Timeline On Crimes and Punishments
It was a treatise written in 1764 by Cesare Beccaria. It was founding work in the field of penology that condemned torture and the death penalty. Beccaria wrote some of the first modern arguments against the death penalty. The book was the first to tackle criminal reform and suggested that criminal justice should conform to rational principles. 1764 Probation
In 1841, John Augustus persuaded a judge to give him custody of a convicted offender. Augustus wanted to help the man to appear rehabilitated by the time of his sentencing. Probation began as a humanitarian effort to allow minor offenders a second chance. From the 1920s through 1950s, major developments in the field of psychology led probation officers to shift from moral leadership to therapeutic counseling. In the 1960s the field of corrections was changing again, rather than just counseling, probation officers provided offenders with social services helping them with: finding employment; housing; finances; and education. With knowledge of the past we can see that punishment was not always a long term solution to an individual’s behavior the majority of the time they became repeat offenders but now as we focus on rehabilitation and are able to break the pattern by establishing individual’s with the right tools we can see improvement. 1841 Edwin H. Sutherland (1883-1950) was an American sociologist and earned his PH.D from the University of Chicago in 1973.
He is considered to be one of the most influential criminologists of the twentieth century.
He is most known for defining white-collar crime and differential association.
In 1924, his book Criminology was published; it explained the development of habitual patterns of criminality. 1883-1950 Criminal Record
Criminal Record was created in 1905 to help maintain offenders. Records are maintained by various agencies in all levels of government. It is a record of an individual’s criminal history. It is used for many purposes but mainly background checks. 1905 Federal Bureau of Investigation
In 1908, Attorney General Charles Bonaparte was asked to create an “autonomous” investigative service because President Theodore Roosevelt wanted to keep a closer eye on anarchists after the perception that America was under fire after President McKinley assassination in 1901. Using the Department of Justice funds, Bonaparte hired thirty-four people and Stanley Finch became the new head. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is an agency that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency. The agency has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime. 1908 19th Century Prison
The modern prison system was established in the 19th century. The idea was influenced by the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham; it introduced the idea of observation and control that developed the design of the modern prison. The thought that incarceration was not just used as a holding cell but instead for punishment was revolutionary. They began to be used as criminal rehabilitation centers. Robert K. Merton (1910-2003) was an American sociologist; he spent most of his career teaching at Columbia University. In 1994, Merton won the National Medal of Science, for founding the sociology of science and his contributions to the field. He is known for the development of notable concepts like the “reference group” and “role strain”. 1910-2003 1918 Albert K. Cohan (1918) is an American criminologist. He is best known for the development of the sub cultural theory of delinquent urban gangs. Cohan wrote about delinquent gangs and suggested how gangs attempted to “replace” society’s common norms and values with their own sub-cultures. Cohan proposed two basic ideologies: status frustration and Reaction formation. Both are aimed at young people in lower classes. Status frustration is the frustration at the disadvantages and inequalities that they face. Reaction Formation is when young men get frustrated and find themselves replacing society’s norms and values with alternative ones. 1928 Howard Becker (1928) is an American sociologist who made contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music. Becker’s book The Outsiders was the foundation for the Labeling theory. In 1946, he received his undergraduate degree in sociology from the University of Chicago. He then went on and became a professor of sociology and an adjunct professor of music at the University of Washington until he retired in 1991. 1930 Uniform Crime Reports
In 1930, the United States Congress granted the Attorney General’s office the ability to collect, classify, and preserve identification, criminal identification, crime, and other records. The UCR is the official data on crime in the United States; each month law enforcement agencies report the number of known crimes to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The reports include; reported crimes from the general public and crimes that police officers discover. 1934 Principles of Criminology
Published in 1934, it is held as the most authoritative work in the field of criminology. It was written by Edwin H. Sutherland and Donald R. Cressey. It talks about the development of patterns of criminality when an individual associates with others who take part of that kind of activity rather than those who do not. It was said that this book was the seed of Sutherland’s theory “differential association”. It is the theory that predicts that an individual will choose to engage in criminal acts when there is a stronger influencing factor to breaking the law rather than abiding by the law. By reading and understanding this book and the theory, we can now look at an individual’s life experiences and have a greater understanding of why they would choose a life of crime. 1955 Subcultural: Cohan (1955) this theory is used in Criminal Justice it describes subcultures consisting of individuals collectively resolving societal status problems by developing new values. Status within the subculture entailed being labeled and excluded from the rest of society; the group becomes territorial and hostile toward outsiders. As the group becomes more distinguished and independent as a whole to the rest of society, the members become more dependent on each other. Frederic Thrasher (1892-1962) studied gangs in a systematic way. Thrasher defined gangs by the process they go through to form a group. Steve Hall (1955) is a professor of criminology. Hall is a social and criminological theorist, he is known for his work on crime, identity, and consumer culture. In 1991, he graduated from Northumbia University with a degree in Sociology and then was rewarded his PH.D. in 2006. In the 1980s he ran rehabilitation projects for young offenders. Steve Hall introduced the concept of ‘pseudo-pacification process into sociological and criminological thought. He argues the development of modern civility and sociability is not a self-reproducing and teleological civilizing process reflecting a historical journey away from barbarism. 1957 Strain: Merton (1957) The Strain theory is used in Criminal Justice it proposes why some individuals commit crimes. According to Merton the Strain theory suggest that when societies inadvertently bear pressure on individuals which can lead to rule breaking behavior. For example, the dominant goal in the U.S. is to be successful or in other words wealthy but obtaining that goal one must be educated and is a hard worker but for those who are economically disadvantaged, might be viewed as lazy or defective. With low self-esteem these individuals might turn to criminal activity to establish material success. 1958 Social Control: Nye (1958) this theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning build self-control and reduces behavior that is considered antisocial. According to Functionalist theories of crime there are four types of control:
1.) Direct: punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior, and compliance is rewarded.
2.) Internal: Youth refrains from wrongful acts through the conscience.
3.) Indirect: Identification with those who influence behavior, the delinquent act might cause pain or disappointment to someone who they have close ties too.
4.) Control through needs satisfaction: If an individual is content and all needs are met, there is no point to engage in criminal activity. 1960 Labeling: Becker (1960) This theory is used in Criminal Justice. It studies in the Sociology of Deviance. This theory explains that people who engage in rule breaking behavior see themselves at odds with those who abide by the rules. The first step is the primary act which may or may not have been intentional. The process of being caught and labeled is the most crucial point of someone who will acquire a secondary deviance. The second step to a career in crime is that the offender recognizes and accepts his label as their master status. The meaning of master status is the role to which one most relates the view of oneself. The deviant who accepts their label than becomes an "outsider" and is denied means of carrying out their everyday lives and then they must turn to illegitimate means to survive. 1966 Miranda Warning
In 1966, in Miranda v. Arizona the Supreme Court rules that all persons accused of a crime must be read their constitutional rights, which is the Miranda Warning. It is giving by the police to any individual in police custody before an interrogation takes place; this is to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings. 1974 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
This is a United States federal law it was established in 1974. It provides funds to states that follow a series of federal protections, known as “core protections”. It is put in place to help with the care and treatment of youth in the justice system. There are four “core protections”; deinstitutionalization of status offenders, “sight and sound”, “jail removal”, and disproportionate minority confinement. The JJDP Act is monitored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and all states are participating in the program. The JJDP Act helps ensure the safety of the convicted and there is set rules to help protect them. Rehabilitation: This theory means to restore to useful life, through therapy and education. The belief that people with mental disorders need rehabilitation rather than punishment. People are not permanently criminal they have the possibility to restore their lives, to a life where they are contributing to society and themselves. Education and therapy are the tools giving to the previous convicted. This will bring them to a normal state of mind, or boost self-esteem giving them better attitudes which would be helpful to society rather than harmful. Punishments that are in accordance to this theory are: community service, probation orders, and any form of punishment which entails guidance or after care of the offender.See the full transcript