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by niketch alibogha on 9 October 2013

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is a scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions.
Macro-level theories- approaches to sociology that focus primarily on society and/or other large social units.

STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISTS- usually more optimistic and view society as a system of differentiated, interrelated elements that tend to move towards stability.
CONFLICT THEORISTS- more pessimistic and view society as full of confliting elements that can play a role in social change and even upheaval.

Micro-level theories- deal with individual interactions within smaller social units.
- is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group.
•Picking up a southern American accent within a day or two
•Sushi becoming popular in the West
•The granddaughter of a Chinese immigrant has gone to American schools and will now attend an American college. She spends time primarily with her American friends, dresses as they do and shares their values and interests. She has become highly acculturated into American culture.
-is the sum total of ideas, beliefs, values, material cultural equipments and non-material aspects which man makes a member of society. (E.B. Taylor 1860s)
-Culture can be conceived as a continuous, cumulative reservoir containing both material and non-material elements that are socially transmitted from generation to generation.
Material Culture- consists of all the physical objects people have borrowed, discovered, or invented and to which they have attached meaning. (natural resources, trees, plants)

Non-material culture- consists of intangible creations or things that we cannot identify directly through the senses. (e.g. beliefs, values, norms, folkways, and mores)
•Beliefs- first component of nonmaterial culture is beliefs, conceptions that people accept as true, concerning how the world operates and where the individual fits in relationship with others. Can be rooted in blind faith, experience, tradition or the scientific method.
•Values- represent society’s stipulations about what is acceptable in life.
•Norms- standards of behaviour governing social situations that are established by a society’s values.
1.Folkways- customary patterns of everyday life that specify what is socially correct and proper in everyday life.
2.Mores- Norms that are tied to a society’s core values and to which people must adhere. Unlike folkways, they are seen as forms of truth that all people should understand and follow.
3.Taboos- is a norm that society holds so strongly that violating it results in extreme disgust. Often times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society.
INCEST- sex between close relatives
4. Laws- norms that are enforced formally by a special organization.
-SANCTION - a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.
5. Language- system of symbols that have specific and arbitrary meaning in a given society.
1. ordered, systematic, and integrated
3.Weakly Bounded
5.Symbolic and is Found in Our behaviour
6.Fluid and is Changing
•- refers to attitude of certain group
from the habitual practices of the majority.
(e.g. new styles of dressing, language and other
practices of a group of people
which are different from other majority)
is any commonly known public belief
about a certain social group or a type of individual.
Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component, prejudice as the affective and discrimination as the behaviora
is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon.
There are both endogenous (internal to the society
concerned) and exogenous (external to the society)
factors influencing social change.
•Many people interact initially with the stereotype rather than with the true person.
-is the socioeconomic layering of society's
members according to property, power, and prestige.
is the lifelong process of learning how to become functioning, contributing members of society.
It is through this mechanism that the heritage and culture of a society can be passed on from generation to generation. This allows society to survive and even proliferate beyond the lifespan of individual members.
is an economic system that has upward and downward mobility,
is achievement-based, and allows social relations between the classes.
Industrialized nations tend to have open class systems
have been confined to their ancestral occupations, and
their social status has mostly been prescribed by birth.

Most closed class systems are found in less industrialized countries.

An example of a closed class system with limited social mobility is French society before the French Revolution.
Under the Ancien Régime, French society was
divided between the first estate (clergy), second estate (nobility), and third estate (commoners).

Members of each estate were likely to socialize only with others in the same group
The social status of a person that is given
from birth or assumed involuntarily later in life.
It is the social position one is born into and personal characteristics beyond one's control, such as race and gender.
A social status of a person that is acquired, such as being an Olympic athlete, being a criminal, or being a college professor. It is one's social standing that depends on personal accomplishments.
In an open class system, people are ranked by
achieved status
whereas in a closed class system, people are ranked by
ascribed status.
-Opportunity for movement in social class that
is attributable to changes in the social
structure of a society, rather than to
changes in an individual.
is to establish an orderly relationship between man and his surroundings.
- is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution.
is an individual’s adopting of attitude and behaviours of others because of pressure (real or imagined) to do so.
Example, a cheerleader who wants to do an original routine but goes along with the majority of the squad in voting to do a stolen routine exhibits conformity.
Conformity can be positive or negative.
happens when contradicting roles
for the same status are both tried to be attained. A teacher very friendly with her students but must grade them objectively can succumb to
role strain; although it is possible to maintain both role prescriptions, it can also lead to psychological stress
Relationships among members:
There is emphasis on the efficiency by which people accomplish their jobs.
It is unlikely that every member is aware of every other member.
The goal is to provide for the personal needs of the members.

is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method
of socioeconomic inquiry based upon a
materialist interpretation of historical
development, a dialectical
view of social change, and an analysis of
class-relations within society and their application
in the analysis and critique of the development
of capitalism.
The most valid criticism of Marxist’s model of society
is the overemphasis on the importance of economic
class to explain historical trends.
- By Max Weber; A bureaucracy is a system of organization noted for its size and complexity. Everything within a bureaucracy — responsibilities, jobs, and assignments — exists to achieve some goal.
economic resources;
political power,
social prestige
is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism.
Fascists seek to unify their nation through a totalitarian state
that seeks the mass mobilization of the national community,
relying on a vanguard party to initiate a revolution to organize
the nation on fascist principles.
It promotes regulated private enterprise and private property contingent whenever beneficial to the nation and state enterprise and state property where private enterprise and private property is unable to meet the nation's needs.
- An equal society, without social classes or class conflict, in which the means of production are the common property of all.
The social class of owners of the means of production in industrial societies, whose primary purpose is to make profits.
is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy. "Social ownership" may refer to cooperative enterprises,
common ownership, state ownership, or citizen ownership of equity.
are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
epinephrine and norepinephrine
involves reception of information not gained through the recognized
physical senses but sensed with the mind.
The term was adopted by Duke University psychologist J. B. Rhine.
ESP is also sometimes casually referred to as a sixth sense, gut instinct or hunch, intuition. The term implies acquisition of information by means external to the basic limiting assumptions of science, such as that organisms can only receive information from the past to the present.
1. CLAIRVOYANCE- is used to refer to the ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through means other than the known human senses, a form of extra-sensory perception.
2. TELEPATHY- is the transmission of information from one person to another without using any of our known sensory channels or physical interaction.
3. Psychokinesis/telekinesis- "distant-movement" with respect to strictly describing mental movement or motion of solid matter, is a term coined by publisher Henry Holt to refer to the direct influence of mind on a physical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy.
4. PRECOGNITION- precognition (from the Latin præ-, “before,” + cognitio, “acquiring knowledge”), also called future sight, and second sight, is a type of extrasensory perception that would involve the acquisition or effect of future information.
1.Conversion: the expression of an intrapsychic conflict as a physical symptom; some examples include blindness, deafness, paralysis, or numbness.
2. Denial: Refusal to accept external reality
3. Displacement: Defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening target; redirecting emotion to a safer outlet
4. Hypochondriasis: An excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness.
5. Isolation: Separation of feelings from ideas and events, for example, describing a murder with graphic details with no emotional response
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious wishes or impulses that are perceived to be dangerous into their opposites
7. Regression: Temporary reversion of the ego to an earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way.
8.Repression: The process of attempting to repel desires towards pleasurable instincts, caused by a threat of suffering if the desire is satisfied; the desire is moved to the unconscious in the attempt to prevent it from entering consciousness
9. Undoing: A person tries to 'undo' an unhealthy, destructive or otherwise threatening thought by acting out the reverse of unacceptable.
10. Withdrawal: Withdrawal is a more severe form of defence. It entails removing oneself from events, stimuli, interactions, etc. under the fear of being reminded of painful thoughts and feelings.
11. Identification: The unconscious modelling of one's self upon another person's character and behaviour.
12. Introjection: Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person.
13. Sublimation: Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions, behaviour, or emotion.
14.Thought suppression: The conscious process of pushing thoughts into the preconscious; the conscious decision to delay paying attention to an emotion or need in order to cope with the present reality
15.Somatization: The transformation of negative feelings towards others into negative feelings toward self, pain, illness, and anxiety.
1. Which of the following defines sociology?
A. a study that is concerned with discovering and organizing
facts, principles, and methods
B. a study of human groups, their customs and institutions,
and places
C. a study that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption
of wealth by human groups.
D. a study of human behavior, mental processes,
and personality
2. People can best show enculturation when they learn to

a. be refined
b. act as people
c. love one another
d. talk act, and think in acceptable ways
3. Proverbs often provide useful insights into a people's
a. value system
b. political processes
c. legal processes
d. value origins
4. Which of the following situations indicate an open-class society?
I. A member of the minority group becomes the president of a big business enterprise.
II. An outcast was put to death for trying to approach a member of the ruling class.
IV. A boy from the elite group marries the girl he loves from the working class.
A. I and III only
B. I and IV only
C. I, II and III only
D. II, III and IV only
5. Which of the following examples of social norms are folkways?
I. Going to the cemetery to visit the dead on All Saints' Day
II. Performing one's duties as head of the family
III. Showing compassion for unfortunates in society
IV. Santacruzan in May

A. I and IV only
B. I, II, and III only
C. II, III, and IV only
D. I, II, III and IV
6. Which of the following refer to patterns of beliefs that serve to guide, control, and regulate conduct?
A. values
B. norms
C. mores
D. folkways
7. Any human action which is considered sufficiently out of the ordinary so as to be regarded as unique or unprecedented is?
A. a deviant act
B. a diffusion
C. an innovation
D. an invention
8. The authority fostering belief in the competence of the individuals discharging statutory obligation is?
A. charismatic authority
B. traditional authority
C. legal authority
D. functional authority
9. Change in culture are said to be endogenous when they?
A. come from within the culture
B. come from outside of one's culture
C. do not affect the culture
D. drastically destabilize culture
10. Which of the following is considered the most valid criticism of Marxist's model of society?
A. polarization of society into two conflicting groups
B. emphasis on class dictatorship
C. overemphasis on the importance of economic class to explain historical trends
D. the forces that reduce the polarization of classes
11. All of the following are examples of a sanction EXCEPT:
A. slapping the palms of a bad boy
B. sentencing a murdered to death
C. confessing a crime to authorities
D. getting a failing mark for cheating in exams
13. Which of the following can be said of both comic books and da Vinci's art?
A. They both illustrate some facets of man's culture.
B. They show the contrast "cultured vs. uncultured."
C. They emphasize the absence of culture.
D. They are concerned with each one's quality.
14. When faced with a tragic situation, women are allowed to express their grief freely while men are expected to be quiet and stoic. This illustrates a:
A. norm
B. values
C. more
D. folkway
15. Ethnic minorities, adolescent gangs, religious groups, and exclusive clubs for the elite are examples of groups usually present in complex societies. They exhibit their own behavior which is tolerated by the greater society as long as they do not endanger societal values. these groups fall under a category called?
A. institution
B. kinship
C. subculture
D. community
16. According to Pepinsky, which of the following is the most effective form of social control among Chinese communists?
A. group manipulation of guilt and shame
B. surveillance system
C. party directives
D. written laws
17. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bureaucracy?
A. specialization
B. chain of command
C. informality and autonomy
D. merit appointment and job tenure
18. The primary function of religion in human societies is to
A. establish an orderly relationship between man and his surroundings
B. help people understand the existence of both good and evil
C. allay man's fears and anxieties over unexplainable phenomena
D. provide a way for man to be able to communicate with God
19. Which of the following is NOT true of the relationship among members of large secondary group?
A. Primary relations tend to persist in the form of intimate cliques
B. There is emphasis on the efficiency by which people accomplish their jobs.
C. It is unlikely that every members is aware of every other member.
D.The goal is to provide for the personal needs of the members.
20. Which of the following conditions is true under the fascist system?
A. Labor unions are independent and not under state influence.
B. Private ownership of business by individuals is permitted.
C. Business is owned by the government but leased to private individuals.
D. The government owns and runs all businesses.
1.SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (birth to 2 years)- an infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities.
2.PRE-OPERATIONAL STAGE (2 - 7 years) Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism.
3.CONCRETE OPERATIONS (7 – 11 years old)
-elementary school years
- children gain a better understanding of mental operations
-Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
4.FORMAL OPERATIONS (11 to 16 years old)
-develops logical reasoning skills
-decreases egocentricity
According to Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), personality is mostly established by the age of five.
Stages of Development Based on the Psychoanalytic Theory
1.Oral Stage
Age Range: Birth to 1 Year
Erogenous Zone: Mouth
2.Anal Stage
Age Range: 1 to 3 years
Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
3.Phallic Stage
Age Range: 3 to 6 Years
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
4.Latency Stage
Age Range: 6 to Puberty (12 years old)
Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
5.Genital Stage
Age Range: Puberty to Death (12 yrs and above)
Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY introduced by Freud tends to be the most pessimistic about human nature.

Freud believed two basic drives guide and shape HUMAN BEHAVIOR-EROS AND THANATOS. Eros reflects the sexual drive and thanatos reflects the aggressive survival instinct. Basically, this is a reflection of the pleasure principle, which drives people towards seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
Trait theory and behavioural theory

tend to be
neutral about human nature.
Humanistic theory and cognitive social learning theory
tend to be more
optimistic about the nature of people.
-the process whereby people categorize and organize stimulus information into meaningful units to make sense of the stimuli.
-The underlying idea is that stimuli are perceived as an organized whole, not as unrelated or disjointed pieces—“the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.”-For instance, people recognize a familiar tune but do not ordinarily hear each distinct note or even every musical instrument playing the song. They identify a person’s face but do not usually pay attention to each eye, eyebrow, nostrils, etc.
Principles of Grouping
Grouping is a process whereby individuals are inclined to perceive stimuli as groups or chunks of information rather than as discrete bits of data.
proximity continuity closure simplicity
things that are physically similar are perceived as belonging together or as forming a whole figure (gestalt). Therefore, “XXOO” is seen as two groups, with the XX as one group and the OO as another group.
Proximity/ contiguity
“group like with like,”suggests that things that are in close proximity to one another are perceived as belonging together or as forming a gestalt. In your clothing drawers you probably put things together that logically go together; undergarments in one drawer, shirts or blouses in another, and so on. You would not expect to find canned peas in someone’s medicine cabinet but rather in the kitchen pantry.
holds that people categorize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted, continuous forms, rather than into discontinuous patterns.
Simplicity- (pragnänz)
suggests that individuals opt for relatively simple perceptions even when more complex perceptions can be derived. That is, every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.
states that people tend to perceive incomplete patterns as being complete. We tend to “fill in the blanks” based on prior experiences. A triangle with a small part of its edge missing will still be seen as a triangle. Consider the annoyance that arises from having a missing element or two from a collection, such as stamps, magazines, or CDs by a particular musical group. And, soap operas keep viewers hanging on with “cliffhanger” endings.
The images we see appear on our retinas in 2-D form, but we tend to perceive a 3-D world. We see depth by using monocular and binocular cues.
Monocular cues
are depth cues based on each eye working independently.
Binocular cues
rely on both eyes working together.
 Examples of monocular cues are
linear perspective, texture gradient, relative size, and interposition.
Convergence, wherein the eyes turn inward as an object comes closer, is actually an example of a binocular cue, not a monocular cue.
Answer: B
Answer: D
Answer: A
Answer: B
Answer: A
Answer: B
Answer: C
Answer C:
Answer: A
Answer: C
Answer: C
Answer: B
Answer: A
Answer: A
Answer: C
Answer: A
Answer: C
Answer: A
Answer: D
Answer: B
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