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Stroke

Transcript: Strokes n stuff What is a stroke? A stroke or its also known as a brain attack is caused by a blood clot in the brain What happens is when blood flows in a certain artery and it starts to block the artery that has a blood flow to the brain 1.Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body. The loss of voluntary movement and/or sensation may be complete or partial. There may an associated tingling sensation in the affected area. 2.Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding. Sometimes weakness in the muscles of the face can cause drooling. 3.Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes 4.Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination 5.Sudden, severe headache with no known cause The life expectancy when people have strokes is the same as ours except that they might have a year at the most taken off surviving a stroke is pretty high you will probably live unless nobody around is there to help and unless you are hurt badly In the USA the risk factor for having a stoke is higher than other states due to a lot of the population being obese Now it is said that if you are fat then you have a higher risk of having a stroke that is true. But smoking maybe there is a slight chance normally you get a stroke somewhere around age 55 it is more common for men to have a stroke than women A person who has a stroke will live but if not helped immediately they could die but you can live a normal life but you could get another one. If you do have a stroke then if a friend is nearby then hopefully they will be smart enough to call 911 then after you have recovered then you should try and exercise and try to lead healthier life there are treatments but for one thing staying active and eating right is really the best thing that you could do There really is no big treatment but the only thing you could really do is staying active Well the only organ that is affected is the brain if left untreated for a while then you could have some serious brain damage Well like I said the only organ that is really affected is the brain so there really is no treatment You might just have some pills that stop clotting that you have to take every once in a while but other than that just your brain and maybe your heart Well treatment may only last maybe a day or so but recovery takes at least a week if not two weeks and some organs may take longer One thing that you can do to prevent a stroke is to exercise more and eat better One preventative program is going to classes or something like that at the gym These programs can be effective if you actually do them Well it would be preventing a stroke and you would be leading a healthier lifestyle And That's all you need to know about strokes and stuff like that

Stroke

Transcript: Stroke: When blood flow to a part of the brain stops. When the brain can not get oxygen and blood. Stroke was recognized over 2,400 years ago. People would develop sudden changes in well being then suddenly died. Physicians did not know much of the brain and could not figure out what was happening. In the mid 1600’s Jacob Wepfer found that patients who died of apoplexy had bleeding in the brain. Medical science continued to study the case and come up with treatments for it. In 1928 apoplexy was divided into two categories based upon blood vessel issues. This led to term Stroke or “Cerebral vascular accident” or a brain attack. A stroke can not be transmitted from person to person. Stroke is due to a variety of causes. The Two Different Types of Stroke ischemic: When blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain is blocked by a clot. Two different ways this could happen would be a clot in an artery, and a blood clot could break off into another part of the body and travel up into the brain. Ischemic can also be caused from fat, cholesterol and other substances collecting on the artery walls. Symptoms Some people may not even know if they have had a stroke. Symptoms develop suddenly and without warning usually. A headache may occur especially if there is bleeding in the brain. Occurs when you are laying flat, wakes you up from sleep, gets worse when you cough or change position. Change in alertness, taste, hearing, affect of touch and feeling, clumsiness, difficulty swallowing, confusion, difficulty writing, and many others. Diagnosis and Treatment Complete exams should be done by your doctor, Checks with vision, reflexes and speech can help your doctor determine if your stroke is getting better or worse. Also check your blood pressure which may be higher than it should be. There are also certain tests that can be done such as Angiogram which is of the head and can show if there is any bleeding or a blood vessel blockage. Or a CT scan which is usually done after a stroke has occurred. Immediate treatment can save lives, people who have stroke symptoms need to go to the hospital immediately. People who suffer from a stroke need to stay in the hospital and go through treatments their such as blood thinners, and medicine to control high blood pressure. If bleeding has occurred surgery can be done to remove bleeding. NeuroAID: Medicine made up of 14 ingredients that can be taken after a stroke, helps to produce more neurons in the brain and make them stronger. Helps with recovery. There are many treatments for after having a stroke and to preventing yourself from ever having one. Acupunture, herble medicine, massages, yoga and aromatherapy can all help with prevention. Although Studies have shown that chronic diseases help increase chances of stroke and heart disease. Stroke Holistic Medicine History of Stroke

Stroke powerpoint

Transcript: Stroke SEED program for fresh graduates ASU 12A RN Ida Wong RN Mandy Lam 27/04/2021 ~87% Introduction of stroke WHO Definition: rapid developing of clinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function, with symptoms lasting 24 hours or longer or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin (WHO, 1980). ~13% 1. Ischemic Stroke 2. Hemorrhagic Stroke - Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) - Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) Introduction of stroke (American Stroke Association, 2021) warning sign of stroke! Video clip sharing Impact of stroke Neurological observation Neurological observation * GCS 8 or less -> coma, protection of airway is needed Best motor response Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Eyes opening * If eyes closed due to severe swelling, record "C" Central pain stimuli - apply to core of body - to assess the cortex - better in assessing motor response * Avoid sternal rubbing Peripheral pain stimuli - apply to extremities - tends to give a spinal reflex - better in assessing eyes opening, but avoid as a first-line assessment * ? nail-bed pressure vs interphalangeal joint pressure (Braine & Cook, 2016) Pain stimuli *Apply stimuli for 10 sec Ask questions 1. Name 2. Time 3. Place 4. People Best verbal response * Score "T" when patient is on endotracheal tube or tracheostomy Flexion response (M3) - movement is generally slow, the forearm and hand are held close into the body - the elbow flexes rigidly - the wrists rotate in a spastic-type posture - legs are not assessed for 'flexing' as bending the knees and flexing are indistinguishable Flexion withdrawal (M4) - trying to withdraw away - no purposeful movement to remove stimuli - normal flexion of the elbow with the arm moving away, without rotating the wrist - no stiffness associated with the movement (Braine & Cook, 2016) (Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 2021) Click to edit text Click to edit text All motor responses - Testing CNIII - Use of penlight torch, avoid using LED light - Shine the pupil at a direction - Record pupil sizes before stimuli - Equality and reactivity Pupillary response Corneal scar irregular pupil Prosthetic eye Pinpoint pupil Unequal pupil (Braine & Cook, 2016) (Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 2021) Limb Power Left Right elbow wrist shoulder wrist elbow shoulder ankle hip hip knee knee ankle (Florence et al., 1992) Swallowing test Swallowing Test Pre-assessment Indications: - Etiologies which would impair swallow (e.g. stroke, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, NPC) - Decreased level of consciousness - Apparent signs or complaints in swallowing difficulty - Known history of dysphagia - Apparent signs of aspiration (Martino et al., 2013) Signs of dysphagia: - choking when eating or drinking - a sensation that food is stuck in your throat or chest - persistent drooling of saliva - being unable to chew food properly - a gurgly, wet-sounding voice when eating or drinking Long-term: weight loss, repeated chest infections (NHS, 2021) Why need nursing swallowing assessment? - Non-invasive - Not possible to perform instrumental examination on every patient with suspected dysphagia Clinical observation before the test: - Poor conscious level - Presence of tracheostomy - Difficulty in managing oral secretions (e.g choking of saliva/severe drooling) - Moist, wet, gurgly voice quality - Follow commands? Co-operative? Pre-assessment: 1. Check oral cavity (unfit dentures?) 2. Ask patient to stick out the tongue (any deviation?) 3. Ask patient to open mouth, say "ah" (use penlight to check palate and uvula) 4. Ask patient to swallow saliva first Preparation Techniques Tools: Position: - Stand on patient's dominant side - Patient sitting upright with head support, with SpO2 monitoring Implementation: Part A: Feed patient 5ml of water into patient's oral cavity by teaspoon for 3 times Implementation Part B: Sip from a cup in 10ml portion, for 3 trials Continuous observe for 2 more minutes to see any choking or desaturation for problematic clinical signs for NO problematic clinical signs * If any shaded items , stop the test immediately, withhold feeding, inform doctor and refer ST. * If pass the test, start with puree diet first. Nurse can order puree diet instead of D-full puree *Once ST orders diet, only ST can change the diet order (American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, 2017). Limitations Evaluation - NO straw or feeding syringe use unless ST prescribes - Avoid oranges, dry foods, sticky foods, foods of mixed consistencies *The degree of swallowing impairment fluctuates after stroke. Ongoing assessment is needed for poststroke dysphagia (Fedder, 2017). - Cannot detect silent aspiration - Results only tell patient's tolerance on thin liquids - Tolerance on other food consistencies unknown Precautions Complications prevention Complications prevention - Medical complications of stroke can hinder recovery and are associated with poorer outcomes independent of stroke severity

Stroke

Transcript: The Road Ahead Rehab Goals Home Exercise Program Remedial gait retraining Supervised/home based walking or treadmill training progams Practice Practice Practice The goal is to retrain the brain to have the correct signal. There is nothing wrong with the musculature. It may feel strange at first, but make small movements look big to the brain - use mirrors. PRACTICE PRACTICE PRACTICE Aerobic training Leg, arm, leg and arm ergometry at 40%-70% of peak O2 consumption or heart rate reserve. Perceived exertion as a modulator 3-7 days/week 20-60 min/day: continuous or accumulated depending on patient's fitness level Treadmill training: It requires the performance of a task required for everyday living, which should enhance generalizability of training effects Handrails and unweighting devices allow patients to exercise/walk who normally may not Grade can be increased if speed cannot to increase exercise Upper extremity training: 10-15 reps rather than 8-12, 2-3 days/week, 8-10 exercises, minimum 1 set (major muscle groups) Eccentrics > Concentrics Stretching: Neuromuscular: PNF (extension, abduction, internal rotation) Increase flexibility and Neuromuscular training to: increase range of motion prevent contractures increase activities of daily living Neuro INFRA Hollistic Approach: Whole person 7-8 hours/day for 7+days All facillitation: tactile and verbal This technique is about retaining the brain to have a correct signal to the musculature, because there is nothing wrong with the muscles. Walking is very complex, this technique is about relearning Video 1. synergy 2. PNF: /, Ab, IR 3. ws in w/c 4. alignment: feet placement when standing 5. Toe / (needed for gait) 6. Pre-gait: WS 7. Mini Squats: against wall-shoot up fast 7. Hip hike with walking 9. seated, to elbow, to finding midline with mirror Prevention Erectile disfunction is the first main sign for Atherosclerosis If you have a problem somewhere, you can have it anywhere DIET Plays a huge role in prevention Once a stoke happens, the chance of another stroke occuring is high. It is very important to find the CAUSE of the stroke and use ways to prevent another one from occuring The movie "Fork over Knives" is very informative It is very important to increase aerobic activity to prevent further possibility of Stroke Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Stroke (>^-^)>

Transcript: Stroke symptoms sudden lost of balance expecially with all of the other signs Headache sudden difficulty speaking or understanding or confussion Vision Problems sudden lost of strength or numbness in the face arms or legs Cure medications used to the dissolve blood clot(s) that cause an ischemic stroke description Stroke is a medical emergency and the third leading cause of death in the world It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts or, more commonly, when a blockage develops. Without treatment, cells in the brain quickly begin to die. The result can be serious disability or death. If a loved one is having stroke symptoms, seek emergency medical attention without delay. How to prevent You can: • Eat healthy foods most of the time. • Be active most days of the week. • Try to reach or keep a healthy weight. • Quit smoking. If you don't smoke, don't start. Try to avoid second-hand smoke. • Find healthy ways to cope with stress in your life. • Enjoy alcohol in moderation if you choose to drink. The Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines can help you make healthier choices about alcohol. If you choose not to drink alcohol, don't start for health reasons. • Maintain a healthy blood pressure. • Give and get support from your family, friends and others in your community. By Justin .N Weakness sudden severe Hadeache Dizziness rrrrrrraaaaaaaawwwwwwwwwwweeeeeeeer sudden trouble with vision medications and therapy to reduce or control brain swelling trouble speaking

Stroke

Transcript: troke Stroke This is Blossom Burton. She is 3. She lives in Britain with her family. When she was 2 years old, she had a stroke. Her stroke was triggered by chicken pox. The chicken pox weakened her arteries so much, doctors said her brain looked like the brain of an 80 year old person. A stoke happends when: 1)a blood clot blocks a blood vells 2)a blood vessel breaks 3)then, it interups blood flow to an area of the brain. Causing brain cells to die. When brain cells die, the abilities those brain cells control are lost. Uncluding speech, movement, and memory. No blood flow to brain = no oxygen or blood No blood flow to brain = dying brain cells Brain cells dying = permenant damage Major types of strokes: ischemic stroke hemorrhagic stroke Face-Ask the person to smile. Does his/or her mouth droop? Arms-Ask the person to raise their arms. Are the moving together or does one move downward? Speech-Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase or awnser a question. Is their speech slurred or not normal? Time-If you observe any of these symptons, call 911! There isn't anything that will cure your body fully. Doctors can preform emergency surgery and restore blood flow to the brain. Take medicine that will breakup the stuff in the blocked arteries. Risk factors include: high blood pressure heart disease diabities cigarette smoking exsessive alcohol consumption high cholesterol levels migraines not exercising regularly ​​ 10% of stroke survivors recover almost completely ​​ 25% recover with minor impairments ​​ 40% experience moderate to severe impairments requiring special care ​​ 10% require care in a nursing home or other long-term care facility ​​ 15% die shortly after suffering stroke Some victims recovery fully, however more than 2/3 of survivors have some type of disablity. By Kelli Gudenkauf Where I reseached my information! Stroke doesn't just target elderly people. Young people can also have strokes. Blossom was told she might never walk again, yet here she is just 3 months later. Recovery More women than men suffer strokes. In 2006, women accounted for about 60 percent of stroke deaths. Every 45 seconds someone in America has a stroke. http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=symp&s_subsrc=SEM_google_grant_Keyword%20Correlation_Symptoms%20Of%20Stroke_what%20are%20the%20symptoms%20of%20a%20stroke_b_17770654790&utm_source=google&utm_medium=grant&utm_campaign=Keyword%20Correlation Eat healthy and exercise regularly Treatments Haemorrhagic strokes 15% of strokes caused by a rupture of an artery within the brain or caused by a rupture of an aneurysm Numbness and/or weakness or the face or limbs. Confusion, trouble speaking or understanding. Trouble with vision Not being able to walk correctly, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination headaches with no known cause *Symptoms happen quickly or suddenly *Most symptoms only happen on one side of the body http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=stroke One of the youngest strokes F.A.S.T http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org/?page_id=22738&gclid=COiyuOfh1K0CFUZjTAodUSzLlg Symptoms What is a stroke? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001740/ Interesting Facts Kelli Gudenkauf A stoke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/Types-of-Stroke_UCM_308531_SubHomePage.jsp Causes Prevent it! 15 minutes can save a person's life. http://www.neuroaid.com/en/treatment-for-stroke?gclid=CInCoued160CFQ3DtgodYjetmQ Bibliography Ischemic strokes also called cerebral infarcts 80% of all strokes caused by a blockage of blood flow in an artery to the brain. a blockage is caused by plaque built up often cholesterol In 1 second 32,000 brain cells die, in 59 seconds a stroke will have killed 1.9 million brain cells. The whole left side of her body was affected by the stroke. Types Causes/Types Facts http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1230196/Girl-2-makes-extraordinary-recovery-partially-paralysed-stroke.html http://www.webmd.com/stroke/guide/stroke-prevention

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