Transcript: Not defining others Critical consciousness Boundaries/structure Relational self Narrative: externalize (ethic), evaluate & justify Structural: family roles & how I can support shifts in structure Relational: connecting actions to shaping other's identity and value Joining & Non-judgemental Be aware and ready for moments of goal reaching Collaboration with clients What Guides Me? Ecological Model Human Nature: Problems Social Constructionism Ecological Model A Self? Good or Evil? Narrative Therapy Structural Theory Relational Accountability Interventions Human Nature How Responsible is a Therapist for Outcome? What Makes A Problem? What Is Needed? My Values Jared Kellerman bell hooks; "dead metaphor" Change What Do Therapists Influence in Change? Therapist Influence join and learn the "local language" a la Minuchin How Do I Apply My Guiding Theories? Desire for change/goals Awareness of choices Hope A living metaphor Therapy Outcomes How Does Theory Fit Values? Theory of Change Help clarify goals Walk with clients in good/bad Outcome is up to the client; therapist hasn't failed if client does not want therapy Therapy Models How Do I Respond? Change can also happen when you choose to hang out with creative types!
Transcript: Theory of Change Change is best practiced in small structured incremental steps. This theory travels across organizations and leadership situations... School Organizations: Cultural change usually takes 3-5 years to achieve. Medical Field: Changes to improve health involve small steps that lead to success, is easier to sustain and patients are more likely to succeed. Theory of Change
Transcript: The diagram on it's own isn't enough We need to document our assumptions and explain their relevance We can also add barriers to progress & risks A narrative Why do we do a theory of change? We all come with different beliefs and values, we will have different opinions - this is ok! Theory of Change - what's the big idea? ToC is different things to different people To make sure we're measuring the right things Discussion, challenge & debate Assumption: The reporting guidelines are well written, comprehensive and understandable Fish soup Step 1: Gather in 4 groups according to result areas Step 2: Review your result area 'outcome statement' from our project logic model Step 3: In your groups, brainstorm one simple question: 'How will we achieve (your outcome)' Think of everything that needs to happen and arrange according to activities & outputs (activities on one colour, outputs on another) (20 mins) It's a product of the people involved A combination of expertise, experience and vision Assumption: We all have similar values and get on with each other Example of a theory of change Assumption: Everyone understands what we mean by a Theory of Change... To create a foundation for our evaluation PEOPLE A map of the logical sequence of how your activities and outputs will lead to your goal Put differently, it's our mental model of how change happens Assumptions A diagram Step 4: Look through all project activities from the bid - do they match what you have brainstormed? Select the ones that do and place them on your flipchart (10 mins) Step 5: Start making the links between your activities and your outputs using string - every time you make a connection, list down any assumptions you are making (20 mins) For us, it's not a strict planning tool, but a less formal 'way of thinking' about how our project is expected to work What goes into a Theory of Change? To make the connections between our result areas and change objectives Our Theory of Change! For a shared vision of the change we want to see - and how we think we'll get there What is Theory of Change?
Transcript: Background On Theory Of Change Statistics from 2009 Target group: Prisoners Why? TB and HIV rates in Cambodia’s largest prison are roughly 6 and 4 times the respective national averages, A screening of 1,783 inmates at the Prey Sar prison in Phnom Penh by Médecins Sans Frontières ( MSF) found 4 % had TB, and 3 % were HIV-positive Context - Overcrowding in Cambodia's prisons has aggravated the problem. - The country’s 25 prisons have an official capacity of 8,000 inmates but hold nearly 14,000 people attended to by 96 health workers. Population of Cambodia 14.8 million Planning and context Moving beyond ‘business as usual’ Strengthens clarity Unifying framework Empowering Cambodia Statistics." UNICEF. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/cambodia_statistics.html>. Chaya, Nada. "Cambodia and HIV: Winning Round Two in Preventative Fight.”Population Action International 1.7(2006) Global HIV Prevention Working Group. "Access to HIV Prevention: Closing the Gap."Foreign Affairs 82.4 (2003): 1-42. World Health Organization. "Adult (aged 15-49 Years) HIV Prevalence in Cambodia Provinces, Population-based Survey, 2005." ReliefWeb. N.p., 31 Dec. 2008. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.<http://reliefweb.int/map/cambodia/adult-aged-15-49-years-hiv-prevalence-cambodia-provinces-population-based-survey-2005>. Theory of Change Review, a report commissioned by Comic Relief. (Cathy James, September 2011) Web. 30 Nov. 2012 http://mande.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/2012-Comic-Relief-Theory-of-Change-Review-FINAL.pdf Review of the use of ‘Theory of Change’ in international development, a report of DFID by Isabel Vogel (April 2012) Web. 29 Nov. 2012 http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/pdf/outputs/mis_spc/DFID_ToC_Review_VogelV7.pdf Guided Example “Project Superwomen” from Acknowledge and The Aspen Institute Web. 29 Nov. 2012 http://www.theoryofchange.org/pdf/Superwomen_Example.pdf Connell, J and Klem, A. “You can get there from here: Using a Theory of Change Approach to Plan Urban Education Reform (2000) http://www.scribd.com/doc/91526500/Connell-Klem-Theory-of-Change-Ed-Reform “What is ‘TOC’ thinking and what its added value?” E – dialogue October 17 - November 14 2011 Web. 29 2012 http://www.hivos.net/Hivos-Knowledge-Programme/Themes/Theory-of-Change/E-dialogues Using Theory Of Change With Other Tools 1998: 100% Condom Use Program (CUP) 2004: Widespread Condom Distribution 2008: Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation 2011: TV and Radio PROJECT ZER% “Despite the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence among high risk groups described above, Cambodia to date still has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Southeast Asia and one of the highest in Asia” (Chaya, 2006) Main mode of HIV transmission today is husband-to-wife and monogamous married women as well as in the informal sex industries “the country is once again challenged to refine and tailor its approach” (Chaya, 2006) Theory of Change Benefits Of Theory Of Change SRH Education in Schools Reflections On Theory Of Change Time Consuming “Logframe by another name” Still not embraced as ‘best practice’ by entirety development community Subjective “It is the product of thinking (and power) relationships of those involved in shaping it” – Guijt and Retolaza, 2012 Another ‘Donor Hoop’ Cambodia Today SRH Education in Prisons Bibliography Weaknesses Of Theory Of Change “Development thinking is becoming more complex: theory of change is helping to deal positively with the complexities” (Vogel, 2012) By: Hannah Bains Subi Bjørnsen Cathy Drew and Sam Sesemann Interventions Target group: Mother & Children Why? HIV prevalence among pregnant women is higher than national average for adults 1.1 per cent in 2006 35 % of infants born to HIV-positive women will become infected with HIV each year With appropriate services and care this can fall to less than 5 % How? Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) initiatives: Combine VCT with antenatal care and education for pregnant women and their families Counselling on: 1. Safe infant feeding practices 2. Family planning. Treatment: Timely referral for ART helps HIV-infected mothers cope with their illness and can prevent MTC transmission Target group: Youth & Adolescents Why? 2010 survey on most at risk young people carried out by the Government with UNICEF support shows: - Sexually Active: More than 41 % of male and 23 % of female participants. - Condom Use: with boyfriends or girlfriends was alarmingly low – 31 % among females and 58 % among males. - Context: Dating and premarital sex among the nation's youth have supplanted the traditional practice of arranged marriage. Lack of education and awareness, regarding the risks of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases leaves many young couples. Conclusions on Theory Of Change “Vision of Success” (HIVOS, 2011) Assumptions are key Plausible, Dynamic, Do-able, Testable, Meaningful (Connell and Klem, 2000) Progressive and worthwhile tool for
Transcript: Improved Community Health Assumption: Participants that access services have improved health outcomes. Information Dissemination Assumptions: Hope as an organization learns how well their programs fit the community; Assessment and Growth Community Service Social Community members become knowledgeable about Hope Mental Assumptions: Some individuals will learn of the opportunities and not take advantage of them; others may share the information offered with others in the community. Physical Services Offered By: Kenneth Gidner, Melanie Rivkin, and Brian Pauls Community members attend training sessions Community Resources Volunteers Engagement Community members gain interest in learning about the organization Participants meet with director/coordinator Actions: Assessment of participants, eligibility, information dissemination, referrals. Assumptions: Once clients have knowledge of resources present, they will tap in to the programs available at Hope. Assumptions: Knowledge and regard for programs will create positive attitudes in the community. Action: Well-assessment performed by Hope physician, ongoing treatment for chronic conditions, nutrition counseling Assumption: People who are involved in an organization feel more morale and pride for the community. Community Outreach Community recognizes opportunities to become more involved Hope Medical Clinic Mission Statement Hope Clinic, an interdenominational Christian organization in Ypsilanti, Michigan, provides compassionate and practical help to those in need, ministering to the whole person with dignity and respect. What does Hope Clinic do? • Hope Clinic takes a holistic approach to offer medical care and dental care along with a variety of social services to minister to the whole person. Community members are encouraged to visit regardless of the scope of their specific needs. Assumptions: there are biopsychosocial considerations that must be employed to care to people of the community properly; one approach may not be enough. Participant General Health Action: Participants are routed to programs that are in-line with their interests Community members attend information sessions Community has the ability to attend information sessions Community members seek services from Hope Assumptions: Participants have transportation and the meetings are held at times that are appropriate. Attitudes Outreach begins the cycle of change within the community. Hope employs techniques to establish community inclusion, and make decisions for these methods in a non-exclusionary manner TOC: Reed (2005) Theorizing in community practice: Essential tools for building community Community Engagement Assumptions: Once the community knows what is offered, they will be willing to receive those services. Participants know services and eligibility Action: Provide opportunities for individuals to interact with each other Action: Participants are given the tools for successful involvement Case management Actions: Hope will to assess its programs using input from community, needs assessments to improve services offered Assumption: Organizations are successful when they interact with the community and are open to learn from them. Theory of Social Change Project Action: Mental health counseling
Transcript: “I encourage families to be crazy, but the problem is to keep them from being stupid” - Carl Whitaker DBT + CBT awareness, tolerance of arousal Wise mind Example: Whitney awareness, steps, tolerance “There are no individuals in the world, only fragments of families” - Carl Whitaker You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than a year of conversation” – Plato Play Therapy Kate McHugh Structural Family Therapy CBT DBT Play Therapy The Therapeutic Join Strengths: Creativity, confidence, calmness “There are no individuals in the world, only fragments of families” - Carl Whitaker Theoretical Frameworks: “The greatest weapon against stress is our ability to choose one thought over another” -William James Mapping and and disrupting dysfunctional relationships Therapist must join the system Unspoken hierarchies/rules Example: Baby J "movie making" Client Effort Everyone! Co-therapists Antagonists Subsystems Non-family influences CBT Who comes into the room? Trauma Safety and security tool through which children can break down barriers that trauma and negative life experiences have built Example: FCS Play therapy with dolls, touching “Radical acceptance rests on letting go of the illusion of control and a willingness to accept things as they are right now, without judging” -Marsha Linehan Systems Theory Structural Family Therapy DBT Input = Output Personal efficacy Theory of Change Weaknesses: individual depressed clients, aggressive clients Anxiety, eating disorders Connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Combine with systems theory, engage all members of a system in recognizing their own thought and behavior patterns, not just the identified client.
Transcript: Advocacy Distributed Campaigns Existing Power Relationships Questions? Theory of Change Theory of Change Example: Hands Up United Workshop Objectives Culture Shift We are often tasked with how to influence social change. However, a Theory of Change informs why social change is moving forward. Social change has many meanings... Defined Education Integrated Broadcast Campaigns Where do our clients fit? Our Clients Direct Service Accepts Direct Action Three Rejects Hemly Ordoñez Builds community-based responses that address underlying social problems on an individual, institutional, community, national and/or international level. Two Hemly Ordoñez VP Mobilization and Digital Strategy Fission Strategy define social change spectrum of social change define Theory of Change example What does this mean for our clients? My Definition Theory of Change Spectrum of Social Change Involves a collective action of individuals who are closest to the social problems to develop solutions that address social issues. Can change attitudes, behaviors, laws, policies and institutions to better reflect values of inclusion, fairness, diversity and opportunity. Self Help (definition from fundforsouth.org) What is Social Change? Whats motivates a Win? One Integrated web/tech/designed tools + planned strategic escalation + event/community responsive = solid theory of change Theory of Change (ToC) is a specific type of methodology for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in the philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social change. Theory of Change defines long-term goals and then maps backward to identify necessary preconditions. Speaker's Bureau Our Clients Broadcast Campaigns
Transcript: Money Infrastructure High network and human capital Slow Large Linear thinking Risk averse/fear of experimentation May be cynical Unengaged Very busy Money more important than social good Citizens Citizens Lots of them Poor coordination Wide gap in effectiveness Linear thinking models Restricted by grants Wide gap i stakeholder involvement in program design and implementation Non-Profit Passion Volunteer base Relationship with community Large network Visibility Infrastructure Stability Money Infrastructure High network and human capital Passion Volunteer base Relationship with community Large network Money Infrastructure High network and human capital Lots of them Poor coordination Wide gap in effectiveness Linear thinking models Restricted by grants Wide gap i stakeholder involvement in program design and implementation Money more important than social good Artists Non-Profit May be cynical Unengaged Very busy Non-Profit Government Visibility Infrastructure Stability Passion Volunteer base Relationship with community Large network For-Profit Artists Lots of them Poor coordination Wide gap in effectiveness Linear thinking models Restricted by grants Wide gap i stakeholder involvement in program design and implementation Citizens Passion Many of them Degree of knowledge about social issues impacting them Know the lay of the land High social capital Passion Many of them Degree of knowledge about social issues impacting them Know the lay of the land High social capital Government For-Profit Slow Large Linear thinking Risk averse/fear of experimentation Visibility Infrastructure Stability Government Passion Many of them Degree of knowledge about social issues impacting them Know the lay of the land High social capital Theory of Change Slow Large Linear thinking Risk averse/fear of experimentation May be cynical Unengaged Very busy For-Profit Money more important than social good
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