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PIAAC Conference Washington

Andreas Schleicher, November 2013
by Andreas Schleicher on 9 November 2013

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Transcript of PIAAC Conference Washington

We know that...
A strategic approach
Better skills,
better jobs,
better lives

but skills don't automatically translate into better outcomes
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr

because skills have an increasing impact on labour market outcomes and social participation


because failure to ensure a good skills match has both short- term consequences (skills shortages) and longer-term effects on economic growth and equality of opportunities

Understanding what knowledge and skills drive economic and social outcomes
Effective skills systems build on effective partnerships with key stakeholders to find sustainable approaches to who should do and pay for what, when and where
Learning the right mix of skills in effective, equitable and efficient ways
Economies and labour-markets fully utilize their skill potential

Success with converting skills into jobs and growth depends on whether...
The Skills Strategy helps countries figure out how differnt
policies interact and helps countries optimise and align them
No one-size-fits all solutions
Redistribution of investments in skills over the lifecycle
Market-oriented, social-partner-led, state-led partnerships, developmental skills system
Ageing socieities vs. developing econmies with large youth populations
Getting the best returns on investment in skills requires the capacity to assess the quality and quantity of the skills available in the population, determine and anticipate the skills required in the labour market, and develop and deploy available skills in the most effective and equitable ways over the lifecycle of people. It also requires strong governance arrangements and sustainable approaches to who should pay for what, when and how, particularly for learning beyond school.
Improve the stock of skills
Understanding changing
demand for skills
Improving quality and equity
of education and training
Sharing costs fairly among
governments, individuals and employers
Involving employers in designing curricula and delivering education programmes
Involving trade unions in providing on-the-job training
Facilitating entry for skilled migrants
Investing in skills abroad and encourage cross-border higher education
Making it easier for international students to remain in the country
Putting Skills to Work
Identifying inactive individuals
and why they are inactive
Creating incentives
that make it pay to work
Dismantling non-financial barriers
to participation in the labour force
Helping people work longer
Limiting 'brain drain'
Using skills where they can
make most of a difference
Helping employers to make
better use of their employees’ skills
Provide better information about the skills needed and available
Make skills
more transparent
Help young people gain a foothold in the labour market
Facilitate internal mobility
Create more high value-added jobs
Help local economies to move up the value chain
Foster entrepreneurship
Fostering demand-sensitive and relevant learning involving employers
Fostering lifelong skills-oriented learning instead of qualifications-focused education upfront in life course
By seeing skills as a tool to be honed over an individual’s lifetime, a strategic approach allows countries to assess the impact of different kinds of learning – from early childhood education through formal schooling to formal and informal learning throughout a lifetime – with the aim of balancing the allocation of resources to maximise economic and social outcomes.
Prioritising investments
Combining short-term and long-term considerations
A whole-of-government approach
Aligning perspectives of different levels of government and multiple stakeholders
A lifecycle perspective
It is costly to develop a population’s skills, so skills policies need to be designed so that these investments reap the greatest economic and social benefits
Effective skills policies are needed to respond to structural and cyclical challenges, such as rising unemployment when economies contract or acute skills shortages when sectors boom, and to ensure longer-term strategic planning for the skills that are needed to foster a competitive edge and support required structural changes.
Skills policies straddle a broad range of policy fields, including education, science and technology, employment and social policies. In addition, there are links to many other policy fields such as economic development, migration and integration, or public finance. Aligning policies among these diverse fields helps to avoid duplication of efforts and ensure efficiency. It also helps policy makers to identify policy trade-offs that may be required.
With major geographical variations in the supply of and the demand for skills within countries, there is a strong rationale for considering skills policies at the local level. This would help countries to align national aspirations with local needs.
Governance between government-led and market-oriented skills systems
Spending time in education is one thing; learning is another. Education and training institutions need to be governed by a clear quality-assurance framework that serves both accountability and improvement purposes. Workplace training should also be subject to quality control, in the form of contractual arrangements, inspections and self-evaluations
Employers can have to create a climate that supports learning, and invest in learning, and individuals must be willing to develop their skills throughout their working life. Governments can design financial incentives and favourable tax policies that encourage individuals and employers to invest in post-compulsory education and training
Compared to purely government-designed curricula taught in exclusively school-based systems, learning in the workplace offers important advantages
While skills policies are typically designed nationally, an increasing number of employers operate internationally and must derive their skills from both local sources and a global talent pool. Some countries have therefore started to consider skills policies beyond their national borders and have begun to invest in the skills of people in other countries.
Targeting activation policies efficiently requires identifying inactive individuals and their reasons for inactivity
Costly childcare services, tax systems that make work economically unattractive, or benefit systems that offer better compensation compared with expected salaries can make it uneconomical to work
Inflexible working conditions can make it difficult for people with care obligations and individuals with disabilities to participate in the labour force. Less rigid working-time arrangements and improved working conditions, particularly for workers with health problems, can also make employment more attractive to these traditionally inactive groups.
In the case of under-skilling, public policies can help to identify workers with low levels of foundation skills and offer an incentive to both employees and employers to invest in skills development to meet the requirements of the job. When the skills available aren’t adequately used, better management practices are needed. As workers assume more responsibility for identifying and tackling problems, they are also more likely to ‘learn by doing’, which in turn can spark innovation.
Quality career guidance becomes a critical part of any skills strategy. Coherent and easy-to-interpret qualifications can help employers to understand which skills are held by potential employees, making it easier to match a prospective employee to a job. Continuous certification that incorporates non-formal and informal learning over the working life is also essential, as is recognition of foreign diplomas.
Reducing costs and other barriers associated with internal mobility helps employees to find suitable jobs and helps employers to find suitable workers
Government programmes can influence both employer competitiveness strategies (how a company organises its work to gain competitive advantage in the markets in which it is operating) and product-market strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes.
Government programmes can influence both employer competitiveness strategies (how a company organises its work to gain competitive advantage in the markets in which it is operating) and product-market strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes.
Long-term
Medium-term
Short-term
...Skills change lives...
...and drive economies
Sectoral composition of economies
Better skills,
better jobs,
better lives
Greater transparency of returns
Information and guidance for potential learners
Recognising learning outcomes
Flexible delivery that allows learners to decide what to learn when and how
Career Services (CS) (New Zealand)
Advanced data systems (Australia)
My Skills, My Future (US)
O*NET (US)
Regional knowledge centres for immigrants (Denmark)
Training programmes for highly qualified refugees (Netherlands)
European Qualifications Framework (EQF)
European Credit System for VET (ECVET)
Europass
Investors in People (UK)
Employer Ownership of Skills (UK)
Growth and Innovation Fund (UK)
Silicon Valley (US)
'Better, not cheaper' (Germany)
Riviera del Brenta (Italy)
Centre for entrepreneurs (Germany)
Ethnic Minority Business Service (UK)
Washington, 14 November 2013
Andreas Schleicher

Living in the world
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
Citizenship
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
Living in the world
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
Citizenship
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
The knowledge economy does not pay you for what you know but for what you can do with what you know
Skills are
everybody's business
Living in the world
Citizenship
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
www.oecd.org/education
www.oecd.org/site/piaac
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
SchleicherEDU
Performance in PISA 2009 (average reading, mathematics and science scores)
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