Transcript: For many situation, P sat ≥ p Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, controlling workplace conditions and preventing workplace environmental stressors that can cause sickness or serious discomfort to workers. DEFINITION Liquids with high saturation vapour pressures evaporate faster. For a vaporization into stagnant air, the vaporization rate is generally expressed via: ACUTE EXPOSURE ESTIMATING WORKERS EXPOSURE TO TOXIC VAPOURS The best way to determine exposures to toxic vapour is measuring the vapour concentrations directly. Commonly, estimates of vapour concentrations are required in enclosed spaces, above open containers, where drums are filled and in the area of spills. Qm = evaporation rate (mass/time) M = molecular weight of the volatile substance K = mass transfer coefficient (length/time) for an area A Rg = ideal gas constant, and TL = absolute temperature of the liquid Psat = saturation vapour pressure of pure liquid at temperature of the liquid p = partial pressure of the vapour in the bulk stagnant gas above the liquid EVALUATING EXPOSURES TO TOXICANTS ESTIMATING VAPOURISATION RATE OF LIQUID CHRONIC EXPOSURE Exposure limits (TLVs) are meant for single substances, but multiple simultaneous exposures always happened in industry If more than one chemical is present, the effects of toxicants can be assumed to be additive Combined exposure limit can be calculated if: Components have similar toxicological effects Combined effect is assumed to be additive Usually Minutes, Hours or Several Days Characterized by sudden and severe exposure and rapid absorption of the substance Normally, a single large exposure is involved Acute health effects are often reversible INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Regular Exposure Over Months, Years, or a Lifetime Characterized by prolonged or repeated exposures over many days, months or years. Symptoms may not be immediately apparent. Chronic health effects are often irreversible.
Transcript: Noise LIGHT Extremes of Temperature CHEMICAL AGENTS Other Useful Equipments Industrial Hygiene Control Method 6. General Ventilation -add or remove air from work areas to keep the concentration of air contaminant below hazardous level 7. PPE -eye and face protection, hearing protection, protective clothing, respiratory protective device 10. Waste Disposal -done by highly trained individuals by neutralizing or detoxifying chemicals that are no longer needed 11. Special Control Methods - shielding; administrative controls like reduction of work periods, shifting etc. 9. Housekeeping and maintainance -immediate cleaning of any spills of toxic material; periodic shutdown of equipment for maintainance 8. Personal Hygiene -industrial hand cleaner, washing facilities; food handling/storage RADIATION *Frequency analyzer -time weighted average calculated over 15 minutes period. -this may be applied in situations where brief excursions could be experienced (while not exceeding the 8-hour TLV-TWA) 5. Local Exhaust Ventilation -removes air contaminants at their source; requires less airflow than dilution ventilation system 1. Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer -for heavy metals 2. Gas Chromatograph -for organic solvents -basic instrument used to measure sound pressure variations in the air *LUX -this is used as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface. Extremes of T e m p e r a t u r e 2. Changing the Process - to improve quality or reduce the cost of production 3. X-ray diffraction -for dust, asbestos fibers 4. High performance liquid Chromatograph -for inorganic chemicals Other Useful Equipments 3. TLC-C 4. wet Methods - minimizes the presence of airborne dust hazards The degree of hazard from exposure to harmful environment factors or stresses would depend on the following: * nature of material or energy involved * intensity of exposure * duration of exposure * individual susceptibility CHEMICAL AGENTS -gas and vapors monitors LIGHT MICROSCOPE - is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. 3. Isolation -can be physical barrier, can be in terms of time, or encloure of a worker or an equipment or a process Types of TLVs: Luxmeter or Lightmeter -a photometer, which converts the light into an electric current -the intensity of illumination in the lux can be read from the scale of the instrument -determines the distribution of noise levels according to the frequencies. BIOLOGIC AGENTS RADIATION Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) -time weighted average concentration of airborne contaminants for a normal 8-hr workday and 40-hr workweek to which all workers may be exposed day after day -without adverse effects to their health 12. Medical Controls -involves pre-placement, periodic, routine and secondary monitoring I. Physical Agents Industrial Hygiene Noise work Environment Measuring Instruments (Wem): -film badge -pocket dosimeter -thermoluminiscence detectors 2. TLV-STEL 1. TLV-TWA -values which should not be exceeded even briefly -used in situations where acute effects might be experienced, as with sensitizers, irritants, and other quick acting subtances/materials * Sound level meter Evaluation of heat stress is done using the Heat Stress Monitor -dry bulb thermometer *used to measure the temperature of the air (ordinary thermometer) -wet bulb thermometer *a thermometer the bulb of which is covered by a moist muslin bag, used together with a dry-bulb thermometer to measure humidity -globe thermometer *used to measure radiant heat *it basically consists of a thermometer with its bulb or sensor located at the centre of a Matt black copper bulb. -sling thermometer *It comprises of two ordinary thermometers, but one of them is covered with the wet wick or cloth 1. Substitution - from a highly toxic material to a less toxic or non toxic materials - refer to the time-weighted concentrations of airborne contaminants for an 8-hour and 40-hour per week exposure. sFTY100 - B12 *Direct -reading instrument exemplified by colorimetric type devices, thermal, gas chromatography -useful in identifying oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched atmospheres, immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions, elevated levels of airborne contaminants, flammable atmospheres, and radioactive hazards BIOLOGIC AGENTS
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Transcript: CHEMICAL STRESSES Chemical compounds in the form of dusts, fumes, smoke, aerosols, mists, gases, vapors, and liquids may cause health problems by inhalation (breathing); by absorption (through direct contact with the skin); or by ingestion (eating or drinking). C. INGESTION Ordinarily, people are not aware that they are eating or drinking harmful materials. Toxic compounds capable of being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood are lead oxide which can create serious exposure problems if people working with these substances are allowed to eat or smoke in their work areas. Care and through wash-ups are required before eating and at the end of every shift. Workers should change their clothes before leaving work to avoid contaminating their home environment. B. ABSORPTION Absorption through the skin can occur quite rapidly if the skin is cut or abraded. Unfortunately, many compounds that exist either in liquid or gaseous form, or both can be absorbed through intact skin. Some are absorbed through the hair follicles while others penetrate by dissolving into the fats and oils of the skin. This hazard is created when carbon or soot particles less than 0.1 um in size as a result of an incomplete combustion of such carbonaceous materials as coal or oil. Smoke generally contains liquid droplets as well as dry particles. In addition to safety responsibilities, supervisors together with management and safety personnel must make sure that the work area is free from conditions that could be detrimental to health. Consequently, the more you know about industrial hygiene, the better supervisor you will be. Industrial hygienist define their work as “the recognition, evaluation, and control of environmental conditions that may have an adverse effect on health, and it may be irritating, or may have some undesired effect upon the ability of individuals to perform their normal work.” It is possible to group these environmental conditions or stresses into four general categories INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE A. DUST These are solid particles generated by handling, crushing, grinding, rapid impact, detonation, and decrepitation of organic or inorganic materials, such as rock, ore, metal, coal, wood, and grain. PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION OF AIRBORNE MATERIALS Biological Stresses Physical Stresses Fumes are formed when volatilized solids, such as metals are condensed in cool air. The solid particles that make up fumes are extremely fine, usually less than 1.0 um. In most cases, the hot material reacts with the air to form an oxide. A. INHALATION The major hazard of employees exposure to chemical compounds is inhalation of airborne contaminants. Contaminants inhaled into the lungs can be classified as gases, vapors, and particulate matter. Particulate matter can be further classified as dust, fumes, smoke, aerosols, or mists. C. SMOKE Ergonomic Stresses Chemical Stresses CHEMICAL STRESSES B. FUMES
Transcript: Industrial Hygiene Presentation of BSCPE - 3204 What is Industrial Hygiene? What is Industrial Hygiene? Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions that may cause worker's injury or illness. Industrial hygienists use environmental monitoring and analytical methods to detect the extent of worker exposure and employ engineering, work practice controls, and other methods to control potential health hazards. History of Industrial Hygiene History of Industrial Hygiene Fourth century BC when Hippocrates - noted lead toxicity in the mining industry. First century AD when Pliny the Elder - a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. - He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes. Second century AD when Galen - the Greek physician accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. 1556 when Agricola - the German scholar , advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. --> 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini - known as the "father of industrial medicine" -book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). The book contained accurate descriptions of the occupational diseases of most of the workers of his time. 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg - published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. 18th century when Percival Pott - as a result of his findings on the insidious effects of soot on chimney sweepers, was a major force in getting the British Parliament to pass the Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788. --> 20th century when Dr. Alice Hamilton - led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. States passed the first workers' compensation laws in 1911. 1913, the New York Department of Labor and the Ohio Department of Health established the first state industrial hygiene programs. The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding worker's health: --> the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. Overview of Industrial Hygiene Overview of Industrial Hygiene Industrial hygiene, as stated above, is concerned with identifying, evaluating, and controlling real or potential workplace environmental stressors or hazards that can affect the wellbeing of workers and community members. It is sometimes called Occupational Hygiene, Occupational Health or Workplace Health. Ideally, hazards are identified and controlled when a workplace is being planned, when conditions or processes change, or through yearly reviews, before they become an issue for workers. --> Industrial hygienist The role of an industrial hygienist is to “anticipate health and safety concerns and design solutions to prevent them. They are the guardians of workplace safety, applying science to identify and solve health and safety problems. Industrial hygienists also unite management, workers, and all segments of a company behind the common goal of health and safety.” An industrial hygienist will use rigorous scientific methods to evaluate and control hazards in the workplace, including risk assessment tools and information, such as Safety Data Sheets, which are put together by chemical manufacturers and contain detailed information about each chemical. ERGONOMICS Key Components of Industrial Hygiene is to reduce stress and eliminate injuries associated with bad posture, overuse of muscles, and repeated tasks. Ergonomics can be improved through solutions such as changing the chairs or keyboards office workers use, introducing tools to reduce repetitive tasks, or limiting time on certain jobs. Noise Long-term exposure to noise – both wanted and unwanted sound – can lead to hearing loss for workers. Noise issues can be addressed in several ways, including designing a facility to minimize noise, separating workers from noisy machinery as much as possible, and using devices, such as ear muffs or ear plugs, to protect workers. Noise Temperature Temperature Both high and low temperatures can cause problems for workers. If temperatures are too high, workers are vulnerable to heat stroke or heat exhaustion; heat stroke is a medical emergency that requires Indoor
Transcript: • The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects. • The TLV is an estimate based on the known toxicity in humans or animals of a given chemical substance, and the reliability and accuracy of the latest sampling and analytical methods. • The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air, typically for inhalation or skin exposure. Industrial Hygiene Industrial Hygiene is used to measure radiant heat. Biological Hazard Ergonomic Hazards T Walk-Through Survey primarily arise from excessive airborne concentration of mists, vapors, gases or solids in the form of dusts and fumes. Some may simply irritate the skin or be absorbed and manifest systemic effects. Physical Hazards Measuring Instruments Combination of observation, interview, and measurement that permits a judgment to be made relative to the potential hazards and the adequacy of protection for the employees Includes both personal and environmental monitoring performed during a given operation where hazardous materials may be released and follow-up biological and medical monitoring of the employees involved in that process Industrial Hygiene Determines: Intensity of exposure Source of the hazards Adequacy of controls Must consider the following: Sources of error Desired precision and accuracy of measurements Degree of confidence needed for interpretation of the results Globe Thermometer STEPS Material Safety and Data Sheet • Having a justifiable exposure assessment strategy • Documenting hazard evaluations in a detailed and standardized way Industrial hygiene is the science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of those workplace environmental factors which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers or among citizens of the community. Overall process or operation Equipment Cleaning methods Scientists, engineers and public health professionals committed to protecting the health of people in the workplace and in the community. Must be competent in a variety of scientific fields Trained initially in one of the scientific fields, with most of them have acquired by experience and post-graduate study a knowledge of the other allied disciplines micro or macroorganisms, their structures or substances, which these produce that exert negative effect/s to humans. • Reviewing all new chemicals and processes in advance of their use • Performing either a quantitative or qualitative or both assessment annually of processes and procedures • Using control banding, a best practice where there is limited information or technical resources available • Actively integrating industrial hygiene practices and procedures into other related business processes Build Central Thank you! Industrial Hygiene Use of Checklist Prime source of information on the hazardous properties of chemical products Provided by all chemical manufacturers and importers as required by the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard Must be available to all users of the product includes excessive levels of non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation, noise, vibration and extremes of temperature and pressure and ventilation issues. Lux Meter a device for measuring brightness, specifically, the intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. Follows the flow of materials into, through and out of the facility Should also include non-product areas such as maintenance and other service operations Should be conducted with the facility or process manager Step 4: Control History Direct the industrial hygiene program Examine the work environment Interpret results of the examination and present specific conclusions Make specific decisions regarding control measures Prepare rules, regulations, standards and procedures for workers and the community Present expert testimony * They will provide the templates for different models of cars i.e. convertible, SUV, minivan, sports car, etc... an instrument that measures sound pressure level, commonly used in noise pollution studies for the quantification of different kinds of noise. Threshold Limit Value Psychrometer • Following the hierarchy of controls • Having an active product stewardship program • Using a recognized safety and health management System An instrument that uses the difference in readings between two thermometers, one having a wet bulb and the other having a dry bulb, to measure the moisture content or relative humidity of air. * They will provide the templates for devices i.e. smartphones, tablets, desktops, laptops, etc... * They are providing templates for medical devices Sound Level Meter Step 3: Evaluation Industrial Hygienist Anemometer Roles of an Industrial Hygienist Sampling include improperly designed tools, work areas or work procedures and organizational issues in the workplace a device used
Transcript: INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE It is the science and art devoted to recognition, evaluation and control of environmental factors and stresses arising in or from the workplace. Cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among citizens of the community. CLASSIFICATIONS OF HAZARDS Chemical Hazards Inhaling chemical agents in the form of vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, and mists or by skin contact with these materials. MIST fine particles of a liquid float in air GASES substances in gaseous state but are always airborne at room temperature VAPOUR results when substances that are liquid at room temperature DUST solid harmful substances are ground, cut or crushed by mechanical actions and fine float in air. FUME gas is condensed in air, chemically changed and becomes fine solid particles which float in air These are problems relating to noise, temperature extremes, radiation pressure and inadequate illumination. Excessive Noise Types of Noise: 1. Continuous 2. Intermittent Noise 3. Impact Noise Inadequate Illumination the measure of stream of light falling on a surface sources of light: Daylight Electric Light Incandescent Lamp or Bulb Fluorescent Lamp Mercury Types of Lighting: General Lighting Local Lighting Factors: Nature of work Environment Eyesight of the workers Extreme Temperature Factors influencing heat stress - air temperature - air humidity - air velocity - radiant temperature - physically workload - light work - moderate work - heavy work Extreme Pressure recognized from the beginning of caisson work that men working under pressures greater than at a normal atmospheric one Vibration describes an oscillating motion about a reference point Inadequate Ventilation process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space Biological Hazards are any virus, bacteria, fungus, parasites, or any living organism that can cause a disease on human being ERGONOMICS literally meaning customs, habits and laws of work Methods : 1. Walk - thru / ocular inspection 2. Review process involved 3. Knowing raw material 4. Gathering of worker's complaints 5. MSDS/CSDS Material Safety Data Sheet Chemical Safety Data Sheet work environment measurement measurement of a particular employee's exposure to airborne contaminants. measurement of contaminant concentration in the workroom 1. Personal Monitoring 2. Area/Environmental Sampling 3. Biological Monitoring B. Analysis of Results - Time-weighted Average - Short-Term Exposure Limit - Ceiling CONTROL of WORK ENVIRONMENT HAZARDS prevent or minimize exposure of workers to harmful environment hazards. a. Reduction of work periods b. Adjusting work schedules c. Employee information and training d. Job rotation e. Education of supervisors Types of Industrial Ventilation 1. General or Dilution Ventilation 2. Local Exhaust Ventilation Physical Hazards Ergonomic Hazards PROTECTION ON WORK - Adequate Planning and Design - Substitution of materials used - Modification of the process - Separating walls -Ventilation C. Comparison of Results of measurement with standards Lux meter and CONTROL Sound Level Meter EVALUATION Group 5 :) types of environmental monitoring Anemometer Globe thermometer STUDY or EVALUATE Use of PPE Administrative control Radiation Engineering control A. WEM Psychrometer means IDENTIFY or RECOGNIZE
Transcript: The diverse work environment may involve various potential hazards, including exposure to hazardous materials and other elements such as noise or radiation. prevention Types of Hazards: Recognizing Hazards An exposure limit that is the lower of the permissible exposure limit or threshold limit value Type of hazard (chemical, physical, and biological) Toxicity Quantity in use Duration of use Past monitoring data Established occupational exposure models Employee input Professional judgment and experience Flowchart of Exposure Assessment Process Qualitative Exposure Assessment Considerations The qualitative exposure assessment includes an evaluation of potential exposures via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, physiological interactions, and ergonomic factors. Minor or No Risk Exposure no further action is required Guidance for Line Managers Line managers and supervisors should incorporate recommendations when revising JHAMs and AHAs Periodic Reassessments The industrial hygiene group will conduct risk-based qualitative reassessments of existing operations on a biannual basis. Quantitative Exposure Assessment Types of Monitoring Obtaining Monitoring Individual Requests Chemical Purchases Design Review Hazard Control Ventilation Requirements The following precautions should be taken to reduce exposures to airborne contaminants: Keep the hood sash or slide gate damper (as applicable) set at the approved level or set point to provide proper air flow. Take care in placing equipment in chemical hoods; avoid restricting air flow or creating a fire hazard. Confirm the system is operational before using. Do not allow large equipment to be placed in front of ventilation hoods or system intakes as this could restrict air flow and reduce ventilation efficiency. Ensure the ventilation system is rated for the maximum hazard level of the intended operation. Other Ventilation Equipment The industrial hygiene program manager records the results of the ventilation tests by updating the sticker attached to the system, usually at the point of use. Exposure Assessment Strategy Monitoring Maintaining familiarity with processes Personal Air Sampling HEPA Filters Other Hazard Control Ventilation Systems The industrial hygiene program manager conducts annual surveys of the use and performance of hazard control ventilation. Industrial hygienists use personal air sampling to measure personnel exposure to airborne contaminants. Chemical Hazards Here's a video explaining more about industrial hygiene and its importance to the workers in the industry and to the community as well... Labeling Ventilated Laboratory Hoods INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Performance Standards The overall approach links job hazard analysis and mitigation (JHAM), area hazard analysis (AHA), exposure assessment, and medical surveillance with prevention and control to reduce the risk of exposure and prevent adverse health effects. OSHA-Required Monitoring Laboratory fume hoods and local exhaust ventilation systems are addressed generally in standards, which incorporate references that provide specific design criteria and techniques to verify the system is in working order. Other hazard control ventilation systems, such as those in use in the electroplating, welding, and paint shops, are evaluated by the industrial hygiene program manager for adequate contaminant control as part of a periodic survey. The industrial hygiene group performs risk-based evaluations of new or modified processes involving chemical and physical hazards and performs baseline exposure assessments. Use Hazard/Impacts Industrial hygienists use area air sampling to define the extent of contamination or to measure the effectiveness of engineering controls. Area Air Sampling Surveys Wipe Sampling Industrial hygienists may use wipe sampling to measure surface contamination for selected hazardous materials. Some ventilated laboratory hoods have electronic flow monitors that continuously indicate the velocity of air flowing into the hood. A ventilated laboratory hood is a local hazard control ventilation device designed to protect workers from the hazards of airborne contaminants. Ventilation systems that provide fresh and recirculated air to office and other working spaces Other ventilation systems that handle non-hazardous exhaust from general laboratories or shops, vacuum pump equipment, and mechanical rooms High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters may be used to filter hazardous chemical or biological contaminants from air streams with an efficiency of 99.97 percent. ...exist when there is the risk of direct skin contact, inhalation, accidental ingestion, or absorption of hazardous chemicals in the form of liquids, solids and vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, or mists. personnel acute or chronic health problems. use of material substitution proper use, handling and storage adequate ventilation personal protective equipment training periodic monitoring Biological Hazards ...include any virus, bacteria,
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