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Biomedical Engineering

Transcript: The Beginning Extremely wealthy, interested in monetary gains September 14th, 1990 Human Subject Research and Informed Consent Gene Therapy 1999- Jesse Gelsinger died from multiple organ failure 4 days after treatment for omithine transcarbozylase deficiency 2003 - Certain retrovirus procedure causes children to develop leukemia-like condition after sucessful treatment for X-linked SCID Without corporations, would be impossible to provide the same sort of funding to science "They complain that the skin and tissues of the face and neck inevitably show the wear and tear of years. My thought was that if you know how to keep tissue alive there must be some way of equalizing the reserve supply to the area of the throat and face." - Director of the Young Women's Christian Association, page 102 BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH Is it Ethical? Potential Uses Utilitarianism advantageous to society Kant's theory of respect, dignity and the Duty of respect requires stringent regulation Iris Marion Young Gene Therapy as a means for justice Stem Cells Cloning Reproductive Dolly - the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA Therapeutic Mississippi Appendectomies According to Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, biomedical research is conducted for the purpose of systematically collecting and analyzing data from which generalizable conclusions may be drawn that may aid in improving the care of currently unknown beneficiaries in the future. The chief role of human participants in research is to serve as sources of needed data. used more narrowly Aims at enhancement efforts to enhance a person's capabilities beyond a normal level a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development Already in use...but not on humans 1952: live cancer cells injected into prisoners at Ohio State Prision --> 1/2 black, 1/2 white 1962: 22 elderly patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn, NY injected w/ cancer cells The First Case "Scientists do all kinds of experiments and you never know what they doin. I still wonder how many people they got in London walkin around look just like my mother." (pg 236) to "discover the secret of how healthy bodies fight the invasion of malignant cells" Cryonics "the making of identical copies of molecules, cells, tissues, and even entire animals" - National Bioethics Advisory Comission White women faced obstacles to contraceptives and sterilization Black women were encouraged and coerced (by threat of termination of welfare benefits) to use contraceptives and get sterilized non-consensual Human subject research Animal Testing What? Is it ethical to kill animals for research purposes? Biomedical Research Efforts to bring people up to normalcy 1.) a normal gene inserted to compensate for a nonfunctional gene 2.) an abnormal gene traded for a normal gene 3.)An abnormal gene repaired through selected reverese mutation 4.) Change the regulation of gene pairs potential to produce whole organs repopulation of species Creation of animals for research does a clone have the same rights? Important Objections Objections to Cloning ~100 million vertebrate animales used every year Animal Welfare Act Varying levels of regulation depending on species Mice and rats used in 75% of animal testing Animal euthanasia Other issues: creation of genetic clones creation of potential life for research and subsequent destruction Study the natural history of syphilis in African Americans 1980s - Scientists began to look into gene therapy They would insert human genes into a bacteria cell The bacteria cell would transcribe and translate the information into a protein They would introduce the protein into human cells Arugments in favor Genetic enhancement GE versus Gene Therapy Central Question In "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks" Where? What the study was about? Participants? Objection: Stem cell research is involved in the destruction of an embryo or fetus. Stem cell research is murder. Support: Potential for this research to provide treatments and possibly cures for debilitating illnesses that have no cure and significantly impact our way of life Philosophical arguments Utilitarianism Kant Immoral Uses of Biomedical Research by Albert DeCaprio, Ryan Houghton-Berry, and Sam Bursten Replacing damaged cells Studying human development Testing new drugs Screening toxins Testing gene therapy methods Ethically Speaking... Stem Cells Ethical Arguments Tuskeegee Syphilis Study Mississippi Appendectomies Chester Southam Scandal Gene Therapy What is Biomedical Research? Objections make life better enhancing certain characteristics Already trying to improve ourselves diet, excercise, education, plastic surgery Reproductive Freedom Three Properties Overview Types: Embryonic stem cells Embryonic germ cells Adult stem cells Umbilical cord blood stem cells Against natural order dehumanizing people will become outdated Version of eugenics Should we have the same regulations on the use of humans and animals in

Biomedical Engineering

Transcript: Define the Medical Problem Also, Case Western Reserve's biomedical engineering program has been ranked in the top ten. Career Experimental Testing The salary of a biomedical engineer varies drastically depending on the type of engineer and job you have. For example, a level one biomedical engineer will make an average of $50,000 per year, but a level five biomedical engineer will average $100,000 a year. There are also many other lucrative jobs that relate to biomedical engineering, but are not actually biomedical engineers, such as other sorts of doctors, businessmen, and human resources for large biomedical supply companies. Specify, Understand, and Abide by Requirements Experimental Process Obviously, biomedical engineering is of great importance to the progression of society, in the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, and quality of life. For that plethora of reasons, I am interested in the field and even have contemplated going into biomedical engineering. There are so many possibilities presented by the field, both in the discovery of greater medical technology and the benefits and implications for the patients. Yuan Cheng Fung is well-known for his work with "tissue engineering", a term he coined himself. His artificial tissues have been used to treat burn patients. Furthermore, his research in tissue engineering has led to the production of tissues for hearts, lungs, and organs. The mesh is made out of a synthetic plastic material, such as polypropylene, and is placed in or around the weak area to provide a scaffolding on which the new tissue can grow and repair the hernia. It is not very invasive, is very flexible and comfortable, and eventually decomposes into the tissue. Salary As a part of their undergraduate training, most aspiring biomedical engineers must take certain science classes: Molecules and Cells, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, and General Chemistry. Opinion "The application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology." ~Wikipedia Hernia Meshes Communicate and Publish Results Ask a Question About the Functionality of the Solution Hypothesize Education Benefits Biomerix, a leader in mesh production produces their products from polyurethane. They pride themselves on durability, compatibility, porosity, and resilience. Do Background Research on the Topic, and Brainstorm a Solution to a Problem Do Background Research Build a Prototype Analyze and Conclude Johns Hopkins University has been rated as having the best biomedical engineering program in the country. CNN has ranked biomedical engineering as the tenth best profession for its combination of technology and biology to keep the job interesting. Although the experimental process is used for many scientific experiments, for engineering, the engineering design process is often used. Nanoskin, a breakthrough in biomedical engineering, has been applied to prosthetics. This completely artificial material is infection-resistant because it so closely mimics the contures of the skin around the attachment fixtures (screws). Also, nanoskin has been developed to the point that it can relay the sensation of touch through a prosthetic limb with pressure sensitive wires and coatings. Moreover, its cheaper and more flexible (and durable) than current prosthetics. Moving forward, scientists are looking into using electrical signals with nanoskin to produce comprehensive movement controlled by the brain. Company Biomedical

Biomedical engineering

Transcript: BSME- $59,180 MSME- $66,720 PhDs- $85,640 Civil Starting Salary: is involved in the design, development, construction and operation of industrial processes for the production of a diverse range of products Average yearly salary: 89,000 Mechanical Don't let your path direct you direct your path... design, develop and maintain electrical control systems and/or components to required specifications, focusing on economy, safety, reliability, quality and sustainability. Average yearly salary: 84,000 Honor Student Top School in US for Mechanical Engineer Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stanford University University of California Princeton University University of Michigan bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering -4 yrs Leadership skills Strong maths skills Good in excel and other computer programs PHD Physics Maths middle child of five Myesha Elhs Student 11th Club Member Bianca Best School in US is field of engineering sciences, related to design, construction and maintenance of buildings, dams, bridges, tunnels, highways and other structures Average yearly salary: 81,0000 Chemical Standford University ! MONEY MONEY MONEY ! is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems Average yearly salary: 79,000 Requirements My name is Myesha .. Hi, my name is Bianca .. Four Types of Engineer Elhs Student 11th Athlete The engineering we're interested in is Mechanical Engineering....... Electrical

Biomedical Engineering

Transcript: Admission requirements -SAT or ACT -High GPA/ rigorous coursework -Extracurricular involvement Challenging science, math, and english classes -Biology, chemistry, physics, algebra, calculus, etc. Job duties include: Typically 40 hour work weeks, may work overtime when working on projects Depending on the specific job, may have flexible hours or constant hours Physical Advance to higher positions through further education (ie. graduate degree) and experience -BMEs in research can become project leaders or managers, and may start their own companies -BMEs with a doctorate degree may teach in universities and medical schools Personality Salary Traits of a Biomedical Engineer BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING -Biotechnology pathway -Apply engineering and science principles to development of new medical technology/systems -Close gap between engineering and medicine -Might create artificial organs or medical instruments -Help many people instead of just a few- making a difference College Median salary in 2012 = $67, 690 /year Average salary in 2012= $84,780 / year -many sectors average 6 figure annual salaries Average starting salary = ~ $50, 000 /year Average salary for 2-4 years of experience = ~$60, 000 /year 6 accredited colleges in Georgia -Mercer University -DeVry Uniersity -Emory University -Morehouse School of Medicine -Chattahoochee Technical College -Georgia Institute of Technology EDUCATION OVERVIEW - Design and develop medical devices such as artificial hearts, pacemakers, and surgical lasers -Assist in the application of this instrumentation in clinical environments -Evaluating biomedical equipment -Installing and repairing biomedical equipment -Conduct research with other scientists on the engineering aspects of biological systems Job Setting No specific special training required, but testing and certification is offered through state boards All 50 states require biomedical engineers who provide services directly to the public to be licensed professional engineers (PE's) -One of the fastest growing jobs, with a 62% increase expected in the 2010-2020 decade -Increased demand for better medical equipment and devices due to aging population -Stiff competition for jobs, so graduate degree suggested -Able to work with a lot of types of people -Able to make decisions and solve problems -Able to meet challenges -Able to analyze data/information Outlook -Minimal workplace hazards Hours Bachelor's degree required, most have graduate degree (master's degree, PhD) WORK ENVIROMENT Usually work in... -Hospitals -Research centers -Manufacturing plants -Teaching Opportunity for advancement Colleges in Georgia BY LILY GE Training/ Certification High School

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