p.3)
“31% of online teens get health, dieting or physical fitness information from the internet.

17% of online teens use the internet to gather information about health topics that are hard to discuss with others such as drug use and sexual health topics” (Lenhart, et. al., 2010, p.4)
63% of teen Internet users go online every day
36% of teens go online several times a day
27% go online about once a day” (Lenhart, et. al., 2010, p.7)
55% of millennials access the Internet via a cell phone or a handheld device (Lenhart, et. al, 2010, p. 15)
55% of millennial social networking users visit the site they use most often at least once a day (Pew Research Center, 2010, p. 28)
"33% of internet users under the age of 30 post or read status updates online" (Lenhart, 2010, p. 21).
Web-based services where users can...
Construct a profile
Specify other users and/or groups of users with whom they share a connection (Boyd & Ellison, 2007)
Share information
What is Social Media?
Information:
Communication that carries facts or ideas, e.g. text, video, images, etc.
Learning as a transaction
vs.
Learning as a process
Learners receive knowledge
vs.
Learners create knowledge
“Our intelligence is based on our individual abilities”
vs.
“Our intelligence is based on our learning communities”
Collective Intelligence:
"knowledge and understanding that emerges from large groups of people" (EDUCAUSE & The New Media Consortium, 2008, p. 4)
"In the coming years, we will see educational applications for both
explicit

collective intelligence
—evidenced in projects like the Wikipedia and in community tagging—and
implicit collective intelligence
, or data gathered from the repeated activities of numbers of people, including search patterns, cell phone locations over time, geocoded digital photographs, and other data that are passively obtained" (EDUCAUSE & The New Media Consortium, 2008, p. 4)
Formal learning:
"Institutionally sponsored or highly structured, i.e., learning that happens in courses, classrooms, and schools, resulting in learners receiving grades, degrees, diplomas, and certificates" (Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4)


Informal learning:
"Learning that rests primarily in the hands of the learner and happens through observation, trial and error, asking for help, conversing with others, listening to stories, reflecting on a day's events, or stimulated by general interests” (Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4)
"Individuals tend to learn better when they
discover
concepts by themselves than when they are taught. Therefore, learning is better accomplished by engaging students in the continuous process of
constructing

knowledge
through acquiring, generating, analyzing, manipulating, and structuring information” (Du & Wagner, 2007, p. 3).
(Rainie, 2011)
(Rainie, 2011)
(Rainie, 2011)
"Learning in the context of social media has become highly
self-motivated
,
autonomous
,
and
informal
"
(Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 3)
Personal Learning Environment:
An individual student's constructed system or framework of tools, communities, and services that reflect his/her learning and educational goals (Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4).
(Stein, 2008)
PLEs are...
A technological AND pedagogical approach
Social media-centric
Community-based
Interactive
Self-directed, personalized
Dynamic, adaptive
(Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4)
(Lenhart, et al., 2010)

http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx
"It is a time, not just to teach learners how to select a topic and find information; it is a way of thoughtfully confronting the world of information and technology to experience what powerful learning really looks like, feels like, and propels us to really know and deeply understand."
Source: http://www.flowtown.com/blog/the-2010-social-networking-map
Twitter
"Twitter is a real-time information network that connects you to the latest information about what you find interesting" (Twitter, 2012).
Subscribers of my tweets
Users I subscribe to
One-way connections
140 characters only!
Best Practices
1. Encourage students to ask questions about the course, the course material, relevant topics, etc.
Best Practices
2. Share (and encourage students to share) relevant material such as blog posts, news articles, photos, videos, etc.
Best Practices
3. Ask students to use Twitter as a logbook and/or forum for discussing class assignments
Best Practices
4. Continue class discussions and/or initiate discussion of assigned reading utilizing appropriate hashtags
Best Practices
5. Communicate (and encourage students to communicate) with experts/scholars in relevant fields
Best Practices
Bonus +
Best Practices
1. Live-tweet (backchannel) events and/or class sessions with a relevant hashtag
Best Practices
2. Poll the class
http://twtpoll.com (free for up to 400 votes, then paid)
Best Practices
3. Exercises in rhetoric
Examples:
Students summarize a class session on Twitter in under 140 characters
Students create a dialogue or narrative from the point of view of historical or public figures about a key issue addressed in class
Blogs
Personal, web-based journals
Blogs in Education
"The individual ownership inherent in blogs render[s] a sense of autonomy, control, and a more open, free, and informal form of expressions" (Deng & Yuen, 2011, p. 449).
Best Practices
(See: Twitter.)
1. Ask students to reflect on course material and discussions in blogs
2. Share (and encourage students to share) relevant material such as other blog posts, news articles, photos, videos, etc.
3. Ask students to use blogs as a logbook for assignments
4. Comment on student blogs (virtually and in class) and ask students to comment on each other's blogs
Bonus +
2. Ask students to use blogs to create ePortfolios
1. Ask students to customize their blogs' appearance
3. Use Twitter and RSS feeds to circulate new posts
Wikis
Image Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mastrobiggo/
Web-authoring sites that allow multiple users to collaboratively add and edit content without advanced technical knowledge.
Wikis in Education
Studies have found that students and instructors think the integration of wikis in a course facilitated and/or improved the educational experience
Wikis
Web-authoring sites that allow multiple users to add and edit content without advanced technical knowledge.
"Access restrictions, rigidly defined workflows, and structures are anathema to most wiki developers. What’s unique about wikis is that users define for themselves how their processes and groups will develop, usually by making things up as they go along" (Lamb, 2004, p.38).
Wikis in Education
Best Practices
1. Aggregate and organize relevant resources including syllabi, assignment descriptions, class notes, etc. and ask students to also contribute content
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practice
Best Practices
Best Practices
2. Ask students to use wikis as a space for collaboration and/or group work
Best Practices
4. Create a knowledge-base for the course by assigning small groups a different course theme/topic to explore and report on in one central wiki
Best Practices
1. Ask students to use a wiki as the medium to critically explore a topic (in lieu of an essay or presentation)
Best Practices
3. Post course materials and/or relevant content in a wiki with space for students to discuss
Best Practices
Bonus +
2. Use one central wiki as a repository for assignments
Best Practices
3. Ask students to use wikis to create ePortfolios
Best Practices
Facebook
A social network that allows users "to stay connected with friends and family, to discover what’s going on in the world, and to share and express what matters to them" (Facebook, 2012).
"Facebook presents students with choices about how to use technology in creative and useful ways while avoiding the pitfalls. Even as a purely social activity, Facebook has the potential to teach students about appropriate citizenship in the online world" (EDUCAUSE & The New Media Consortium, 2006, p.2).
Facebook in Education
Best Practices
1. Use Facebook "Groups" to create a virtual space for the class
Best Practices
2. Utilize and encourage students to utilize Facebook "Lists" in order to manage levels of privacy
Best Practices
3. Use and encourage students to use Facebook "Events" to post relevant events and activities
Best Practices
4. Share (and encourage students to share) relevant material on the group "wall," such as blog posts, news articles, photos, videos, etc.
Best Practices
5. Encourage students to ask questions about the course, the course material, relevant topics, etc.
Best Practices
6. Continue class discussions and/or initiate discussion of assigned reading
Best Practices
Bonus +
1. Use Facebook's Ask a Question feature to poll students
Best Practices
2. Hold office hours via Facebook chat
Best Practices
3. Ask students to turn in assignments on Facebook
Best Practices
4. "Friend" students and encourage students to "friend" each other (with appropriate privacy settings in place)
Best Practices
Best Practices
4. Create a Twitter List of experts, scholars, or notable professionals in relevant fields for students to follow
Strengths
1. Engagement
"The time and effort students invest in educational activities that are empirically linked to desired college outcomes" (Junco, et.al., 2010, p. 120)
Increased enjoyment via a novel, creative, informal learning environment

Greater opportunity for self-directed learning

Increased peer-to-peer and student-to-instructor interaction

Increased reflection
2. Communication
Multiple modes of communication
Just-in-time communication

Prompt (or virtually instanteous) feedback

Lowered barriers to interaction
(Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 30; Junco, et.al., 2011, p. 128)
(McCarthy, 2010, p. 732; Minocha, 2009, p. 31)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 29; Attwell, 2007, p. 4; (Tay & Allen, 2011, p. 155)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 30; EDUCAUSE, 2009, p.2)
(Rinaldo, et.al., 2011, p. 195; Junco, et.al., 2011, p. 126; Junco, 2012, p.163)
(Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 5)
3. Community
Social presence

Reduction of feelings of isolation

Increased opportunity for cooperation and communication

Putting names to faces
(Minocha, 2008, p. 29; Junco, et.al., 2011, p. 128)
(Junco, et.al., 2011, p. 128)
(Loving & Ochoa, 2011, p. 128)
(Rinaldo, et.al., 2011, p. 194)
4. Collaboration
Accomodation of diverse schedules and locations

Facilitated sharing

Increased discussion and feedback

Lowered barriers to interaction
(Minocha, 2009, p. 29)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 30; Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 6)
(McCarthy, 2010, p. 732; Minocha, 2009, p. 31)
5. Personalization
Flexible, adaptive environment

Better understanding of students' needs and preferences
(Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 28-29; Elavsky, et al., 2011, p.221)
6. Empowerment
Sense of control and ownership

Sense of achievement
(Minocha, 2009, p. 30)
Best Practices
5. Use HootSuite (or similar platform) to schedule tweets
(Minocha, 2009, p. 30)
7. Employability/Transferable Skills
Development of new literacies and skills valued in the professional world

Documentation of work

Professional networking

Adoption of professional online ettiquette
(CLEX, 2009, p. 8-9; Minocha, 2009, p. 25; Preston, 2012)
(Atwell, 2007, p. 3)
(Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009).
(Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009).
Caveats
2. Time Commitment
Planning

Technological instruction & support

Consistent, ongoing posts & discussions
(Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 5; Minocha, 2009, p. 34, 47)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 47)
(Tay & Allen, 2011, p.152)
1. Novelty
Scarcity of formal guidance

Institutional resistance
(Cunnane, 2010; Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012, p. 4)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 47)
3. Student Comfort
Varying levels of technical aptitude


Social concerns

General aversion to Social Media
(Lenhart, et.al, 2011, p.3; Minocha, 2009, p. 34)
(EDUCAUSE, 2007, p.2; Lazda-Cazers, 2010, p. 209; McCarthy, 2010, p. 731)
4. Giving Control to Students
Instructor becomes facilitator

Unconstrained peer-to-peer interactions

Students' lack of self-direction, self-reflection
(Minocha, 2009, p. 34)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 47; Lazda-Cazers, 2010, p. 201)
(Tay & Allen, 2011, p. 155)
(EDUCAUSE, 2007, p. 2)
5. Privacy/Security
Private is not private


Personal and academic boundaries
(Krishnamurthy & Wills, 2009; Rinaldo, et. al., 2011, p. 202; Minocha, 2009, p. 35)
(Minocha, 2009, p. 36; Junco, 2012, p. 163)
6. Information Literacy
Authority

Utilizing information

Filter Bubble
(EDUCAUSE, 2007, p.4; CLEX, 2009, p. 6)
(EDUCAUSE, 2007, p. 2; CLEX, 2009, p. 6)
(Singer, 2011)
“It is important that new technologies are integrated into learning and teaching only when driven by pedagogy, rather than technology for technology’s sake” (McCarthy, 2010, p.732)
(Lenhart, et al., 2010)

http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx
(Loertscher, 2011, p.22)
To view the presentation on YouTube and a list of references, click here:
http://kelleycotter.com/scholarship/smeducation
See the full transcript