Transcript: What is a Coral Reef? A coral reef is a sea structure made out of living organisms which together form a wall. Stony corals are usually the main organism found in a coral reef, but other types of skeletal material also join together to form the thick walls. A coral reef is also "constructed" by the thousands of fish, sponges, and sea urchins grazing around the area. As these organisms move about, they actually help the coral reef settle and gain a more stable structure. Waves are also partly responsible for the size and format of a coral reef, as they affect the geology of the formation. Climate Change Impacts: Coral reefs are are vulnerable to warm water temperatures. When the water temperature rise, the algae that lives in coral dies, which makes large spaces of dead coral reefs.t Exploring Oceans: Great Barrier Reef Fun Facts The world's first coral reefs occurred about 500 million years ago, and the first close relatives of modern corals developed in southern Europe about 230 million years ago. By comparison, the Great Barrier Reef is relatively young at just 500,000 years old. The current reef's structure is much younger at less than around 8,000 years old. Coral only grows a few inches each year. Most coral reefs started developing over 10,000 years ago. One third of all fish species can be found on coral reefs. Coral can be found in warm shallow seas or oceans. No two reefs are exactly alike. The Great Barrier Reef has more than 2,600 kinds of coral altogether. It is the largest group of coral in the world. All together, it covers an area about half the size of Texas a coral reef is home to alot of sea animals and plants. Coral reefs can have different sizes, shapes, and colors. Coral reefs are found in shallow waters of the ocean. Hawaii and Australia are famous for their coral reefs.
Transcript: Corals are made up of tiny organisms called polyps. These Polyps are divided into two groups; Hard Scleractinian Corals and Soft Corals. The polyp sits inside a calyx, or cup, made of limestone (calcium carbonate). As the polyps live, reproduce, and die, they leave their skeletons behind. A coral reef is built up by layers of these skeletons covered by living polyps, which are further cemented together by organisms like coralline algae, and physical processes like waves washing sand into spaces in the reef. As a result of the above 3 types of Coral Reef can be formed. They are: Fringing reefs, which grow close to the coast in shallow waters. Barrier reefs, which are large, continuous and are separated from land by a lagoon. Atolls, which are ring-shaped and located near the sea surface on top of underwater islands or inactive volcanoes. Corals contain algae which give it its colour. This allows the coral to undergo photosynthesis which provides the structure with energy. The tips of the corals remain white as they haven't yet aquired a symbiotic algae. An Example of a Coral Reef Biomes is the Great Barrier Reef. Creating marine reserves off limits to fishing More species should be protected by law Play a role in preserving aquatic resources Consumers should choose to buy items with less packaging, generate less waste and recycle more Tourists Take Care Various species of corals are found in all oceans of the world, from the tropics to the polar regions. Coral reefs are generally found within 30*N and 30*S latitudes. Reef-building corals are scattered throughout the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans, generally within 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S latitudes. Western Atlantic reefs include these areas: Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Caribbean Islands, Belize, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. The Indo-Pacific ocean region extends from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf through the Indian and Pacific oceans to the western coast of Panama. Corals grow on rocky outcrops in some areas of the Gulf of California. Coral Reef Biomes provide our oceans with the highest biodiversity than any other marine ecosystem. Coral Reef Biomes harbour more than 25% of fish speices. Biodiversity is a healthy way of maintaining Coral Reef Biomes. Healthy Biodiversity ensure ensure reefs survive mass bleeching and global stresses. When multiple species occupy similar niches on the reef, disease, predation or other pressures affecting a single species are balanced by the presence of unaffected species that fill the ecological gap. When biodiversity is low, those few species can be depleted by a single source of stress. http://www.untamedscience.com/biology/world-biomes/coral-reefs-biome Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Anthozoa Subclasses: Octocorallia Zoantharia Tabulata Some characteristics specific to Coral Reef include: The body is symmetrical around a central axis Lack a head Have a crown of tentacles around the mouth Possess nematocysts http://untamedscience.com Protection: Classification Some Info: Ocean Acidification Carbon Dioxide Ocean Warming Coral Bleaching Water Pollution Sedimentation Coastal Developments Careless Tourism Ozone Depletion Destructive Fishing Distribution Biodiversity Coral Reef Biome Corals are Anthozoans, the largest of the Phylum Cnidaria..... ''the biologically richest and most diverse of all marine biomes'' As a result of human interference it is estimated that 60% of Coral Reef Biome are at risk of destruction Coral Reefs are Limestone formations primarily comprised of corals which are small invertebrate marine animals. Individual coral are called a polyp. Polyps are cylindrical in shape with an exoskeleton. The exoskeletons give each polyp a hard rock-like outer body and a sac-like inner body. Chemically, corals secrete calcium carbonate from their bodies, which form their exoskeletons. Corals are immobile therefore individual polyps cluster together to form colonies. This action allows them to secrete calcium carbonate and form coral reefs. Overtime as the amount of secreted calcium carbonate builds up, coral reefs are able to expand their areas of inhabitance. Coral Reefs attract algae which act as a food source and in turn the algae receive shelter. Harmed Coral Reef References Threats Human Impact: Physical Features.... Ref: untamedscience.com Corals can reproduce sexually and asexually. Sexual Reproduction: Corals release an egg and a sperm. The fertilised eggs then develop into Planktonic Larvae. The Planktonic larvae then relocate to a hard surface. Individual Polyps begin to form by a process of budding. The first Polyps to form is considered to be the parent of the Coral. Asexual Reproduction: Fragments break off from an already formed Coral structure. Budding occurs on the old Polyp. As the budding continues the coral begins to form and a new colony starts. (untamedscience.com) Coral reefs are to be found only in regions where the temperature is always above 18°C in winter.
Transcript: Where our Fishes are located True coral fish are unique, they're located in the Indian oceans with other wild organisms. Their bravery and stipped colors allows them to survive and stay safe! True corals are males and females , although i have a male true coral fish that has coral penis to help them interact with other true coral female fishes. Habitat Coral HeavenFish The majority of the coral’s energy needs are provided by tiny algae , which live inside the coral and produce food using the sun’s energy from carbon dioxide and water. They live together in a symbiotic relationship. This partnership allows corals to live in nutrient-poor environments where sunlight is a plentiful source of energy and the supply of planktonic food is limited. Corals also use their tentacles to capture tiny marine animals called plankton. At night, the corals’ tentacles extend from their bodies and wave in the water, collecting plankton to eat. Starfish move very slowly along the sea floor using hundreds of tiny tube-feet, Member They can Survive off flake food. They also eat live foods like, Brine Shrimp, Black Worms, Mosquito larvae. True Coral Fish maintain water balance. As the ocean starts warm up the fish start to starve to death. Hurricanes, typhoons, El Niño, coral-eating organisms, and diseases are natural disasters coral reefs have been facing every year. It might destroy some coloni coral. However it also helpful to creat new coloni because when the wave broke the coral and move it to other place, the new coral coloni will creat in the new land. The heaven fish is located mostly in South America. This fish goes up to 6" in length and colors varies. There are male and females heavenfish and the fishes breed. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Starfish do not have true brains. They have a cluster of nerves called ganglia that form a ring in the centre of the starfish. Group Group Member If a starfish loses one arm it will grow again easily. Branching of Coral sea star use suction in the tube feet for movement and feeding. Heaven Fish that are like little tubes with a circle at the end, that help it to walk and climb; if a wave moves the starfish it will hold onto a rock with its tube feet. size:up to 12 inches across when mature. True coral Member Member Coral Imagie TRUE CORAL FISH ! Asexual Reproduction Environmental disturbances may dislodge some polyps or portions of colonies from the parent colony and deposit them on another part of the reef. Sometimes, newly developing coral colonies split and form separate colonies. Star Fish Coral flower True corals life -You can find this fish in the Gulf of mexico and flordia and other places . They are able to find their way through the most intricate passages by swimming on its side or even upside down. Like its relatives they mate for life and therefore they will often be seen in pairs. They are one of a few fish that mate for life[ Heaven Fish Locomotion and Interesting Facts Clo-Star Member Feeding Physical Description when their population grows sea star can consume entire beds of shellfish Member (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Member sea star are not fish as their nickname (star fish) suggest. star fish size depends on the amount of the food they eat not on their age. they belong to a group of animal called echinoderms,wich means (spiny skin) they are related to brittlestars,sea urchins,sea cucumbers, and sand dollars. sea star have 5 arms ,or rays,connected to a small round body.sea stars detect light with 5 purple eyespots at the end of each arm .the bright orange dot in the center of the body is called the madreporite .this organ pumps water into the sea stars body.this pumping action creats suction at the end of 100 tube feet ,located in paired rows on the underside of the arms copy paste branches if you need more.... ENERGY AND MATTER With the exception of eye spots in the tip of each arm there are no specialised sense organs (such as eyes or ears). These eyespots sense light and smell sea star can devour over 50 young clams in a week invertebrates that live on the ocean floor. Member Other echinoderms are the sea cucumbers and the sea urchin. Member sea star breed in the spring ,producting as many as 2,500,000 eggs.females will feel plump and spongy when their arms filled with eggs. Starfish are hard-skinned animals which have spines that help to protect them. Member sea star Member Coral Reproduction Global warming is one of the problem destroy the coral. Global warming make the raise the sea level and also the temperture in the sea. If the frequency of high-temperature episodes increases as mean temperature gradually rises, corals will experience more frequent and widespread disturbances.” More About The Clo-Star The name of this fish came about because it is a mixture of a clownfish and a starfish. The color of a clo-star varies. Like a starfish does, as well as its texture. The way it is viewed it looks like a clown fish the way it is outlined, but the
Transcript: Great Barrier Reef The animals of this area are: cone snail ,potato cod ,triggerfish, nudibranchs, loggerhead turtle, hawksbill turtle, flatback turtle, leatherback turtle and the Pacific ridley turtle The biggest animals of the Great Barrier Reef are, of course, the whales. There are 30 plus species of whale that live in the Great Barrier Reef area, with both dwarf minke whales (baleen whales) and humpback whales being frequent visitors during their migration periods. The Great Barrier Reef is home to many more animals, which makes it an excellent spot to observe the ocean's diversity. Located off the coast of Queensland in the Northeastern area of Australia.The Great Barrier Reef surely remains to be one of the most mesmerizing wonders of the world! Located off the coast of Queensland in the Northeastern area of Australia.
Transcript: Coral Reef Coral reefs have been around for more than a billion years. For A long time coral was thought to be a plant. But in 1723 they were to be proposed as animals by naturalist Jean Andre’ Peyssonel. Only in the South Pacific, so far over 700 species have been discovered. Coral reefs are killed many ways, like dynamite fishing, using poisoned bait, and soil and waist being washed into the oceans then into the reefs. Coral reefs are like big ecosystems of the oceans, housing many of the oceans sea creatures, it is like the rainforest of the ocean. 1994 The significant decline of reefs due to human activity was beginning to be documented. CORAL founded by Stephen Colwell to engage the dive community in protecting coral reefs. 1997 •CORAL's traveling slide show, The Vanishing Rainbow, made its way to more than 100 dive clubs, schools, and community groups throughout the country. •The tremendously successful International Year of the Reef (IYOR) Public Awareness Campaign. By the end of 1997, more than 225 organizations in 45 countries had sponsored IYOR activities 1999 Launched the International Coral Reef Information Network, a web-based portal to coral reef educational resources, science, and activities for use by teachers, nonprofit organizations, and coral reef nations. 2001 •Launched Coral Parks Program designed to help improve management of marine protected areas. 2002 •Conducted first-ever survey of marine park mangers, detailing the key opportunities and challenges facing coral reef marine protected areas. 2005 •Hired first of eight Field Representatives who work to maintain momentum at field project sites. 2008 U.S. STATES AND TERRITORIES: In Hawaii, two hundred volunteers came together as the Kona Task Force to create voluntary standards for marine recreation. CORAL and its partners installed nearly 30 "Respecting Coral Reefs" signs on Maui to educate visitors. 2009 •CORAL brought together a coalition of environmental organizations to urge the Obama administration to take decisive action to end the global coral reef crisis. Resources http://www.google.com/imgres?q=CORAL+REEFS&um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1280&bih=759&tbm=is http://www.globalissues.org/article/173/coral-reefs http://www.oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http//www.sciencedaily.com/release/2008/01/080108150436.htm http://www.ehow.com/facts_5653360_humans http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/pollution http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/habitat/factsheet.cfm TIMELINE Tourism also effects coral reefs. When not careful a tourist may walk on the coral reefs which breaks the calcium skeletons which makes it not a good area for life to live in Over fishing the coral reefs is also harmful because it could cause extinction to certain animals Humans are relatively newcomers to reefs and the things we do and bring to the reefs can be harmful to them. The greatest threat for reefs such as the Great Barrier Reef is from the land Sediments, nutrients, fertilizers, oil are all things that humans may dump into rivers or into the ocean its self which damages and may even kill the coral reefs and its wild life Resources Green House Gases are also effecting the coral reefs even deforestation is said to be effecting the coral reefs! •CORAL celebrated 15 years of coral reef conservation. physical damage caused by boats and recreational contact, and through runoff of sediments, contaminants, and nutrients from agriculture, industry, sewage, and land clearing in the watershed also cause damge to coral reefs Overfishing disrupts the food web of the coral reef. Aggressive fishing of any one particular species affects animals and plants all along the food chain. Tourism And Fishing Effects HOW HUMAMS ARE EFFECTING CORAL REEFS History There are numerous ways humans have added harmful pollutants into our oceans that can cause serious damage to the fragile ecosystems of the coral reefs How Coral Reefs Our Being Affected http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/threats/index.html http://www.reef.edu.au/contents/ps/frrescourse.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pclfq-5jmec http://www.youtube.com/watchv=qdb8lbq2100vo&feature=related
Transcript: BUT....... c t H a n Antler- like colonies Staghorn Coral And a very light weight skeleton! Where do they live? Melanie Johnson r n Porous Branch Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Anthozoa Order: Scleractinia Suborder: Faviina Family: Meandrinidae Genus: Dendrogyra Species: D. cylindricus Polution u n t Florida Keys Bahamas Caribbean islands Gulf of Mexico i You can determine the age of corals by examining their growth rings like you observe the number of rings on a tree trunk. a Fishing Different types of reef coral Future Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Anthozoa Order: Scleractinia Family: Acroporidae Genus: Acropora Species: A. cervicornis e Up to 6' 5'' tall! Branches grow 4-8 inches a year! Pillar coral Many divers enjoy exploring the Staghorn coral, but it is also used in aquariums! o Depths from 0-30 m And a lot more! What are they made out of? Asexual Fragmentation grow to be up to 2.5 m (8 ft) tall. depth between 1 and 20 m (65 ft). one of the few types of hard coral whose polyps can commonly be seen feeding during the day. i Critically Endangered m RePRoDuCTioN Did you know... Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)
Transcript: Great Barrier Reef In the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia, lies the Great Barrier Reef, one of the natural wonders of the world. A barrier reef is a long, narrow, mostly submerged coral formation that lies parallel to the shoreline of a landmass. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest complex of ... View: Article | Images | Related Articles coral Corals are small, marine animals that remain in one place throughout their adult lives and produce a hard skeleton made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), or limestone. The skeletal material, which can be either internal or external, is also called coral. After the coral animal dies, the skeleton facts The Australian external territory of the Coral Sea Islands was established in 1969. The territory is located in the Coral Sea between the Great Barrier Reef and 157° 10 east longitude. It has an area of 400,000 square miles (1,040,000 square kilometers), with only a few square miles of land. The ... View coral reef
Transcript: THE CORAL REEF Boats Divers •Diseases and Plagues —linked to human disturbances in the environment Coral bleaching •Nutrients and Chemical pollution Rising levels of Co2 •Sediments—from poor land use and deforestation Over fishing Rising poverty- Increase in population An estimated 88% of the reefs in Southeast Asia - the most species rich reefs on earth - are at risk. Coral reefs grow less than three centimetres each year, so it takes many, many years for a large reef to form. Coral reefs have existed for more than 200 million years pacific ocean atlantic ocean indian ocean Brainstorm the coral reef is sometimes known as the rainforest of the sea most coral reefs are less than 10,000 years old (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr What is damaging the coral reef? (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Research I (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Important Details Coral reefs are in crisis, dying at an alarming rate worldwide. (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
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