Prezi

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in the manual

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

No description
by toby kroon on 28 September 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

How secure was the USSR’s control
over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
Think back...
Countries
Which brings us back to...
What was life like behind the |ron Curtain?
Countries
Tactics
Tactics
http://www.johndclare.net/cold_war6_SalamiTactics.html
6 How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

Focus Points
Why was there opposition to Soviet control in

Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how did the USSR react to this opposition?

How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968?

Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?

What was the significance of ‘Solidarity’ in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?

How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern
Europe?
Specified Content

Soviet power in Eastern Europe:
o resistance to Soviet power in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968)
o the Berlin Wall
o ‘Solidarity’ in Poland
o Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Empire.
Watch the clips. Write down questions, on the group A3 sheet, that you would like to ask somebody who lived in Eastern Europe during this time period.
Taken from the film - The Lives of Others
As before...

Add questions to the A3 sheet. This example is from Czechoslovakia which is our second case study.
HW = read chapter 14 and complete worksheet. (Task 1).
Think of more questions to ask mystery guests
Assignment
Assignment: What was life really like behind the Iron Curtain?

You must write a feature story on this topic.

The starting point for your research will be the interviews with our mystery guests.

The Hungarian Revolution 1956
Why a revolution?
Initially the people of Eastern Europe were hopeful that Communist rule would bring stability, security and prosperity.

Collective farming lead to food shortages although over time Eastern European economies did recover.
T
he Soviets were arguably benefiting the most from this

Wages fell behind Western European countries and they were unable to get the same amount of consumer goods.

What were Eastern European countries not allowed to apply for to aid their economic recovery?
Other factors
No right to criticise the government.
(each satellite had a mini-Stalin)

secret police persecuted church-goers and non-communists

travel to Western Europe was forbidden
What to do about it? When Stalin died in 1953, workers in East Germany went on strike demanding economic reform.
How do you think the Soviets responded?
“Down with the Government. Down with the Volkspolizei (people’s police)” and “we don’t want to be slaves anymore, we want to be free”.
Change is in the air?
1. Khrushcev accepted the independence of Tito's Yugoslavia and ended feud with China

2. Soviet troops left Austria (where they had been since the end of WWII).

3. Closed down Cominform

4. Talked of peaceful co-existence with the West

5. Released political prisoners

6. Denounced Stalin as a tyrant and started a programme of 'de-Stalinisation'
If you were hoping for change would it look like it was coming?
Activity
Use the following websites and pp402-403 to create a mindmap of the Hungarian Revolution.Mindmap can be found at http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/lessons/coldwar/coldwar_hungary.html


Causes

Events

Outcomes

Main people involved (linked to Causes, Events, Outcomes)
http://www.johndclare.net/cold_war14.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir2/hungaryrev1.shtml
Homework
Watch 'Freedom's Fury' on youtube.

Answer questions on worksheet from Q-drive
Starter
(a) Describe how the Soviet Union reacted to events in Hungary in 1956. [5]
Level 2 Describes events [2-5]
e.g. ‘Khrushchev sent in tanks but they were withdrawn after a week. On 4th November
200,000 Soviet troops and 2,500 tanks arrived in Budapest.’
‘After two weeks of bitter street fighting it is thought that 27,000 Hungarians had died and
Soviet control restored.’
‘They executed Nagy and his fellow leaders.’
‘It prevented Hungary leaving the Warsaw Pact.’
‘The Soviet Union was not prepared to let go of countries within its sphere of influence.’
Czechoslovakia, 1968
(b) Why was the Soviet Union worried by developments in Czechoslovakia in Spring 1968? [7]
1. Crossword - use 38 Brooman

2. Draw table from p39. Complete Hunagry side

3. Complete Cz. side

4. Similarities and differences.

5. sentences

6. Learning Curve activity
Write one sentence for each letter
The Prague Spring
H
U
N
G
A
R
Y
P
R
A
G
U
E
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/aug/21/1968theyearofrevolt.russia
People
Find pictures of the following people and describe the part they played in the events of Hungary and Czechoslovakia
Nagy
Khrushchev
Rakosi
Brezhnev
Dubcek
Ulbricht
Gomulka
Gero
Kadar
The Berlin Wall
“Nobody intends to put up a wall!” Walter Ulbricht, Leader of the GDR, June 15, 1961
On 12 August 1961, the GDR Council of Ministers announced that "in order to put a stop to the hostile activity of West Germany's and West Berlin's revanchist and militaristic forces, border controls of the kind generally found in every sovereign state will be set up at the border of the German Democratic Republic, including the border to the western sectors of Greater Berlin."
Activity 1
What was life like in the two Berlins?


Where would you rather live?
What would you do about this?
East Berlin - poor living conditions. Soviet Union took reparations to repair its own war damage. There were food and housing shortages, low wages and poor living standards
West Berlin - Helped by Marhsall Aid and a new currency, living standards improved dramatically.
IGCSE syllabus: Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
Reason 1: Stop people escaping poor living conditions.
Many East Germans left to share in the economic miracle.

The government stopped and closed this border in 1952 BUT East Germans could still leave their country by crossing into one of the Western Sectors.By 1961 around 3 million had left or 1/6th of the population.

Many of those leaving were skilled workers. Without them the economy could grind to a halt.
BECAUSE of this the authorities decided to build the wall to stop the mass exodus of its population
Build the wall
What was the wall like?
Why was the Berlin wall built?
Reason #2: Symbolism.

Embarrassment to the Soviets.
Ever since the revolution in 1917, the Soviets had tried to persuade other countries that the communist system was far better than the capitalist system.

This was hard to do when so many people were leaving to a capitalist society.
BECAUSE of this the authorities decided to build the wall to remove the source of this propaganda defeat.
Do you think the Soviets could now claim this as a propaganda victory?
The Berlin Wall?
"Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart"
The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" by GDR authorities, implying that neighbouring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified.
From the perspective of the East German authorities the wall was built as a barrier against fascism.(reason #3)
Activity
Graffiti the wall
If you are on the East you must graffiti the wall with messages against the West.

And vice-versa.
Who do you think could really claim a propaganda victory and why?
Reason #4
"But we prevented something much more important with the wall - West Berlin’s becoming the starting point for a military conflict. The measures we introduced in 13 August in conjunction with the Warsaw Treaty states have cooled off a number of hotheads in Bonn and West Berlin. For the first time in German history the match which was to set fire to another war was extinguished before it had fulfilled its purpose."
From an East German perspective they argued they were trying to prevent an armed conflict starting.
Reason #6 -Brinkmanship between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Part of the wider cold war struggle
Read pp152-155 of McAleavy and 407-409 of Walsh
"Berlin is the testicles of the West. Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin." - Khrushchev
"That son of a bitch won't pay any attention to words," he said of Khrushchev, "he has to see you move." Kennedy
Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of or to the brink of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome.
Comic strip the background to the conflict esp. with regard to the actions of K and K. This should come from the information in Walsh. Use the images of K and K.
Recap on why the Berlin Wall was built.
Reason #5 Spying
Berlin was, in truth, at the heart of the intelligence war between the United States and the Soviet bloc. For the United States and its allies, Berlin was a base for strategic intelligence collection that provided unequaled access to Soviet-controlled territory. For the Soviet Union and the captive nations of the Warsaw Pact, the presence of Western intelligence services in occupied Berlin was a constant security threat.
Because of the spying...
By erecting the wall it made it more difficult for spies to penetrate the Eastern Bloc.
Six reasons - B F SSSS
Stop the loss of population

Spying

Brinkmanship

Fascist barrier

Stop War

Symbolism
Starter: write a question (or many) on your Postit about your photo or the Berlin wall in general.
Stick your photo to the wall
HW - go to BBC Bitesize History. read the three pages and then take the TestBite.

Read the Wikipedia page on the Vienna Summit of 1961. Why was it the worst day of JFKs life?

Episode 9 CNN Cold War - The Wall
8 Study the extract, and then answer the questions which follow.
West Berlin has many roles. It is more than a showcase of liberty, an island of
freedom in a Communist sea. It is more a link with the free world, a beacon of hope
behind the Iron Curtain, an escape hatch for refugees. We cannot and will not permit
the Communists to drive us out of Berlin.

Kennedy speaking in 1960 before he became President of the USA.
(b) Why did Berlin remain a focus of Cold War tensions during the 1960s? [7]
R:\Secondary\Sec Subject folders\History\IGCSE\Exams\2010 Nov
Signpost your answers for (b) questions
Start by bullet pointing THREE or FOUR points.
‘Khrushchev wanted the western powers out of West Berlin.’
(b) Why did Berlin remain a focus of Cold War tensions during the 1960s? [7]
‘The West was determined to protect ‘free’ West Berlin from communism.’
‘The wall provided opponents of communism with a propaganda opportunity
Then explain the points
Step 2 - Make a clear link to the question
One reason why Berlin remained a focus of Cold War tensions during the 1960s was that...
Many skilled and professional East Germans crossed from East to West Berlin
and on to West Germany.This was an embarrassment to the Soviets as it appeared that people were escaping from the Communist system of East Germany.
BECAUSE of this Khrushchev decided to build the Berlin Wall which became a symbol of the tension in the Cold War
Solidarity
Q:\Secondary Students\History\IGCSE\Cold War
Open the 'Solidarity' Word document and follow the instructions on the sheet.
S
O
L
I
D
A
R
I
T
Y

How far was Gorbachev personally responsible
for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe?
Can you explain the significance of Solidarity?
Solidarity quiz
It could be said that it started the “chain reaction” that led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.
It gave the West a pressure point within the Communist bloc
Symbol of unpopularity of Soviet regime.
The movement itself spurred people to the realization that they could have greater influence in organized numbers . More importantly, the vulnerability of the Communist regime to this type of movement was made evident to the Poles, the Party, and the outside world.
Solidarity's influence led to the intensification and spread of anti-communist ideals and movements throughout the countries of the Eastern Bloc, weakening their communist governments. The 1989 elections in Poland where anti-communist candidates won a striking victory sparked off a succession of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe known as the Revolutions of 1989 . Solidarity's example was in various ways repeated by opposition groups throughout the Eastern Bloc, eventually leading to the Eastern Bloc's effectual dismantling, and contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the early 1990s.
1. Major religion of Poland
2. Polish Pope
3. Leader of Solidarity
4. Jaruzelski introduced what to
Poland in December 1981?
5. Solidarity was formed in the city of...
6. New leader of the Soviet Union in 1985
7. He called for greater f......
8. Number 3 won which award in 1983?
9. In 1989 number 6 said the Soviet Union would no longer send in ...... to prop up unpopular regimes
10.Western nations imposed ..... ......... on Poland
Catholicism
Pope John Paul II
Lech Walesa
Martial Law
Gdansk
Gorbachev
freedom
Nobel Peace Prize
troops
trade sanctions
Starter:
Read 416-23 Walsh
and 160-165 of McAleavy
G
O
R
B
A
C
H
E
V
HW - CNN Cold War Episode 23 and 24
http://www.activehistory.co.uk/Miscellaneous/menus/GCSE/decline_collapse_soviet_control_eastern_europe_igcse.htm
•Overview: Eastern Europe in 1989
•General Problems: Long Term - Dictatorship and Corruption
•Specific Problems: Short Term - The "Gerontocracy"
•Gorbachev's Policies: Glasnost and Perestroika [plus linkage sheet
◦Video Clip: Gorbachev's Rule (7m)
•The Collapse of Soviet Control in Eastern Europe
Interactive Cartoon Analyise: The Decline and Collapse of Communism

Fling the Teacher Challenge: Internal Factors

Fling the Teacher Challenge: External Factors

Fling the Teacher Challenge: The Role of Gorbachev
Blood in the Water Match
True story of the brutal clash between Hungary and USSR in the water polo pool at the 1956 Olympics.
Open Video questions doc and ppt. at Q:\Secondary Students\History\IGCSE\Cold War\Hungarian Revolution
Hungary/Czechoslovakia
Similarities and differences
Same causes - hostility to Russian control, repression, poor economic performance/poverty.
Change started when Russia refused to support the old regime.
Rakosi = Novotny, Nagy = Dubcek.
Brief period when the new government introduced reforms and freedom of speech.
Russia got scared when Hungary planned to leave the Warsaw Pact; Tito visited Czechoslovakia.
A letter from some Communists asking for Russia's help was used as the excuse to invade.
Russia invaded with overwhelming force.

The West failed to help either Nagy or Dubcek.
Started with riots in Hungary, but not in Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia was much more planned than Hungary; Dubcek's government had a proper Action Plan.
Nagy announced he was going to leave the Warsaw Pact; Dubcek stressed that he would stay in the Warsaw Pact.
The Hungarians introduced democracy; Dubcek stressed that he wanted communism, albeit "democratic communism".
Four months of freedom in Czechoslovakia; five days of freedom in Hungary.
The Catholic Church took a lead in events in Hungary, but not in Czechoslovakia.
Hungary fought back; Czechoslovakia had passive resistance.
Some 4,000 Hungarians executed, while 47 Czechoslovaks were arrested.
Dubcek was arrested; Nagy was executed.
Same causes - hostility to Russian control, repression, poor economic performance/poverty.
Change started when Russia refused to support the old regime.
Rakosi = Novotny, Nagy = Dubcek.
Brief period when the new government introduced reforms and freedom of speech.
Russia got scared when Hungary planned to leave the Warsaw Pact; Tito visited Czechoslovakia.
A letter from some Communists asking for Russia's help was used as the excuse to invade.
Russia invaded with overwhelming force.
Kadar = Husak.
The West failed to help either Nagy or Dubcek.
Solidarity: An illustrated history
Use pages 156-159 McAleavy and 412-415 Walsh
Complete a 8-10 square storyboard for the Solidarity movement.
Use captions to support your images.
See the full transcript