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Plants: Structure and Function

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by Joshua Farr on 8 April 2012

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Transcript of Plants: Structure and Function

Main Concepts of Structure, Growth, and Development:

1. The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells


2. Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots


3. Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants


4. Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant body Vascular plants have
3 basic organs roots stems leaves Plasticity an organism's ability to alter or 'mold' itself in response to
local environment conditions. 'Plants have to be exquisite to survive because they can't run'
Natasha Raikhel Shoot System Root System Root an organ that anchors a vascular plant
absorbs minerals, water, and nutrients *Roots are parts of plants below
the ground
*Wind their way through the
terrain
*Act as an anchor for plants,
holding them down
*Work as gatherers
-absorb and store water and nutrients
-vital to plant's survival *Above the ground Through root tips, which have root
hairs extending from the surface.
*Create larger surface area for
absorption Leaf Structure
-Protected by waxy cuticle of
the epidermis
*Decreases transpiration
rate
-Ground tissue of leaf inside
epidermis: mesophyll
*Involved in photosynthesis
-Two layers of mesophyll:
palisade and spongy Plants are photosynthetic organisms that create sugars from absorbing the suns photons into their chlorophyll. Types of Roots lateral roots An African bugleweed synthesises in its tissues a substance similar to the hormone that controls the development of caterpillars. If a caterpillar is persuaded, experimentally, to ingest that substance, then when it turns into a butterfly it will develop two heads and die. -David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants, p70

84% of a raw apple and 96% of a raw cucumber is water. Source of this fact and the next fourteen.

A notch in a tree will remain the same distance from the ground as the tree grows.

A pineapple is a berry.

Arrowroot, an antidote for poisoned arrows, is used as a thickener in cooking (so if you ever get shot with a poison arrow, do not go to a doctor, look in your kitchen cabinet.

Avocados have the highest calories of any fruit at 167 calories per hundred grams.

Both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew cannabis sativa (marijuana) on their plantations.

In the Netherlands, in 1634, a collector paid 1,000 pounds of cheese, four oxen, eight pigs, 12 sheep, a bed, and a suit of clothes for a single bulb of the Viceroy tulip.

No species of wild plant produces a flower or blossom that is absolutely black, and so far, none has been developed artificially.
Nutmeg is extremely poisonous if injected intravenously.

Peanuts are beans.

Quinine, one of the most important drugs known to man, is obtained from the dried bark of an evergreen tree native to South America.

The California redwood - coast redwood and giant sequoia - are the tallest and largest living organism in the world.

The largest single flower is the Rafflesia or "corpse flower". They are generally 3 feet in diameter with the record being 42 inches.

The oldest living thing in existence is not a giant redwood, but a bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California, dated to be aged 4,600 years old.

The rose family of plants, in addition to flowers, gives us apples, pears, plums, cherries, almonds, peaches and apricots.

Asparagus is a member of the lily family, which also includes onions, leeks, and garlic. Source of this fact and the next three.

The bright orange color of carrots tell you they are an excellent source of Vitamin A which is important for good eyesight, especially at night. Vitamin A helps your body fight infection, and keeps your skin and hair healthy.

Onions contain a mild antibiotic that fights infections, soothes burns, tames bee stings and relieves the itch of athletes foot.

One bushel of corn will sweeten more than 400 cans of pop. Fun Plant Facts (really, they are fun, I promise) Seed plants seeds, reduced gametophytes,
heterospory, ovules, pollen. Reduced gametophytes: Tiny gametophytes can develop from spores within the sporangia of the parental sporophyte. This protects the female/egg-containing gametophytes from stresses in the environment. Moist reproductive tissues defend the gametophytes from drought and UV radiation.
Also allows gametophytes to recieve nutrients from the sporophyte. Heterospory: Unlike homosporous plants, who are mostly seedless, seed plants are heterosporous. This means that both a male and a female gametophyte are produced. Ovules: a structure within the ovary of a seed
plant and contains the female gametophyte.
It includes megasporangium, megaspore, and
their outer protective layer(s). Pollen: Taproots The taproot system branches
in a way similar to the human
lungs; the roots start as one thick
root on entrance into the ground,
and then divide into smaller branches
called lateral roots underneath the
surface, which serve to hold the
plant in place. Fibrous Root Fibrous Roots provide plants
with a very strong anchor in
the ground without going very
deep into the soil. Dicots taproot thick entry root division into smaller branches Monocots fibrous root shallow entry into ground strong anchor effect Stem Structure
-The Epidermis provides The root system relys on the shoot system for the sugars they produce in photosynthesis and the shoot system relys on the minerals and water from the roots. Stem Structure
-The Epidermis provides protection
and is covered by the cutin
*a waxy protective coat
-The cortex of a stem contains parenchyma,
collenchyma, and schlerenchyma cells
-No Endodermis
*not involved in absorption of water
-Vascular cylinder, xylem, and phloem
-Vascular Cambium, extends along the entire
length of the plant and gives rise to the secondary
xylem and phloem.
*Overtime, the stem of a plant will increase in
width because of the secondary xylem
produced each year
-Cork Cambium, produces a thick cover for stems
and roots.
*this covering replaces the epidermis when it
dries up and falls off the stem during secondary
growth, forming a protective barrier against
infection an physical damage
Remember:
the growth of plants
is not a continuous process
in seasonal environments.
There are periods of dormancy
in between phases of growth tissue cells
parenchyma-metablolic strutures.
collenchyma-keep the plant up right but are flexible so as not to hinder the plants growth.
sclerenchyma-form hardened fibers all throughout the plant. the fertilizing element of
flowering plants, consisting
of fine, powdery, yellowish
grains or spores, sometimes
in masses.
The significance of pollen is
that most plants spread
around their seeds by pollenation
when bugs or animals get the
pollen stuck to them and then
move from flower to flower
or plant to plant spreading the
seeds around. Flowering Plants Have several organs:
the stamen,
pistal,
sepals,
and petals Plants:
Structure and Function! Leaves!
Simple Leaf
-Single undivided blade
-some deeply lobed Compound Leaf
-blade has multiple leaflets Double Compound Leaf
-Each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets Three types of cells:
1. Parenchyma
-Allows CO2 and O2
to diffuse through
intercellular spaces
2. Collenchyma
- Provide flexible and
mechanical support
3. Sclerenchyma
-Support the plant and
protect seeds
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