Transcript: When sound waves enter the outer ear, the vibrations impact the ear drum and are transmitted to the middle and inner ear. In the middle ear three small bones called the malleus (or hammer), the incus (or anvil), and the stapes (or stirrup) amplify and transmit the vibrations generated by the sound to the inner ear. The inner ear contains a snail-like structure called the cochlea which is filled with fluid and lined with cells with very fine hairs. These microscopic hairs move with the vibrations and convert the sound waves into nerve impulses–the result is the sound we hear. Exposure to loud noise can destroy these hair cells and cause hearing loss! Hearing Conservation You hear ringing or humming in your ears when you leave work. You have to shout to be heard by a coworker an arm's length away. You experience temporary hearing loss when leaving work. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that all worker exposures to noise should be controlled below a level equivalent to 85 dBA for eight hours to minimize occupational noise induced hearing loss. NIOSH has found that significant noise-induced hearing loss occurs at the exposure levels equivalent to the OSHA PEL based on updated information obtained from literature reviews. NIOSH also recommends a 3 dBA exchange rate so that every increase by 3 dBA doubles the amount of the noise and halves the recommended amount of exposure time. In 1981, OSHA implemented new requirements to protect all workers in general industry for employers to implement a Hearing Conservation Program where workers are exposed to a time weighted average noise level of 85 dBA or higher over an 8 hour work shift. Do I always protect my hearing? Operating noisy machines during shifts when fewer people are exposed. Limiting the amount of time a person spends at a noise source. Providing quiet areas where workers can gain relief from hazardous noise sources Restricting worker presence to a suitable distance away from noisy equipment. In open space, for every doubling of the distance between the source of noise and the worker, the noise is decreased by 6 dBA. Why are loud noises a problem? All I Blow is Loud Hearing Conservation How do ears work? Measurement 29 CFR 1910.95 Choose low-noise tools and machinery Maintain and lubricate machinery and equipment Place a barrier between the noise source and employee Enclose or isolate the noise source Protection Too Loud? Exposure to high levels of noise can cause permanent hearing loss. Neither surgery nor a hearing aid can help correct this type of hearing loss. Short term exposure to loud noise can also cause a temporary change in hearing (your ears may feel stuffed up) or a ringing in your ears (tinnitus). These short-term problems may go away within a few minutes or hours after leaving the noisy area. However, repeated exposures to loud noise can lead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing loss. Hearing Protection Devices OF COURSE! Hearing protection devices (HPDs), such as earmuffs and plugs, are considered an acceptable but less desirable option to control exposures to noise and are generally used during the time necessary to implement engineering or administrative controls, when such controls are not feasible, or when worker's hearing tests indicate significant hearing damage. OSHA OSHA sets legal limits on noise exposure in the workplace. These limits are based on a worker's time weighted average over an 8 hour day. With noise, OSHA's permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 90 dBA for all workers for an 8 hour day. The OSHA standard uses a 5 dBA exchange rate. This means that when the noise level is increased by 5 dBA, the amount of time a person can be exposed to a certain noise level to receive the same dose is cut in half. Limits Administrative controls Engineering Controls Noise is measured in units of sound pressure levels called decibels, named after Alexander Graham Bell, using A-weighted sound levels (dBA). The A-weighted sound levels closely match the perception of loudness by the human ear. Decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale which means that a small change in the number of decibels results in a huge change in the amount of noise and the potential damage to a person's hearing. Noise may be a problem in your workplace if: As a rule of thumb, the OSHA procedure of computing the dual protection by adding 5 dB to the Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) of the more protective of the two devices is a reasonable approximation. NIOSH
Transcript: Garvey, D. J. (2015, September). Hearing Conservation in Construction. Professional Safety, 60(9), 5p, 30-34. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&sid=757f9562-dba2-416f-a3b0-ef633987899f@sessionmgr2 Jin, S., Nelson, P., Schlauch, R., & Carney, E. (2013). Hearing conservation program for marching band members: a risk for noise-induced hearing loss? American Journal of Audiology, 22, 26-39. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2012/11-0030). Murphy, W. J., & Griest, S. E. (2014). The Art of Hearing Conservation. International Journal of Audiology, 53(Sup2). doi:10.3109/14992027.2013.858188 Hearing perception is 3 feet or less Prevention Training Education Hearing Conservation What is Hearing Conservation? Hearing Protected Devices Educating on Hearing Loss Encourage healthy hearing Value of using HPDs Extremely loud: 110dB-mp3 players 106dB-lawnmowers 100dB- hand drill 90dB subway/motorcycle Fausti, S., Wilmington, D., Helt, P., Helt, W., Konrad-Martin, D. (2005). Hearing health and care: The need for improved hearing loss prevention and hearing conservation practices. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 42, 45-62. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2005.02.0039. Hearing Protective Devices (HPD's) Education through Evidence Based Curriculum Replacement of tools 1/4 all hearing loss in US can be blamed for noise exposure Military Jessica Fuller & Chloe' Boykin Signs you may be at risk Training Individuals at Risk Cause Identification Band & Orchestra Damaging Noise Exposure Raising voice when speaking Sounds are Muffled Painful: 150dB- fireworks at 3 ft 140dB-firearms 130dB-jackhammer 120dB-sirens Awareness of Hearing Loss Construction Workers 16-20% of ages 12-19 will have hearing loss Prevention Factory Workers Very Loud: 80-90dB- hairdryer, food processor, and kitchen blender Musicians Ringing and hurting of the ears References Prevalence Occupational noise exposure affects 40 million Americans Loud Music Lovers
Transcript: How Long? Questions? Questions? Hearing Loss Testing Results take place? What is hearing loss? REVIEW By Tim Campbell Permanent Hearing Loss - Results from exposure to a moderate or high level of noise over a long period of time PPE Remember the Hierarchy of controls?.... Cochlea Sudden loud noises Long sustained sounds High pitched noise HEARING CONSERVATION Monitoring Diminished sensitivity to sound and detection at normal volumes Audiometric Testing Prevention Questions?... Hearing Protection can reduce damage Hearing Protection only works if it is worn and worn properly Know when to wear Hearing Protection Where does hearing loss Engineering Controls Ruptured eardrum Loud blasts of noise, sudden changes in pressure, poking your eardrum with an object, and infection can cause your eardrum to rupture and affect your hearing. Isolating noisy equipment Barriers between equipment and workers. Insulating equipment or machinery Change to quieter tooling There are 3 types 1. Sensorineural - Viral infections (measles), blow to the head, loud noises 2. Conductive - Less common, due to obstruction, and infection 3. Mixed- combination of Sensionerual and Conductive Noise Hazards Temporary Hearing Loss - Results from short term exposure to noise -Hearing returns when away from the noise What happens? Noise Dosimeters Personal Noise Indicators Monitors employees hearing over time Baseline audiogram used from first test going forward Annual audiograms required for specific positions Testing is paid by the employer Tests are retained (30 years) Acute Examples: Earplugs - different Noise Reduction Ratings. Can reduce decibels up to 35 dB. Earmuffs - Same reduction, different style for user Hearing loss is permanent Most tests showed <80 decibels TWA
Transcript: Hearing Conservation Allowable Time of Exposure Engineering Control Barriers low-noise machinery Maintained machinery and equipment Administrative Control Use of loud machinery with less people around Limiting worker presence near loud machinery Distancing the workers from the noise source High decibel exposure can cause hearing loss Moderately high decibels may also cause hearing loss over long exposure Noise can promote stress, reduced productivity, and can cause accidents Conclusion Health Effects Employers must issue either earmuffs or earplugs Both have a noise reduction rating (NRR) All hearing protection must be fit to reduce sounds to Acceptable limits EX. Noise level of 104 dBA, protectors rated 31 NRR. subtract 7 from 31, 24 dBA subtracted from 104 dBA is 80 dBA By Anthony Ju & Jose Mansanares design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi Back Hoe 85-95 dBA Chain Saw 110 dBA Front-end Loader 90-95 dBA 9mm Handgun 160 dBA Jackhammer 112 dBA Lawn Mower 90 dBA Tractor 95-105 dBA Circular Saw 90-100 dBA Exposure Cont... Equipment Noise level Exposure Requirements (PPE) Noise level Control Hearing conservation is a huge problem in the construction and other operations Wearing ear protection can protect the health of the workers both physically and mentally. Wear your hearing protector when around loud noises. 85 dBA 8 Hours 90 dBA 4 Hours 100 dBA 1 Hour 105 dBA 30 Minutes 110 dBA 15 Minutes 115 dBA 0 Minutes
Transcript: Noise is: Sound without information Randomly variable Constant Unpleasant Unnecessary Unwanted Noise can be any of these, or all of these, depending on a person’s perception. Contribute to hearing loss Interfere with communication Annoy or distract Alter performance of tasks Cause irritability, anxiety, stress High blood pressure and elevated pulse rate Can Be Temporary – After a loud concert, usually recovers, varies with age and health Permanent – Hearing gradually decreases, does not recover Initial hearing loss typically starts at the 4000 Hz range Hearing becomes “muffled” Cannot be measured “directly” by checking for damage Hearing tests (audiograms) measure an individuals ability to hear various frequencies The next two slides show a normal hearing chart and a hearing loss chart Right ear = 0 Left ear = X Notice how the chart drops significantly at the 4000 Hz range on the second chart OSHA requires employers to provide hearing protection for employees to use when the average noise levels reach 85 dB in an 8 hour workday. OSHA requires hearing protection to be worn when average noise levels reach 90 dB or higher in an 8 hour workday. Ear plugs and ear muffs are rated for noise reduction, called Noise Reduction Rating or NRR (measured in decibels or dB) 28 dB NRR actually provides 10.5 dB of protection, so; (After using an equation specifically for NRR) 90 dB of noise – 28 dB NRR does not equal 62 dB of actual noise exposure Actual protection is 90 dB – 10.5 dB does equal 79.5 dB of actual noise exposure (For informational purposes only) Advantages: less attenuation variability among users designed so that one size fits most head sizes easily seen at a distance to assist in the monitoring of their use not easily misplaced or lost may be worn with minor ear infections Disadvantages: less portable and heavier more inconvenient for use with other personal protective equipment. more uncomfortable in hot, humid work areas more inconvenient for use in confined work areas may interfere with the wearing of safety or prescription glasses: wearing glasses results in breaking the seal between the ear muff and the skin and results in decreased hearing protection. Advantages: small and easily carried convenient to use with other personal protection equipment (can be worn with ear muffs) more comfortable for long-term wear in hot, humid work areas convenient for use in confined work areas Disadvantages: requires more time to fit more difficult to insert and remove require good hygiene practices may irritate the ear canal easily misplaced more difficult to see and monitor usage Hearing protection does not reduce noise exposure when worn incorrectly Proper fitting techniques are explained in the following video Loud noise is one of the leading causes of hearing loss. But some simple steps can help reduce your risk. Turn down the volume. Keep your iPod or mp3 player at about 60 percent of maximum volume and don't listen for more than an hour at a time. Also turn down your cell phone headset. Switch out ear buds for headphones that cancel out background noise so you can keep the volume low. If you're mowing the lawn, working with power tools, or going to a concert, wear foam or custom-molded ear plugs. And see your doctor or an audiologist for regular hearing tests. I hadn’t really noticed that I had a hearing problem. I just thought most people had given up on speaking clearly. Hal Linden THINK SAFETY A pin drop 10 dB A whisper 30 dB A refrigerator 50 dB A shower 70 dB A lawn mower 90 dB A handheld drill 100 dB A rock band 110 dB A thunder clap 120 dB A shotgun 160 dB Sample Noise Reduction Rating Hearing Charts (Audiograms) 4000 Hz Noise Induced Hearing Loss 4000 Hz Sound Primary difference is perception No instrument can distinguish between noise and sound What is sound? Sound is pressure variations the ear can detect. Hearing Conservation Steps for Reducing Noise Exposure Noise vs. Sound Ear Plugs How do you know which type of hearing protection is best for you? Steps for Reducing Noise Exposure Hearing Protection Common Noise Levels Advantages: small and easily carried convenient to use with other personal protection equipment (can be worn with ear muffs) more comfortable for long-term wear in hot, humid work areas convenient for use in confined work areas Disadvantages: requires more time to fit more difficult to insert and remove require good hygiene practices may irritate the ear canal easily misplaced more difficult to see and monitor usage Ear plugs and ear muffs are rated for noise reduction, called Noise Reduction Rating or NRR (measured in decibels or dB) 28 dB NRR actually provides 10.5 dB of protection, so; (After using an equation specifically for NRR) 90 dB of noise – 28 dB NRR does not equal 62 dB of actual noise exposure Actual protection is 90 dB – 10.5 dB does equal 79.5 dB of actual noise exposure (For informational purposes only) Hearing Loss Prevention Advantages: small and easily carried
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Source: Clark, J. G. (1981). Uses and abuses of hearing loss classification. Asha, 23, 493–500. Hearing Conservation How loud is too loud? Clicker question: What decibel (dB) level can be damaging to your ears? Role of the Audiologist References http://www-personal.umich.edu/~lusk/sallynihl.html Three Key points to Remember: Provide Hearing screenings Provide information to students and parents about noise induced hearing loss and hearing conservation Keep your students informed about how they can protect their hearing Listen to music at a lower level Leave noisy situations Wear ear plugs when at a concert or sporting event Measure your classroom dB level- does it need to be quieter? Or maybe bring in a speaker about hearing conservation! What is "normal" hearing? Hearing loss prevention sample handout Follow up Activities What can happen if you listen to dangerous noise levels? http://www.greatervoice.com/modules/hearing_health_technology/audiogram_familiar_sounds.html Noise induced hearing loss is permanent Noise induced hearing loss is preventable Exposure to levels at or above 85 dB for prolonged periods of time can damage your hearing. Where the loud noises are coming from? https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/noise-induced-hearing-loss Noise Induced Hearing Loss Audiogram A. 25 dB B. 50 dB C. 70 dB D. 85 dB Music in your car or headphones Lawnmowers Hair blow dryers Concerts Fireworks There are a lot of noises we are around everyday that can be dangerous to our hearing. CSD Educational Audiology 4460 Presentation by Annie Greenwood and Makenzie Richards Educational Audiologist Handbook. Chapter 10 How to set a maximum volume limit on an iPhone http://dangerousdecibels.org/education/information-center/decibel-exposure-time-guidelines/ People with a "normal" degree of hearing loss ranges from -10 to 15 dB on an audiogram. Degree of hearing loss range (dB HL): -Normal -10 to 15 -Slight 16 to 25 -Mild 26 to 40 -Moderate 41 to 55 -Moderately severe 56 to 70 -Severe 71 to 90 -Profound 91+ Educational Audiology Handbook pg. 441 http://www-personal.umich.edu/~lusk/sallynihl.html Hearing loss- this is permanent! Tinnitus- ringing in the ears Go to settings on your phone Tap "Music" in the list of settings. Tap "Volume Limit" in the list of Music settings. Drag the slider to adjust the maximum volume level to your liking Role of the Teacher...that's you! Hearing Conservation http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Classroom-Acoustics/ http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/noise/promoting.htm http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/noise/noisemeter.html http://www.chchearing.org/noise/noise-induced-hearing-loss/ Clark, J. G. Uses and abuses of hearing loss classification. ASHA, 1981, 23, 493–500. http://dangerousdecibels.org/education/information-center/noise-induced-hearing-loss/ https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/noise-induced-hearing-loss http://www-personal.umich.edu/~lusk/sallynihl.htm Johnson, Cheryl DeConde., Peggy V. Benson, and Jane B. Seaton. Educational Audiology Handbook. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Singular Pub. Group, 1997. Print. 429-444. http://www.greatervoice.com/modules/hearing_health_technology/audiogram_familiar_sounds.html http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Noise/ http://chchearing.org/noise/noise-induced-hearing-loss/ Sounds that are louder than 85 dB can cause permanent hearing loss. Noise induced hearing loss typically occurs gradually and without pain http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/noise/noisemeter.html Set a maximum volume on mobile phone and show your students how to too. Download an app to measure dB levels around various places in the home, outside, car, classroom, and anywhere else! There are quite a few free decibel meters on the App store Consider turning down the music at the next school dance Normal Hearing Audiogram
Transcript: UMA Hearing Conservation Effects of noise/Efectos del ruido Effects of noise/Efectos del ruido Noise hazards/Peligros del ruido Noise hazards/Peligros del ruido Control measures/Medidas de control Control measures/Medidas de control Hearing Protection Hearing Protection Purpose/procedure for audiometric testing/Propósit... Purpose/procedure for audiometric testing/Propósit... https://www.trainingnetworknow.com/Topics/OSHA-Compliance/PPE-Hearing/To-The-Point-About-Preventing-Hearing-Loss-en
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