Transcript: location: inter vertebral description:highly compressible and thicker collagen fibers. type of tissue; connective function: to absorb compressive shock. Function: absorption Location: upper respiratory Tissue: epithelial Description: single layer, but some cells are shorter than others. Often looks like a double layer of cells; consists of basal Transitional Function: supports & protects; site of blood cell synthesis Location: bone Tissue: connective Description: Function: voluntary movement; locomotion Location: attached to long bones or skin Description: Function: protection location: sweat gland tissue:epithelial description: same height as width. Appear box like nucleus is spherical and found in center of the cell Function: stretches readily to hold liquids. Location: Bladder and Urethra Type of tissue: epithelial description: the appearance of transitional epithelial cells with distension of urinary organs which line minimal balloon like stretching. Function: supports and reinforces; resists compressive stress location: forms embryonic skeleton and coastal and cartilage of ribs type of tissue: muscle description: transparent with blue tint cells surrounding matrix. Location: under skin, around organs Function: insulation, protection, fuel storage Description: large cells with lipid deposits, nucleus near the side. Matrix composed of fibers & adipocytes NERVOUS TISSUE (NT) Function: maintains shape while allowing great flexibility Location: external ear & epiglottis Tissue: connective Description: Function: protection Location: mammary & salivary glands Tissue: epithelial Description: vertical section is in a random arrangement of the cells & cells are in a cube-like shape Simple Cubodial Function: transports gases, nutrients & waste Location: blood Tissue: connective Description: Stratified Cubodial CONNECTIVE TISSUE (CT) Elastic Cartilage HISTOLOGY Type of tissue: Connective Location: tendons and ligaments function: attaches muscle to bone and bone to bone Hyaline Skeletal Muscle MUSCLE (MT) Fibrocartilage Bone Stratified Squamous Function: allows passage of material. location: mouth & skin type of tissue: epithelial description: cells are shield like. EPITHELIAL (ET) Blood (vascular) Dense Regular Adipose Pseudostratified Columnar
Transcript: Histologists: Checkin' Out Your Tissues WHAT THEY DO Study miscroscopic tissue Detect disease and other abnormalities in human tissue Conduct research to learn about genetics Check for toxins, ilicit drugs, or radiation during biopsies or autopsies A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A HISTOLOGIST Study form and structure of human and animal tissue Examine minute structure of tissues Colleges and Universities Bachleor's degree Genetics Microbiology Chemistry Statistics 4 Courses in University of Phoenix Kaplan University Ashford University American Intercontinental University Saint Leo University Research Years of school
Transcript: Simple Epithelial Epithelial Tissue NERVOUS TISSUE Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Location: Ligaments, tendons Function: attaches muscle to bone, bone to bone Description: densely packed collagen fibers Reticular Location: heart Function: to pump blood Description: striated, one nucleus per cell Stratified Cuboidal Location: almost everywhere in the body Function: insulates the body, protects some organs, serves as a site of fuel storage Description: many cells containing large lipid deposits Stratified Epithelial Location: attached to the bones Function: contracts to pull on bones or skin Description: striated, multinucleated, long cylindrical Areolar LC Stratified Squamous Location: walls of hollow organs, ex: stomach, uterus, etc Function: moves involuntarily Description: No visible striations, spindle shaped cells, one nucleus per cell Histology Location: around organs, under skin Function: as a packing tissue contains all fiber tissue Description: Soft, pliable tissue, like cobwebs Location: Spinal Cord and Brain Function: To send impulses to other areas of the body Description: composed of neuron cells and nerve supporte cells Hyaline Location: lines digestive track Funtion: Goblet cells secrete mucus, Protection Description: single layer of tall cells Transitional Blood Adipose LC Cartilage Stratified Columnar Elastic Location: Linings of larger ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas Function: Protection Description: Two or three layers of cuboidal cells Location: Larynx, end of bones, entire fetal skeleton before birth Function: provide flexible support Description: abundant collagen fibers with a rubbery matrix Location: Lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow Function: Protection, Binds, Provides support Description: Delicate networks of interwoven fibers Simple Columnar Elastic DC Simple Cuboidal Location: Respiratory system Function: Absorb and Excrete Description: single layer but some cells are shorter than others Location: glands and ducts; wall of kidney tubules; covers the ovaries Function: Absorption and secretion in kidneys, secretion in glands Description: single layer of cube like cells Identifying and classifying the four tissues NERVE Location: Skin Function: Protection, moisture Descprition: Cells at the top are flattened Dense Irregular Skeletal Muscle Dense Regular DC Location: Salivary Glan Function: Absorption & Secretion Description: Surface cells are columnar, underneath vary in size and shape Cardiac Muscle Location: Inner lining of urinary bladder, uterus, upper urethra Function: Changes in response to pressure/tension, expandable lining, barrier to prevent diffusion Descprition: Several layers that can stretch and change physical relationship Location: Ear Function: produces elasticity Description: Freely branched elastic fibers Connective Tissue Proper Location: bone Function: used to protect and support the body Description: Hard matrix of calcium salts; large numbers of collagen fibers Location: in body Function: transport material Description: blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma FibroCartilage Location: in between vertabrare Function: higly compressible Description: densely packed thick collagen fibers Location: around organs, under skin Function: withstands pressure Description: mainly collagen fibers Pseudostratified Columnar Simple Squamous Bone Osseous Location: lines body cavities, lungs, and capillaries Function: Diffusion, Filtration, Osmosis, Cover Surfaces Description: single layer of flat cells Smooth muscle Location: Ear Function: produces elasticity Description: Freely branched elastic fibers
Transcript: Histology! the study of tissues! Tissues are groups of cells similar in structure and function There are four types of tissues: -Epithelial -Connective -Muscle -Nerve -Epithelial Tissues are composed alomost entirely of cells. -They form continous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes. - Epithelial tissues are also regenerative which means they rapdily replace lost cellsby cell division. -Epithelial Tissues are avascular but innervated which means they contain no blood vessels but supplied by nerve fibers. -They are also supported by connective tissue, reticular and basal laminae. -These tissues are also polar. They have apical and basal surfaces. Epithelial Tissues can be classified by different things. Their type: The shape of their cells: -Squamos -Cubodial -Glandular -Columnar -Transitional -Flattened The number of cell layers: -Simple -Stratified Whether they have surface specialisations: -Cilia -Keratin Simple Squamos: This is a single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. The functions of this tissue allow passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important. They also provide a slick, friction-reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular systems. This is present in the kidney glomeruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serosae. Simple Cuboidal This is a single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei. The functions of this tissue are in secretion and absorbtion. It is present in kidney tubukes, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface. Simple Columnar This is a single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei and there are many that contain cilia. There are often goblet cells found in this layer. The functions of this tissue are in absorption and secretion. The nonciliated type line the digestive tract and the gallbladder. The ciliated type line the small bronchi, uterine tubes,, and some regions of the uterus. The cilia help move substances through internal passageways. Pseudostratified Columnar This is a single layer of cells with different heights. Some tissues do not reach the free surface. There are nuclei that are seen at different layers The functions are in secreation and propulsion of mucus. The nonciliated types are located in the male sperm-carrying ducts. The ciliated types are in the trachea. Stratified Squamos This is a thick membrane composed of several layers of cells. The function is in protection of underlying areas subjected to abraision. This tissue forms the external part of the skin's epidermis. These are the keratinized types. It also forms the linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagna. These are the nonkeratinized types. Stratified Cuboidal This tissue is actually quite rare in the body. It is found in some sweat and mammary glands. This tissue is typically two layers thick. This provides a more robust lining then a Simple Epithelium. Stratified Columnar This tissue has liminted distribution in the body. It is found in the pharynx, male urethra, and some lining glandular ducts. It also occurs at transition areas between two other types of epithelia. Transitional This tissue has several cell layers. The basal cells are cubodial and the surface cells are dome shaped. It resembles the stratified squamos and stratified cubodial. This tissue stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder. It lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra. Glandular This is one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid. It can be classified by the site of the product release. This is in the endocrine and exocrine glands. It can also be classified by the relative number of cells forming the gland. (unicellular or multicellular.) Endocine glands are ductless glands that produce hormones. Secretions include amino acids, proteins, glycoprotiens, and steroids. Exocrine glands are more numerous than endocrine glands. They secrete their products onto the skin or into body cavities. Some examples are mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands. FUN FACT: The only important unicellular gland is the goblet cell. The multicellular exocrine glands are made of a duct and a secretory unit. Multicellular Glands are classified by: -Whether they have a simple or compound duct type -The structure of their secretory units Just a little extra info! There are two modes of Secretion: -Merocrine: The products are secreted by exocytosis EX: Pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands -Holocrine: The products are secreted by the rupture of gland cells EX: Sebaceous glands Now we move on to Connective Tissues! Connective Tissues are found throughout the whole body. They are most abudunant and widely distributed in primary tissues There is: -Connective tissue proper -Cartilage -Bone -Blood Each class of connective tissue can be seperated into different subclasses: Connective Tissue Proper Bone -Loose connective tissue -Compact bone Types: Areolar,
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Transcript: Epithelial Tissue Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Stratified Squamous Keratinized Stratified Squamous Non-Keratinized Transitional Epithelium Connective Tissue Areolar (Loose Connective Tissue) Adipose Tissue Dense Regular Dense Irregular Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Bone Nervous Tissue Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Function: Location: Function: By lining the surface of various ducts of various glands and organs, simple cuboidal cells are able to provide a layer of protection from abrasion, foreign particles, invading bacteria and excessive water loss (due to its selective permeability) to the underlying tissue Location: lines the surface of small excretory ducts in various organs and glands in the body, compose some of the kidney tubules in the kortex of the kidney, and create the covering of the ovary Function: Location: Function: Location: Histology Function: •provide protection against: mechanical friction - rubbing and physical trauma from external sources chemical damage - environmental and internal chemicals/compounds degrading epithelial lining Location: lining of the esophagus - protection of the esophagus from stomach acid, non-keratinized, mucousal cell layer Function: Location: Function: Location: Function: is protection Location: They are found throughout the body's organ system, including the digestive tract and the female reproductive system Function: Location: Function: Location: Function: Location: Function: Location: Function: Location: Function: to allow materials to pass through Location: Function: Location:
Transcript: Female Reproductive System Concerned with the Production and transport of ova, spermatozoa, fertilization, and the conceptus until birth. Combined exocrine nad endocrine gland. Produces both ova and ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone). it is divided into an outer cortex and inner medulla. CORTEX Broad peripheral zone containing follicles and corpora lutea(embeded in tha loose C.T stroma. Covered by a low cuboidal surface epithelium. Tunica albuginea- Thick C.T layer Follicular development •Oocyte growth is most rapid during the first part of follicular growth, the nucleus enlarges, mitochondria increases in number •Follicular cells divide by mitosis. The follicle is then called unilaminar primary follicle.(single layer of cuboidal cells) Parental or multilaminar primary •Cells continue to proliferate and forms stratified follicular epithelium or granalosa layer. •A thick amorphous layer, the zona pellucid composed of 3 gycoproteins is secreted around the oocyte. •As the follicles grow accumulation of liquid emerge between the follicular cells. •Granulose cells then reorganize themselves to form a larger cavity(antrum). Primary follicles Composed of primary oocyte. sorrounded by simple cuboidal epithelium of follicular cells. begin first mitotic division before birth (completion of prophase does not occur until time of ovulation. Secondary Follicles composed of primary oocyte sorrounded by a stratified epithelium or also called as granulosa cells. Zona pellucida is immidiately secreted by granulosa cells sorrounding the oocyte. secondary or antral follicles •During the reorganization of granulose cells some of this layer concentrates at a certain point on the follicular wall. •This group forms a small hillock of cells the cumulus oophorus. •Another group concentrates around the oocyte to produce corona radiata. Tertiary Follicles/graafian follicles Composed of primary oocyte that are sorrounded by stratified epithelium of granulosa cells. granulosa cells are sorrounded by a multilaminar layer of specialized stroma cells (theca) In large tertiary follicles, the granulosa cells sorrounding the oocyte becomes columnar and radially disposed (corona radiata) Ovulation when the follicle is fully developed, it protrudes from the surface of the ovary. abundant blood and blood vessel networks surround the follicle and an increased secretion rate is facilitated by increases in the follicular blood capillary pressure and permeability during proestrus and estrus. at ovulation the follicles rupture, collapses and shrinks as the liquour pressure is reduced. •Consist of the rupture of part of the wall of the mature follicle and liberation of oocyte, which is caught by the dilated extremity of the oviduct. •The stimulus for ovulation is a surge of lutenizing hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland response to the high estrogen produced by the growing follicles. •The first meiotic division is completed just before ovulation. •One of the secondary oocytes retains almost all of the cytoplasm. The order becomes the first polar body (contains a small nucleus and a minimal amount of cytoplasm) •After the expulsion of the first polar body the nucleus of the oocyte starts the second meiotic division. Medulla It is the inner area of the ovary containing nerves, many large and coiled blood vessels and lymph vessels. it consist of loose connective tissue and strands of smooth muscle continous with those mesovarium. Uterine Tube Bilateral tortuous structuers that extend from the region of the ovary to the uterine horns. 3 Segments of uterine tube infundibulum(large funnel shape) Ampulla (thin walled section) Isthmus (narrow muscular segment) Histologic Structure epithelium is simple columnar or pseudostratified columnar with motile cilia on most cells. Mosphologic signs of secretory activity are evident only in non ciliated cells. during the luteal phase the secretory cells become taller than the ciliated cells. mucosa is continuous with the submucosa in the female reproductive tract because the thin lamina muscularis is absent. Histologic structure in the uterine tube the propia sub-mucosa consist of loose connective tissue with many plasma cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. Histologic structure The tunica muscularis consist chiefly of circular smooth muscle Corpus luteum •Cells of the theca interna of the ovulated follicle reorganize to form a temporary endocrine called the corpus luteum. Oviducts •2 muscular tubes of great mobility. One of its extremities extend to the infundibulum and opens to the peritoneal cavity and the other passes through the uterine. •Epithelium contains 2 types of cell -With cilia- beat towards the uterus causing movement -secretory •The wall composed of 3 walls: -Mucosa-composed of columnar epithelium, lamina propia and loose connective tissue. -Thick muscularis- composed of smooth muscle -Serosa- composed of visceral peritoneum Uterus •Pear shaped organ that consist of a body(corpus), a
Transcript: What is Histology Histology is the examination of tissues. What do Histologists do? Epithelial Tissue: Which covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, and forms glands. Connective Tissue: Fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues, transports materials within the body, and stores energy. Muscle Tissue: Muscle of the heart and muscular walls of hollow organs. Neural Tissue: Carrying information from one part of the body to another. The surface of your skin which includes epithelia and glands. Characteristics A) Cellularity B) Polarity C) Attachment D) Avascularity E) Regeneration Functions Provide Physical Protection Control Permeability Provide Sensation Produce Specialized Secretions Specializations The movement of fluids over the epithelial surface providing protection and lubrication. The movement of fluids through the epithelium to control permeability The production of secretions that provide physical protection or act as chemical messengers Squamous : Thin , flat and irregular in shape, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Cuboidal: Resemble Hexagonal Boxes. Columnar: Appear Rectangular. Simple: One layer of cells covers the basal Lamina Stratified: Several layers of cells cover the basal Lamina. Located where mechanical stresses are severe. Provides limited protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place Relatively rare and located along the ducts of sweat glands and in larger ducts of mammary glands. Is found where absorption or secretion occurs. Rare, And provides protection. Hyaline Techniques used to prepare slides for histological study - Frozen Section Fixation -Processing - Dehydration, Clearing, and Infiltration Embedding Sectioning Staining Sectioning Perparation of staining Histology Processing - Dehydration, Clearing, and Infiltration Embedding Stratified Columnar Epithelium Classification of Epithelia Stratified Squamous Epithelium Fibro cartilage Frozen Section Fixation Simple Squamous Epithelium Simple Columnar Epithelium Histology applied Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Staining Simple Cubodial Epithelium Histolo Adipose Tissue Reticular Tissue Epithelial Tissue Bone Tissue Simple Columnar Epithelium
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