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OLDS MOOC introduction
by Yishay Mor on 19 August 2013

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Transcript of OLDS MOOC introduction

Learning Design for a
21st Century Curriculum
A Massive Open Online Course
10th January to 13th March 2013
The bigger picture:
What's the purpose of education?
What does a university in a digital age look like? What ideological and theoretical frameworks should we be promoting and developing capacity in? From this, what should the resultant learning environment look like - institutionally owned, managed, and centrally quality assured or cloud-based, disruptive, personalised, student owned/managed, QA devolved and further risk managed. What is the role of technology in meeting KPIs around recruitment, transition, retention, progression and achievement, network development, alumni management.

What difference does the fees hike mean in practice. Will anything change? How can technology help to add value?

In what ways can the different funding bodies, agencies (including JISC), PRSBs, etc help to support institutions to develop the bigger picture?
hundred years ago, higher education seemed on the verge of a technological revolution. The spread of a powerful new communication network—the modern postal system—had made it possible for universities to distribute their lessons beyond the bounds of their campuses. Anyone with a mailbox could enroll in a class. Frederick Jackson Turner, the famed University of Wisconsin historian, wrote that the “machinery” of distance learning would carry “irrigating streams of education into the arid regions” of the country. Sensing a historic opportunity to reach new students and garner new revenues, schools rushed to set up correspondence divisions. By the 1920s, postal courses had become a full-blown mania. Four times as many people were taking them as were enrolled in all the nation’s colleges and universities combined.
The average price tag for a bachelor’s degree has shot up to more than $100,000. Spending four years on campus often leaves young people or their parents weighed down with big debts, a burden not only on their personal finances but on the overall economy. And many people worry that even as the cost of higher education has risen, its quality has fallen. Dropout rates are often high, particularly at public colleges, and many graduates display little evidence that college improved their critical-thinking skills. Close to 60 percent of Americans believe that the country’s colleges and universities are failing to provide students with “good value for the money they and their families spend,” according to a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center.
Now answer this one: what’s been the single biggest innovation in education?
Don’t worry if you come up blank. You’re supposed to. The question is a gambit used by Anant Agarwal, the computer scientist named this year to head edX, a $60 million MIT-Harvard effort to stream a college education over the Web, free, to anyone who wants one. His point: it’s rare to see major technological advances in how people learn.
The current crisis of the university is intellectual. It is a crisis of purpose, focus and content, rooted in fundamental confusion about all three. As a consequence, curricula are largely separate from research, subjects are taught in disciplinary isolation, knowledge is conflated with information and is more often than not presented as static rather than dynamic. Furthermore, universities are largely reactive rather than providing clear forward-looking visions and critical perspectives. The crisis is all the more visible today, as the pace of social, intellectual and technological change inside and outside the universities is increasingly out of step.
“while the world of higher education is in turmoil, the responsible actors look almost exclusively at issues of structure, budgets, evaluation, assessment and accountability, at the expense of the equally important cluster of problems connected with curricula and the contents taught by our universities at the beginning of the 21st century.

The most jarring neglect is the education of students to become 'concerned citizens', in the moral, but even in the more narrow cognitive sense.

The question of what is the objective of European universities in the 21st century was only addressed by the unfortunate phrase - systematically misinterpreted - that the desired result of undergraduate education is 'employability'.

a lot of what is happening today under the name of e-learning reminds us of the early TV programs that were essentially radio with pictures.

no government with aging populations and mounting pension and health care liabilities will be able to maintain and adequately fund the kind of higher education systems we know today

Procuring information today has become very easy. Therefore the university, with its big lecture halls, planned as the venue where information would be imparted to students in the sense of filling an empty vessel is becoming obsolete. The new task of the university and its faculty will be to teach how to collect, select, organize and criticize information thus turning it into knowledge.”

Elkana, Y. & Klöpper, H. (forthcoming), the university in the 21st century: teaching the new enlightenment at the dawn of the digital age.
Procuring information today has become very easy. Therefore the university, with its big lecture halls, planned as the venue where information would be imparted to students in the sense of filling an empty vessel is becoming obsolete. The new task of the university and its faculty will be to teach how to collect, select, organize and criticize information thus turning it into knowledge.”

Elkana, Y. & Klöpper, H. (forthcoming), the university in the 21st century: teaching the new enlightenment at the dawn of the digital age.
A Question of Design
everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones

(Simon, 1969)
What are the big ideas that are likely to transform higher education over the next few years? Are Edx and Coursera the betamax versions of the University or are we just sitting on the beach sipping mai tais and waiting for a tsunami to arrive? What are the new business models that we should be moving towards?

Discipline specialists or well rounded students? What attributes should universities really be helping to develop and what role should technology play?
maps: @MindfulMaps images: @andybroomfield
Disrupting Ourselves: The Problem of Learning in Higher Education / Randall Bass
We might say that the formal curriculum is being pressured from two sides. On the one side is a growing body of data about the power of experiential learning in the cocurriculum; and on the other side is the world of informal learning and the participatory culture of the Internet. Both of those pressures are reframing what we think of as the formal curriculum. These pressures are disruptive because to this point we have funded and structured our institutions as if the formal curriculum were the center of learning, whereas we have supported the experiential co-curriculum (and a handful of anomalous courses, such as first-year seminars) largely on the margins, even as they often serve as the poster children for the institutions’ sense of mission, values, and brand. All of us in higher education need to ask ourselves: Can we continue to operate on the assumption that the formal curriculum is the center of the undergraduate experience?
When I was young, the word design (imported to French from English) meant no more than what we now call “relooking” in French (a good English word that, unfortunately, does not exist in English). To “relook” means to give a new and better “look” or shape to something – a chair, a knife, a car, a package, a lamp, an interior – which would otherwise remain too clumsy, too severe or too bared if it were left only to its naked function. “Design” in this old and limited meaning was a way to redress the efficient but somewhat boring emphasis of engineers and commercial staff.
If it is true as I have claimed that we have never been modern, and if it is true, as a consequence, that “matters of fact” have now clearly become “matters of concern”, then there is logic to the following observation: the typically modernist divide between materiality on the one hand and design on the other is slowly being dissolved away.
Latour: A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design (With Special Attention to Peter Sloterdijk)
Objects with intent
Bad design is.. just letting things happen.

John Hockenberry (
Conversation with the materials of a situation

Donald Schon
a mutual learning process between users and designers

Pascal Béguin
The more objects are turned into things – that is, the more matters of facts are turned into matters of concern – the more they are rendered into objects of design through and through.
The new task of the university and its faculty will be to teach how to collect, select, organize and criticize information thus turning it into knowledge.”

Elkana, Y. & Klöpper, H. (forthcoming)
Education: Craft or Design?
Making good stuff.
Making stuff
Turn information into knowledge
Shaping learning
Learning design
Learning Design:
"devising new practices, plans of activity, resources and tools aimed at achieving particular educational aims in a given situation."
Mor, Y. & Craft, B. (2012), 'Learning Design: reflections on a snapshot of the current landscape ', Research in Learning Technology.
A brief history of learning design
This term, coined more than a decade ago
, refers to research and development dedicated to the quest of equipping teachers with tools and strategies to aid their design of high-quality learning environments.
Its origin stems from
two lines of inquiry
(1) how to represent teaching practice from a technical perspective in the development and delivery of online learning environments
, and
(2) how to represent teaching practice in an appropriate form to enable teachers to share ideas about innovative online pedagogy and think about the process of design
. The underlying premise of learning design is the notion that, if effective teaching and learning practice can be represented in a systematic way, this could then support the process of reuse, which could ultimately lead to improved practice.
Agostinho, S.; Bennett, S.; Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. (2011), 'The future of learning design', Learning, Media and Technology 36 (2) , 97-99
A 'learning design' is defined as the description of the teaching-learning process that takes place in a unit of learning (eg, a course, a lesson or any other designed learning event).
The IMS Learning Design
specification aims to represent the learning design of units of learning in a semantic, formal and machine interpretable way.
Koper, R. (2006), 'Current Research in Learning Design', Educational Technology & Society 9 (1) , 13-22.
A methodology for enabling teachers / designers to make more informed decisions in how they go about designing learning activities and interventions, which is pedagogically informed and makes effective use of appropriate resources and technologies.
Conole, G. (Forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world. New York, Springer.

Instructional Design
instructional design system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion.
Gustafson, K. & Branch, R. (2002), 'What is instructional design', Trends and issues in instructional design and technology , 16--25 .
Educational Design Research
Mor, Yishay (2010). Embedding design patterns in a methodology for a design science of e-Learning. In: Kohls, Christian and Wedekind, Joachim eds. Problems Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI, pp. 107–134.
Design-based research is a methodology for the study of function. Often referred to as design research or design experiments, it is concerned with the design of learning processes, taking account of the involved complexities, multiple levels and contexts of educational settings. The primary aim is to develop domain-specific theories in order to understand the learning process.
Mor, Yishay and Winters, Niall (2007). Design approaches in technology enhanced learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(1), pp. 61–75.
Learning by Design
Kolodner, J. L.; Camp, P. J.; Crismond, D.; Fasse, B.; Gray, J.; Holbrook, J.; Puntambekar, S. & Ryan, M. (2003), 'Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning in the middle-school science classroom: Putting learning by design™ into practice', Journal of the Learning Sciences 12 (4) , 495--547 .
Teachers as Designers
Voogt, J.; Westbroek, H.; Handelzalts, A.; Walraven, A.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J. & de Vries, B. (2011), 'Teacher learning in collaborative curriculum design', Teaching and Teacher Education 27 (8) , 1235 - 1244

Kali, Y. & Ronen-Fuhrmann, T. (2011), 'Teaching to design educational technologies', International Journal of Learning Technology 6 (1) , 4-23
Teaching as a Design Science
Laurillard, D. (2012), Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. , Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group .
"..the natural sciences are concerned with how things are.. Design Science .. is concerned with how things should be" (Simon, 1969)
Local theories
Metic reasoning
Ecology of Resources
Epistemic practice
Pedagogic practice
Learning as confluence
Design practices
Design patterns
Design principles
Designing representations
Representations of design
Design narratives
Learning Designer
Pedagogical Pattern Collector
The Learning Design Studio
CC BY NC SA Yishay Mor, the Open University, UK
CC BY NC SA: H817 ( ), the Open University, UK
CC BY NC SA: H817 ( ), the Open University, UK
CC BY NC SA: H817 ( ), the Open University, UK
CC BY NC SA: H817 ( ), the Open University, UK
CC BY NC SA: H817 ( ), the Open University, UK
Clear decisions drive the rest of evaluation planning.
Evaluation questions emerge from decisions.
Methods emerge from questions.
Planning is the key!
We must make decisions about how we go about designing and using learning resources.
Information from evaluation is a better basis for decision-making than habit, intuition, superstition, politics, prejudice, or just plain ignorance.
Decision-Making and Evaluation
Plan up front.
Align anticipated decisions with evaluation questions.
Use multiple criteria and multiple data collection methods.
Three core starting points.
Evaluation should be a key driver of the entire Learning Design process.
Prepare an evaluation plan for your learning design developed during the first six weeks of the OLDS MOOC.
Implement two evaluation strategies based on your plan.
Analyze the results of the evaluation.
Use the results to improve your learning design.
Week 7 Activities
Tom Reeves
University of Georgia
Yishay Mor
Open University
Overview of
Week 7: Evaluate
Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas
Educational practice as a
A design inquiry of learning
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