Creative Automatization Component of Fluency
achieved through patterned exercises and drills
rules (structure) not on utterances
meaningful & communicative drills Traditional View communicative abilities vs. abstract rules
shift of focus on general communication skills
greetings and idiomatic expressions
no emphasis on automaticity -> no emphasis on repetition Communicative Competence Approach
Automaticizing certain parts of a
language will help to redirect their focus to where it is most needed. Need to attend to many aspects of communication
linguistic, sociolinguistic, and intercultural social factors
channeling their attention
"...smooth, unhesitating speech in conversations with native speakers can provide the learner with increased access to native input." L2 Learners Early Production and invites input
and will lead to
Self-confidence and Motivation in L2 1. speed and ease of utterance development through extended and consistent practice P
L different type of research Working towards implementing Creative Automaticity
in the classroom 1. Greetings
2. Idiomatic Expressions
3. Leaving-taking phrases
4. Sentence Framers
describing past activities Broadening Formulaic Speech 2. operation of performance mechanisms that function quickly without interference 1. Of the different types, which specific utterances should be targets of automatization? 1. Be Genuinely Communicative
2. Be Psychologically Authentic
3. Be Focused
4. Be Formulaic.
5. Be Inherently Repetitive. Five General Principles for Implementing Creative Automaticity into a Communicative-Based classroom Promoting Fluency in a Communicative Framework Teacher: I found the book.
Students: I found the book.
Students: I found the pen.
Students: I bought the pen. MINIMAL EFFECTS UNSUCCESSFUL Communicative approaches are not compatible with automatization. General Basis Skills concerned
with Production Skills concerned
with Selection Mastery of phase one does not mean mastery of phase two. MORE FOCUS Two Ways to Consider Automatization 2. How should the activities be designed to promote automaticity and emphasize repetition? Five General Principles 1. Be genuinely communicative. 2. Be psychologically
authentic. 3. Be Focused. 4. Be formulaic. 5. Be inherently repetitive. Broken down into two phases:
1. Part I -- the Main Activity
2. Part II -- the Follow-Up Activity Structure of Activites "I was...surprised, perhaps as a result of the above prejudice, that the authors put the more controlled phase as a follow-up, and not as a lead-in, to the main activity; controlled activities such as these would seem much more appropriate for the initial phase of learning." Bamford "...are we to assume that the relevant material from which to elicit has already been taught of that the students are false beginners?" **Six General Principles** 6. Be inherently fascinating to all 1. What are the two different ways in which the researchers, Gatbonton and Segalowitz, consider the term 'Automaticity'?
2. What are the potential benefits of automaticity in the early stages of L2 development? How will these benefits help the learner?
3. What are some 'general utterances' that you would consider to be important for L2 students to know? Why?
4. What aspect of the Class Photo Activity helps students work toward automaticity?
5. Considering the general principles of activities geared toward automaticity in a communication-oriented classroom, can you think of any activities that might be suitable to use?
6. (from the response article) Bamford argues, "...that the authors put the more controlled phase as a follow-up, and not as a lead-in, to the main activity; controlled activities such as theses would seem much more appropriate for the initial phase of learning" (365). Do you agree with Bamford? How should the activities be organized? Discussion QuestionsSee the full transcript