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Bone Marrow

Transcript: There are five main types of white blood cells which are all a key part of the immune system. White blood cells attack infections, bacteria and other foreign substances in the bloodstream Yellow Marrow Red Blood Cells Colourless disc shaped cells found in large numbers in the blood cells. When a break in a blood vessel is noticed, platelets bind together to stop blood from leaking out of the damaged blood vessel. White Blood Cells Red Marrow A child only has red bone marrow and as they get older more and more is converted to yellow marrow. Diseases and disorders related to bone marrow can be devastating for organisms. In cases of severe blood loss the body can convert yellow marrow into red marrow to increase blood cell production. Stem Cell Research Renew organs Yellow bone marrow is found in cavities in the centre of long, round bones. Some bones that contain yellow marrow are the skull, hip bones and ribs It produces a small percentage of white blood cells. Its colour comes from the large number of fat cells that make up yellow marrow. Benefits Bone Marrow Ethical Issues Cure diseases Create cells Clone organisms Bone Marrow Function Bone marrow creates blood cells that are put into blood vessels that run through and around the bone. Platelets Red bone marrow is found in flat bones such as the cranium, pelvis and sternum. It is also in the spongy material in the round end of long bones. It is responsible for making all of the bodies blood cells, these include red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. All blood cells are made from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Interesting Information Contain haemoglobin specialised to carry oxygen around the body. Destroys human life Can be exploited Can be used to cheat and benefit unfairly

bone marrow

Transcript: Bone Marrow - Bone marrow is the soft tissue that fills the inside of the bone - Bone marrow is found in long bones - Bone marrow produces 200 billion new red blood cells every day Bone Marrow Bone Marrow - Red bone marrow is found in flat bones such as the hip, breast bone, skull, ribs, vertebrae, and shoulder blades. - The main point of red bone marrow is to create blood cells. - Red marrow is found on the end of the bone. Red Bone Marrow Red Bone Marrow - Yellow bone marrow produces fat,cartilage, and bone. - Yellow bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells which develop into bone, fat, cartilage or muscle cells. - Yellow bone marrow is found inside the center of long bones. Yellow Bone Marrow Yellow Bone Marrow -The main point of red bone marrow is to remove carbon dioxide while carrying oxygen. -Red Blood Cells live for 120 days and die. - Without blood cells you won't get enough oxygen. Red Blood Cells Red Blood Cells - Aplastic Anemia is where the bone marrow doesn't create blood cells. - Leukemia is a bone marrow disease which creates abnormal blood cells. - Diseases like lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells Bone Marrow Diseases Bone Marrow Diseases -A bone marrow transplant helps replace damaged bone marrow and helps create new blood cells. -Bone marrow transplants are used for diseases like leukemia and lymphoma. -Bone marrow transplants are extremely painful. To execute it you must go into the back of the pelvic to find the marrow then puncture the bone to get the marrow. To get the marrow you must use a syringe. Bone Marrow Transplants Bone Marrow Transplants - - - - - - - Sources Sources

Bone Marrow

Transcript: There is red marrow and yellow marrow. Red: Is where the blood cells are made. Yellow: in the hollow middles of long bones and is mostly fat. Autologous bone marrow transplant: Stem cells are removed from the patient before they receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored in a freezer. After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, their stems cells are put back in your body to make (regenerate) normal blood cells. This is called a rescue transplant. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: The term allo means other. Stem cells are removed from another person, called a donor. Most times, the donor's genes must at least partly match your genes. Special blood tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches. Donors who are not related to you may be found through national bone marrow registries. Umbilical cord blood transplant: This is a type of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby's umbilical cord right after birth. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature so there is less of a need for matching. But blood counts take longer to recover. Anemia Bleeding in the lungs, intestines, brain, and other areas of the body Cataracts Clotting in the small veins of the liver Damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart Delayed growth in children who receive a bone marrow transplant Early menopause Graft failure, which means that the new cells do not settle into the body and start producing stem cells Graft-versus-host disease, a condition in which the donor cells attack your own body Infections, which can be very serious Inflammation and sorenes in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, called mucositis Pain Stomach problems, including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. Donors Step one: The bone marrow cells are harvested. Step two: The patient will undergo high levels of radiation or chemotherapy to eliminate the cancer cells. Step three: The donated stem cells will be passed into your body through the central line. The process can take from half an hour to several hours to complete, depending on the type of blood cells being used. Step four: The engraftment usually occurs 15-30 days after the transplant takes place. During this period, you will need to have regular blood transfusions because you will have a low number of red blood cells. What is Bone Marrow? Bone Marrow If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop. Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells. Other causes of bone marrow disorders include your genetic makeup and environmental factors. The harvest is collection of marrow cells from the patient or donor. They collect 1-2 quarts of bone marrow usually from the hip bone. Symptoms? whats it cost? Hard to find the best donor. Siblings are the best option The more siblings you have the better changes you have. Harvest Types of transplants How does it work? Who needs it? The soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, where blood cells are produced. Made up of Stem cells References Steps of procedure Led by Dr. E. Donnall Thomas, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center scientists pioneered the development of bone marrow transplantation to treat leukemia and other blood cancers. Dr. Thomas and his lifesaving work were recognized in 1990 with the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Who decides and where? You need to get evaluated by your doctor to see what treatment is best. Cancer Treatment centers of America do allot of them. It may range from $10,000 to $25,000. Your transplant center will assist you in determining if your insurance will cover the testing of donors. If you don’t have this coverage, you’ll be told of your financial responsibility. Issues of rejection? Chest pain Chills Drop in blood pressure Fever Flushing Funny taste in the mouth Headache Hives Nausea Pain Shortness of breath

Bone Marrow

Transcript: Red Bone Marrow The collected samples are used to identify and diagnose pathological conditions such as anemia and leukemia Radiation and Chemotherapy: general reduction and suppression of bone marrow function. Annually, over 20,000 people in the United States alone need a bone marrow transplant Marrow donation is done under general or regional anesthesia so the donor experiences no pain during the collection procedure What is bone marrow? Donors between the ages of 18 and 44 provide the greatest success of transplantation Aplastic Anemia: Also known as bone marrow failure. Bone marrow cannot make enough red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets because hematopoietic stem cells are damaged. There are two different types of bone marrow: red and yellow Cancerous tumors Current KU student and bone marrow donor, Alek Joyce Bone marrow is susceptible to displacement and damage Bone Marrow Transplants KU Dance Marathon, Miracle Child Addison is currently undergoing chemotherapy treatment for lymphoma. Addison may need a bone marrow transplant in the future! Infections Yellow Bone Marrow Allogenic Transplants: Bone marrow comes from a histocompatible donor. Donors may be related or unrelated. High intensity radiation and/or chemotherapy is used to eliminate cancer in body. Bone marrow transplants are used to replace the patient's bone marrow that was destroyed by the radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. If both donors and recipients give consent, they can meet each other after the procedure! Ultimate goal of bone marrow is to produce blood cells You should register to be a bone marrow donor! Located in less vascular regions of bones If found to be match, all travel and medical expenses will be paid How does bone marrow function normally? What happens when bone marrow malfunctions? Bone marrow is the soft, flexible connective tissue that is located in the interior cavity of flat and long bones Hematopoietic stem cells produce two other types of stem cells: Myeloid stem cells Lymphoid stem cells Hematopoiesis: the development of different blood cells from pluripotent stem cells Bone marrow contributes to 4% of total body weight Most people who need bone marrow transplants have some form of cancer such as leukemia or lymphoma The type and severity of disease determines what kind of bone marrow transplant treatment is chosen Contains inactive hematopoietic tissue Hematopoiesis Yellow bone marrow can be converted to red bone marrow in times of severe trauma. This marrow conversion increases the production of much-needed blood cells. Red blood cells: transport oxygen to cells and deliver carbon dioxide to the lungs Platelets: aid in blood clotting process White blood cells (including granulocytes and lymphocytes): defend body against foreign invaders Mainly composed of fat 70% of people in need of bone marrow transplants will not find a bone marrow match in their family. These people hope to find matches from registered members of bone marrow organizations such as Be The Match. Bone marrow is part of the lymphatic system and functions primarily to produce blood cells and to store fat Leukemia: A cancer of the blood or bone marrow that is characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells. Bone Marrow By: Sarah Kenning Contains hematopoietic stem cells Bone marrow can be affected by the following: Hematopoiesis produces 100 billion blood cells per day! Autologous Transplants: Bone marrow is taken from the patient before beginning high intensity radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. The patient's own hematopoietic stem cells are harvested and later infused back into the patient after radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment has concluded. Biopsies and aspirations are performed to obtain bone marrow samples Registering to become a potential bone marrow donor is free and only requires swabbing the inside of your cheek Located in vascular regions of the bone Bone marrow has two types of stem cells: Hematopoietic - produce blood cells Mesenchymal - produce non-blood components of marrow (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes) Lymphoma: A blood cancer that occurs when B and/or T lymphocytes divide uncontrollably and have an abnormal lifespan. Lymphomas form tumors.

Bone marrow

Transcript: Bone marrow Presented by: said fakhr eldin Bone marrow is a jelly-like substance inside the bone and lacks the rigidity of surrounding bone It fills the cavity left by the trabecular network of bone Accounts for about 4 – 5% of the total body weight introduction Bone marrow divides to: Red marrow: to produce blood cells Yellow marrow: to store fat Clusters of haematopoietic cells known as haematopoietic islands are widely distributed These islands are found next to relatively large, yet thin walled, sinusoids that also communicate with nutrient vessels of the bone. Red marrow The supporting substance that supports the haematopoietic and adipocyte cells in the marrow is made up of type III collagen that is produced by mesenchyme housekeeping cells like macrophages exist in the stroma and facilitate haematopoiesis by phagocytosing cellular debris generated from the process. red marrow most abundant in all skeletal structures from intrauterine life up until around the 5th year of life. As time progresses, red marrow is restricted to the central flat bones (i.e. cranial bones, clavicle, sternum, ribs, scapula, vertebrae, and pelvis) and the proximal ends of the proximal long bones of the upper and lower limbs. contains mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells), which produce cartilage, fat and bone. Yellow bone marrow also aids in the storage of fats in cells called adipocytes. This helps maintain the right environment and provides the sustenance that bones need to Effect Yellow marrow name of fats and blood cells red marrow distribution QUESTIONS THE END THANK YOU

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