Transcript: Subjects Methods underwater weighing treadmill exercise test Calipers Results Height & Weight VO2 Max O2 debt Max Physic, Skinfold thickness & Body Composition Discussion Body Compostition and Physical Fitness of Female Volleyball and Baskeball Players of the Japan Inter-high School Championship Teams By Amanda Dickens
Transcript: Physical Fitness Movement skills Flexibility aerobic endurance muscular strength muscular endurance agility balance coordination anaerobic power Transmitting relevant information to the brain Feedback Decision Making Muscle Fibres Movement Factors that effect movement -height -weight -body composition What movement would be awkward for you? What movement is best for you? Reaction time + Movement time = Response time Vision Hearing Touch Proprioception Balance Fast Twitch - explosive, power, speed Biomechanics What do they have to process? Information processing Slow Twitch - long endurance Measuring the speed of information processing Movement sense
Transcript: Max force wasn't used when she pushed off of the bases shoulders She didn't use all of her joints in her legs and arms to fully perform the skill *Tall Person = Backspot *Medium Person = Bases *Short Person = Flyer (principle #3) Principle #6 Not as high/ air friction Not enough bounce from the ground from not wearing proper footwear (slippery shoes) She isn't in a streamlined position because her legs are apart and her arms aren't tight creating drag Basket Toss *Expert *Professional Arms remain strong and upward Body is fully extended/ slightly bent Comes back down in "V" body position External force: air friction/ resistance (principle #5) Turbulence follows behind since you are being thrown into the air and friction from clothes causing drag (principle #5) Momentum is along the transverse axis and remains consistent on the way up and down (principle #7) Moment of inertia is high which means angular velocity is low. (principle #7) Bases Flyer Rookie Tips Bases: Prep position: Knees bent & crouching Hold each others wrists Eye contact Use maximum force to throw the flyer in the air Responsible for catching the flyer safely Backspot: Prep position: Holds the flyers waist In charge of counting (1, 2, 3, 4... etc.) Lift the flyer into bases hands and gives boost up Responsible for catching the flyer safely Flyer: Prep position: Standing on toes & hands placed on bases shoulders Bends and jumps onto the bases hands Stays strong and engages muscles while in the air Wraps arms around bases to land safely Release of the flyer Stance is shoulder width apart, still keeping the gravity centre so the stunt doesn't fall (principle #1) Bases come out of a deeper prep position by extending their knees; they will obtain the most height on the flyer (principle #4) Maximum force used by the bases to throw the flyers (principle #2) Not using bases shoulders to push off of The flyer doesn't use the crouch position to get into the bases arms as well therefore not getting as much height as she could have Bases Flyer Force Production Arms begin to extend Weight is centered (principle #1) Shoulders rotate laterally The bases legs, arms and back muscles should be used to produce the maximum amount of force needed to throw the flyer (principle #2) Rookie Errors Skill Breakdown Principle #1 Principle #3 Feet together, using the balls of the feet Centre of gravity is in the middle (principle #1) Gripping the bases shoulders for more height and force Knees extend, getting ready to go into the crouch position before take off (principle #4) Principle #2 Torque is effected because she doesn't snap her arms up and back down to her body Front Angled Back Principle #4 Bases Flyer Momentum isn't consistent because it takes her longer to get into the air since she isn't tight and close to her centre of gravity *Equipment Required: Running Shoes *If advanced: Can do tricks while hitting the peak of basket toss Feet are shoulder width apart, centre of gravity is in the middle (principle #1) Knees bent, providing a wide base of support (principle #1) Leaning forward at the waist Hands forward gripping other bases wrists at waist level Knees bent, increased force/velocity (principle #4) Pressure applied on bases shoulders Leap forward into bases hands Maximum force is used for an instant during the take off (principle #2) Push off from external force (gym floor), wearing grip shoes (principle #5) Cheer Athletics Basket Toss Principle #5 Centre of gravity is off balance Body wasn't upright Biomechanics of Cheerleading [Basket Toss] Flyer: Practice with the same stunt group Put more pressure on the bases shoulders when jumping into their hands for more height (principle #4) Stay tight (core) and extend straight up into a more linear position (principle #1) Keep your arms strong, this will help lessen the drag that is created than if you keep them loose (principle #6) Focus forward and concentrate Wear proper cheer shoes to create traction for when you're jumping into your bases hands Critical Instant Front Angled Back Preliminary Movements Basket Toss *Rookie Follow Through Bases Flyer Push off from bases shoulders Streamlined position by tightening all muscles to be able to fly higher (principle #5) Staying tight with core (principle #5) Feet roll off bases wrists (principle #3) Instability from take off because you are no longer relying on the bases (principle #1) Application of torque in toes when released (principle #6) Hips move along a transverse axis at the point of release, so you are able to come back down into the bases arms (principle #6) Principle #7 All body strength to throw the flyer (principle #2) Throwing angle is upward, again keeping it centre Arms up and extended, ready to catch the flyer again (principle #3) Shoulders move laterally to catch the flyer Lower centre of gravity needed for larger base of support (knees bent) so the flyer has a safe and painless landing (principle #1) Doesn't use core to stay tight Summer Luu &
Transcript: a pushing or pulling effect of a body that can cause change. Measured in newtons. Forces are applied when 1 body meets with another. Forces can be produced within the body by muscular contractions. Forces can be applied to equipment such as pedals and racquets Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). or FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION a body continues at rest or in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force. BIOMECHANICS • THIRD LAW MASS: mass is the amount of matter that makes up an object. Mass directly measures the amount of inertia of a body. Is measured in Kg. E.g. the head of the driver has a greater mass than the head of the putter. Thus it also has a greater inertia. Kinetics is the area of biomechanics that studies influences on the movement of a body. 1. Law of inertia 2. F=M+A 3. reaction NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION KINETICS For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. NEWTONS SECOND LAW FORCE NEWTONS FIRST LAW
Transcript: This motion path can be either straight (rectilinear) or curved (curvilinear). Takes place when object turns about an axis of rotation. All body parts travel through the same angle, in the same direction, in the same time. As a result, all body parts do not move through the same distance Linear Motion How could this relate to canoeing? HOW WOULD THIS APPLY IN KAYAKING? ACCELERATION Rate at which the velocity of a body changes with respect to time. Positive acceleration: Velocity is increasing Negative acceleration (retardation): Velocity is decreasing Zero acceleration: No change in velocity. Displacement Velocity = Time DISPLACEMENT + DISTANCE Distance (length of the path a body follows) and displacement (length of a straight line joining the start and finish points) are quantities used to describe a body's motion. e.g. in a 400m race on a 400m track the distance is 400 metres but their displacement will be zero metres (start and finish at the same point). Axis of rotation Measuring the data When a body changes its position with time as compared to a stationary body, it is said to be in motion. Motion is the continuous change in position of a body with respect to another body. For every action force or momentum, there is an equal and opposite reaction force or momentum. In Rotational motion, the two objects involved in action and reaction are almost always body parts. This is because almost every sport skill requires rotational movements of body parts around a joint to create momentum. Example Soccer Header. Distance travelled Speed = Time taken Give me two other skills where direct contact is used No Direct Contact Takes place through linear pathway, either in a curved line (curvilinear) Ball when it follows a parabolic pathway moves in a curvilinear motion a ski jumper moving through the air in the glide phase OR a straight line (straight line motion) All body parts travel in the same direction at the same speed. An ice skater gliding after they completed a race (straight line motion) General Motion E.g. When a gymnasts performs a giant circle on a bar, the entire body rotates, with the axis of rotation passing through the centre of the bar. Direct Contact SPEED Movement from one point to another in the fastest possible time. Calculated by dividing distance travelled by time taken Measured in metres per second (m/s). Newton's Third Law of Action and Reaction: Rotational (Angular) Motion Types of Motion in Physical Activity Action and reaction can be exploited to restore balance. Balance In the human body, angular motion can take place around 3 different axis of rotation Medial axis – navel to lower back (gymnast performing cart wheel) Longitudinal axis – head to toe vertically (ice skater spinning) Transverse axis – hip to hip (diver performing forward somersault) •A swimmer pushes the water in the backward direction (action force) and the water exerts a force on the swimmer (reaction force) which pushes him forward (cc) photo by tudor on Flickr Combination of linear and angular motion Human movement usually consists of general motion rather than pure linear motion or angular motion E.g. a cyclist may move in a straight line as a result of the rotation of the legs about the hip joint Quantities used VELOCITY Speed in a given direction. Obtained by dividing displacement by time taken. opposite in direction equal in magnitude
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Newtons Laws are very important in life because they explain why things are what they are. Newtons laws explain how water flows, why building don't fall down, how cars work, ect. Kinetics 2nd class levers: This is one where the fulcrum is at one end, and the applied force at the other. The load that is to be moved is between them. This lever is different in how it works, it causes the load to move in the same direction as the force you apply. 3rd class levers: The third class lever is the strangest ... and the one you use the most! The fulcrum is once again at one end of the lever, but this time the load is at the other end, and you apply a force in between. Newtons 2end law: Acceleration occurs when a specific force acts on another force with less pressure. The more an object weighs the more amount of force needed to accelerate that object. This law is telling us that when a force acts on an object, it will cause the object to accelerate. Force = Mass x Acceleration Why are Newtons laws important Newtons Laws of motion Kinetics 1. Mass 2. Force- Newtons law 1,2 and 3 3. Levers- 1,2,3 class 4. Balance- static and dynamic 5. Cob/ CoBouy/ CoG Definitions Kinetics: Is a sort of modern machines that has a major focus on the movements of different body's and the forces that act against rest and motion. Mass: Mass specifically measures the amount of inertia of the body and this is measured in kg. Force: Force is the pushing or pulling effect of a body that can cause change. Newtons 3rd Law The human body is made up of levers in the forms of bones, with the joints acting as axis. The use of levers allows humans to apply increased force and to generate greater speed in executing sporting activities (smyth et al, 2006, p105) Newtons 3rd law: For every actions there is an equal and opposite reaction. This explains why birds can fly while the birds wings are pushing downwards they air below them is also pushing the bird upwards. Action reaction force pairs make is possible for birds to fly. This is also why a rifle recoils when fired. A gunpowder explosion creates hot gases that expand outward allowing the rifle to push forward on the bullet. 1st, 2nd and 3rd class levers Newtons first law So why use a third class lever at all? The answer lies in the fact that the load moves in the same direction as the force you apply, which is convenient. So is the application of force between the load and the fulcrum. Definitions Newtons Laws of motion First class levers: A 1st class lever is a type of joint in the human body; one example is the joint found between the skull and the atlas vertebrae of the spine. The spine is the fulcrum across which muscles lift the head. Such connections between joints, called synovial joints, are fulcrums, the bones they connect are levers, and the muscles attached to them apply force (or resistance). levers levers Newtons 1st law is "an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force." This means that there is a natural incline of objects to keep on doing what they’re doing. All objects will at some point resist changed in a state of motion. If there is an unbalanced force, motion will keep this force balanced. Newtons 2nd law
Transcript: In this clip you can see me portraying a tennis forehand. The main issue with my forehand is related to force summation. Force Summation is using all your muscles at the right time with the right movement to generate the most power. By not turning my upper torso away from the ball and swinging through, only gives me minimum body power and force resulting in the ball moving slower and less accurate. Yet what is being portrayed at an acceptable standard is my base stance. My body positioning gives me full opportunity to extend my third class lever. This in conclusion gives me more raquet head and more power. Analysing the Tennis Forehand Lizzie's Tennis Forehand
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