Transcript: Bilingual Education is an education instruction in more than one language you are in the classroom, and you can't even understand a thing. Reason people against it English was neglected, and other cultural maintenance became the norm is demonstrable, documented failure But ! just about add new language and culture, not forgetting them ineffective wont understand the material cost more $$!! bilingualism and multilingualism are worldwide norms many jobs pay higher salaries to their bilingual employees Do You Know?!?! learn better while they are young more education $$ JOb! Support and DO SO! America left behind most nations must have at least 2 languages to get degree would bilingual affect your future? creates a stronger foundation for success in academic Ling Chi Wang ( Lau v. Nichols ) Notice: This presentation contains copyrighted material under the educational fair use exemption to U.S. Copyright Law. 2012 Themadjaja Lau v. Nichols So... My Experience! "bilingual child" may imply "poor" or "uneducated" Who Won on the debates? is very costly
Transcript: Current Issues Lack of Language Development Limited Use of Native Languages Premature Transition to English Inadequacies of Reference Materials Shortage of Bilingual Teachers Academic Failure Reluctant Implementation in Bilingual Programs Mental and Social Problems NJ Policies/Programs The Bilingual Education Act Preparation for Core Curriculum Content Standards Establish Language Services, ESL, and Bilingual Education Programs Participation in Non-Academic Courses Establish Dual Language Bilingual Education Programs Enrollment, Assessment, Exit, and Reentry LEP students enrolled in programs Assessed Annually Measured English Proficiency Parent/Guardian Decision to Remove Children Considered Reentry Review Process Comments or Questions? National Association for Bilingual Education Represented in 28 states (New Jersey included) "The Bilingual Education Act (N.J.S.A. 18A: 35-15 and P.L. 1974, c. 197) was enacted to ensure that students of limited English proficiency (LEP), are provided instruction in their native language in order to develop academic skills while acquiring English language skills. The responsibility of the office is to provide assistance to local districts in designing and implementing educational programs that will meet the needs of limited English proficient students and to assure compliance with state and federal regulations. Such assistance is provided by formal and informal technical assistance, regional workshops, conferences and publications." (State of New Jersey Department of Education, 2012) "Studies have shown that non-English speaking children who are simply put into mainstream classrooms are far less likely to achieve academic success than those who have the benefit of some sort of specially designed program." (Fuller, 2011) Current Issues and NJ Policies in Bilingual Education By: Courtney Phillip "In the infamous American Institute for Research study of bilingual education programs, more than half of the teachers with five or more years of experience as bilingual teachers indicated that they knew no language other than English. The shortage of bilingual teachers nationwide indicates that a large number of bilingual programs are staffed by monolingual teachers." (Cardenas, 1993)
Transcript: Bilingual Education is the approach to second-language instruction in which students are instructed in academic subject areas in their native language while simultaneously being taught to speak, read, and write in a second language.Bilingual education has been a subject of national debate since the 1960s. This essay traces the evolution of that debate from its origin in the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Bilingual Education Act (1968). 1. Students join native English speakers for classes in subject areas that do not depend too heavily on language skills (e.g., art, music, P.E.) 2. Once students have acquired some English proficiency, instruction in English begins for one of two subject areas usually math & science. 3. When it is clear that students can learn successfully in English in the subject areas already identified, they may then join their English speaking classmates in regular classes. 4. Eventually students are sufficiently proficient in English to join the mainstream in all subject areas. Facts & Statistics These 4 steps are usually carried about within 2-3 years. Programs can be costly Rushing Children's language learning is a concern (A.M. Padilla 2006). By Jessica Mansilla There are more than 14 million language minority students in K-12 schools. Children from immigrant families comprise most of the language minority students. About 1 in 5 children ages 5 to 17 in the U.S. are from immigrant families. The population of children in immigrant families is growing faster than any other group of children in the nation. Almost 80% of children from immigrant families were born in the U.S., making them U.S. citizens. English-language learners in the U.S. speak more than 350 language, with more than 75% speaking Spanish. Source: August and Shanahan (2006); Capps, Fix, Murray, Ost, Passel, and Herwantoro (2005); Garcia and Cuellar (2006). My Opinion What is Bilingual Education? Bilingual education programs are true gateways to a united future. The foundation of our culture is based on the ability to communicate with one another. I personally feel like Bilingual education programs can be beneficial to non- English speaking students and help them succeed, given the proper resources not only academically but in society as well. Advantages & Disadvantages How It Works Students with limited English Proficiency (LEP) may speak and understand some English but not enough to be successful in classes taught in English without additional assistance. Non English speakers and students with LEP are referred to as English Language Learners (ELLs). Both native language and English are maintained Dual language programs have resulted in high levels of academic achievement, motivation, and student enthusiasm (Estrada et al., 2009). The most effective way of teaching students who have a limited proficiency in English Do Bilingual Education Programs help Non-Eglish speaking children Succeed?
Transcript: The U.S. founders envisioned "a country with a unified history, with unified traditions, and with a common language" (Ovando, 2003, pg. 2). Basic Timeline of U.S. bilingual EducationThe Permissive Period 1700s-1880s: During the time there was some acceptance or at least tolerance of other languages (although often limited to European languages). The Restrictive Period 1880s-1960s: During this time there was a repression of Native American Languages. There was also increased fear calling for the assimilation of immigrants (i.e. The Naturalization Act of 1906 that required speaking English to be a naturalized citizen.) The Opportunist Period 1960s-1980s: During World War II promoted the need for educating students in more than one language, promoting foreign language instruction for English speaking students, but by forcing assimilation and English monolingualism on non-English speakers, essential destroying a key group of bilingual students. During the Cuban Revolution (1959), Cubans fleeing to the U.S. resisted assimilitation because they did not plan on staying. They helped to establish bilingual programs in Florida to help their children maintain Spanish while learning English. During this time the The Bilingual Education Act was passed (1968). The Dismissive Period 1980s-present: Presidents Reagan was quoted "It is absolutely wrong and against American concepts to have a bilingual education program that is now openly, admittedly dedicated to preserving their native language and never getting them adequate in English so they can go out into the job market and participate." There was a general shift in funds toward English only programs (Ovando, 2003, p. 4-13). The Bilingual Education Act This was an ambiguous act, which has been debated for the past 30 years. Ultimately, it was the first step away from the sink-or-swim method of education. The act resulted in education programs that sought to utilize and build on students home cultures and languages (Ovando, 2003, pg. 11-13. The bilingual education Act was followed by Lau vs. Nichols which "legitimized and gave impetus to the movement for equal eduational opportunity for students who do not speak English." The Lau decision stated that providing all students with the same education does not make it equal (Ovando, 2003, pg.). Current Struggles in biligual education In June 1998 California passed Proposition 227.This proposed that English would be the primary language of instruction for language-minority students. Other states have passed, or are considering passing, similar laws. "All you need is Ennglish" has emerged as the semi-official status of the U.S. on bilingual education. No Child Left Behind essentially terminated the Bilingual Education Act. NCLB endorses acquiring English and fails to mention anything about bilingual education (Katz, 2004, p. 144). According to the 2000 census, almost 20% of the population uses languages other than English (Katz, 2004, p. 143). Monolingualism vs. Pluralingualism While the United States now focuses on the acquisition of English, European nations have embraced the notion of pluralingualism. In Europe children are provided the opportunity to develop literacy in their native language as well as the language of their community. In Europe students are encouraged to learn two even three or more langauges beginning at an early age. In the U.S. we stress one language, introducing the concept of learning a new langauge in high school, well past the age when the brain is more receptive to acquiring a new language (Katz, 2004, p. 144). It is often mentioned that language is a cultural resource. It is equally important that we realize that our bilingual, bicultural students are an equally important resource. Even if we cannot speak their language, we can take their experiences and their cultures,and use that to broaden our horizons, as well as those of our students (Katz, 2004, p. 141). Resources Ovando, C.J. (2003). Bilingual education in the United States: historical development and current issues. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(1), 1-25. Katz, S.R. (2004). Does NCLB leave the U.S. behind in bilingual teacher education?. English Education, 36(2), 141-153. As our country formed European languages were more likely to be respected and accepted, and speakers of these languages were often accomodated in schools (Ovando, 2003, pg. 2). Double click anywhere & add an idea
Transcript: Persistent Issue: Bilingual Education Classroom Implications/Applications Dual Language Education Video What is Bilingual Education? Arguments: Pros & Cons http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51lVtROpIjL._SL500_AA300_.jpg Transitional Bilingual programs: "Bilingualism for English learners only until replaced by English as the language of instruction" (Diaz-Rico, 2012, p. 135). -Transition into English only education Usually K-2 (Early exit) Usually 5-6 (Late exit) Dual-language programs: Aim for bilingualism and biliteracy Additive Bilingualism - The second language is added to the first Two-way immersion (two language groups) Equal numbers of students (English speaking/native speaking) are grouped together The curriculum is taught in both languages Examples: Cantonese-English, Japanese-English, Navajo-English, Spanish-English, Mandarin-English, and German-English One-way immersion (only one language group) References Labeling classroom in both native language and English Books in native language and English Educational music in native language and English Integrating technology (smart boards) Apps in native language and English (ex. Feed Me!) Wordless Picture Books Visual Aids Hands-on activities Cooperative learning strategies Link new knowledge to prior knowledge Give students enough wait time Learner-centered Make learning meaningful (ex. books that they can relate to) Literature Related to Bilingual Education Programs within Bilingual Education Amanda Hutson http://www.colorincolorado.org/web_resources/by_topic/bilingual_education/ Cadiero-Kaplan, K. (2007). Bilingual education. In Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. (Vol. 1, pp. 236-239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference. Diaz-Rico, L. T. (2012). Programs for english learners. In A course for teaching english learners (2nd ed.) (pp. 115-148). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Duignan, P. J. (1998). Bilingual education: A critique. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/monographs/27198 "Bilingual education is a model of educating students in public schools in their native language and in English" (Cadiero-Kaplan, 2007, p. 236). "Bilingual Education Act (1968) which decreed that a child should be instructed in his or her native tongue for a transitional year while she or he learned English but was to transfer to an all-English classroom as fast as possible" (Duignan, 1998, p. 1). English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act (No Child Left Behind Act) - students receive instruction to facilitate their acquisition of English Why Bilingual Education is Important Allows English speakers to learn a second language and native speakers to learn English Strives to preserve cultural heritage Fosters academic achievement Personal Opinion Transitional Programs Pros: Students receive instruction in almost all content areas in their native language Cons: Students usually switch to English as their primary language. 2-3 years is not enough time to learn a second language Dual-language Programs Pros: Primary-language maintenance Receive instruction in almost all content areas in native language and English. Immersed with students of a different culture Cons: Delay English learning "reduce the gap" - content classes in English are modified for EL or SLL to catch up One-way immersion segregates the language group from other English speakers http://callisto.ggsrv.com.ezproxy.tcu.edu/imgsrv/FastFetch/UBER1/seaj_0001_0001_0_img0001
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Defined by: www.nabe.org/bilingualed.html "Bilingual education has been practiced in many forms, in many countries, for thousands of years. Defined broadly, it can mean any use of two languages in school – by teachers or students or both – for a variety of social and pedagogical purposes. In today’s context, a period of demographic transformation in United States, bilingual education means something more specific. It refers to approaches in the classroom that use the native languages of English language learners (ELLs) for instruction”. Goals of Bilingual Education Include: • teaching English • fostering academic achievement • acculturating immigrants to a new society • preserving a minority group’s linguistic and cultural heritage • enabling English speakers to learn a second language • developing national language resources. Early Controversies: Keep it English! U.S. Beginnings Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 Moving Towards Uncertainty: Flores v. Arizona 1992 World War I prompted fears about non-English speakers, primarily individuals of German descent. The 1920’s States changed laws to create English-only education and by the middle of the decade, bilingual instruction appeared out of reach. Text cited: www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bilingual/langhst.shtml Federal Funding provided to local school districts to implement native language instruction. Promoted equal access to curriculum for ELL’s. Trained a whole new generation of educators. The Act was in effect for 34 years and ended on January 8, 2002 Cited www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bilingual/langhst.shtml Class Action Takes Action in San Francisco: Lau v. Nichols 1974 Amidst controversy and policies of English-only and bilngual equity something precious is fadding away. The intent of the Immigration Act included family reunification and equity with job skills. The unexpected impact on the education system hampered the proponents of English-only education!! Everything was about to change… “The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which did not emanate from either of the education committees of Congress and which was enacted with virtually no consideration of its possible implications for the education of immigrants and their native-born counterparts. The Immigration Act affects education because it has led to a massive increase in enrollment by immigrant students, whose presence is a major spur for school restructuring and curricular reform”. ~David Stewart Cited www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000200599 http://primary98.sos.ca.gov/Returns/prop/mapR227.htm http://www.tenement.org/images/history/photo_collections_oralL.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3432/3721755486_d70ebf8117.jpg “In 1839, Ohio became the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, authorizing German-English instruction at parents' request. Louisiana enacted an identical provision for French and English in 1847, and the New Mexico Territory did so for Spanish and English in 1850”. “By the end of the 19th century, about a dozen states had passed similar laws. Elsewhere, many localities provided bilingual instruction without state sanction, in languages as diverse as Norwegian, Italian, Polish, Czech, and Cherokee”. Quoted http://www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bilingual/langhst.shtml Imagine a teen struggling to speak to their parent in their native language but they cannot. Because of years of priority English instruction children are losing their culture their connection to family and their identity. All in the name of language. http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/i-need-to-find-something Breaking News!!! Proposition 203 Wins Big! Arizona voters dump bilingual ed Click her for details http://josie3.edu.glogster.com/glog-lau-v-nichols/ Defined by www.nabe.org/bilingualed.html Proposition 227: Voters approved June 2, 1998 English-Only in California Public Schools ttp://www.azcentral.com/i/5/0/3/PHP4C1BD880BE305.jpg ttp://actionnownetwork.com/home/contents/wpcontent/uploads/Hand%20in%20Hand%20School%20149(1).jpg http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-bilingual-education.html http://www.citizenwarrior.com/2008/09/definition-of-multiculturalism.html Providing quality bilingual education establishes strong skills for English Language Learner’s in their native language that can transfer to English. In addition, it preserves families, their culture and traditions, and their identity. http://whimseyjenny32.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/child_fear1.jpg Compiled by Diane Ham The English –Only movement has the potential to cause harm to English language learners by devaluing who they are as a person and in their culture. They are invisible. http://www.wintersonnenwende.com/scriptorium/english/archives/articles/jdecwar.html http://www.nlci.org/press/Past%20articles/bilinged.htm http://proposition227.wikispaces.com/file/view/ednext20034_44a.jpg/31385479/ednext20034_44a.jpg The world needs more people who can communicate in more than one
Transcript: What is Bilingual Education? Have the want factor Gives more opportunities in the workfield, allows simplier overseas traveling, expands the brain. Those who speak In Europe/Asia Reality: Same as E/A/C Europe/Asia/Canada Get involved 双语教育 What Does It Do For Me? Bilingual Education 双语教育 The United States To put it simply, it is the teaching of a languge that is unknown to you, or one that you do not speak. Bilingaul education is viewed as something that only new students to the United States must go through in order to learn English and fit into the society of America. The need for all humans to be able to speak another language is becoming more and more real with each passing day. With every day that passes the ability to learn another language goes with it. Also with every day that passes comes another day when speaking Spanish, Chinese, Korean, anything other than English becomes more important. What Does B.E. Look Like Why do I need it? In the United States bilingaul education is usualy thought of as ESL or English as a Second Language. Nothing. How Can I Help Other Students? Find out how your school educates the bilingaul education students By Morgan Caldwell In America Bilingaul education is most often thought of as the teaching of English to students who come to the United States from, what are typically, Hispanic countires. It is safe to say that almost everyone speaks, but how can you help those who cannot speak your langauge? 双语教育 Bilingaul education is veiwd as a need, something that must be done and something that every student must go through to make it as an adult. All students must speak two langauges.
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