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Year 13 Psychology - Addiction (3 & 4)
Transcript of Year 13 Psychology - Addiction (3 & 4)
Once addiction established – withdrawal symptoms appear if drug not taken
Any behaviour that reduces these withdrawal symptoms will act as a Negative reinforcer – so the addict continues to take the drug
This also explains why so many addicts relapse Classical Conditioning Social Learning Theory Initiation and positive reinforcement.
All positive reinforcers have the SAME effect: they release dopamine in an mesolimbic system.
Natural reinforcers are food, drink, and sex. Predictably addictive drugs have the same effect e.g. amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, nicotine and alcohol (White 1996).
Griffiths (2009) sites gambling as being addictive, the adrenaline when winning or the near miss, social rewards through adulation and the obvious financial rewards. Initiation
Observation or direct experience of positive outcome of drug taking.
Addict learns about consequences of drug-taking directly or indirectly by observation
Evaluation Of Learning Models
Maintenance and Relapse
If an alcoholic passes a pub where people are drinking outside, they may experience a physiological response to the smell/sight of alcohol as well as memories of drinking etc....
Marlatt and George (1984) suggest the presence of multiple cues trigger positive memories and the likelihood of relapse.
Self efficacy: has been shown in Lin’s (2008) study that internet addiction can be effectively controlled if the addict believes they have a high level of self efficacy. Homework 1. Answer the two questions on the Learning Explanation What does Anthony the Addict have to say about the learning explanation.... Learning Objectives To be able to outline what the learning explanation to addiction is (AO1)
To be able to describe 2 specific theories relating to the learning explanation (AO1)
To be able to relate these to I/M/R
To start to evaluate the learning explanation Learning theorists explain addictive behaviour without involving any conscious evaluation of the costs or benefits of a particular activity.
Individuals typically learn to perform behaviours because they are associated with the onset of something pleasant (e.g. feelings of euphoria) or the termination of something unpleasant (e.g. feelings of depression or tension). Operant conditioning = Learning by consequences (reward & punishment) So initiation= through positive re-enforcement- do something because it feels good.
Maintenance= through negative re-enforcement-do something to get rid of bad feelings. What is classical conditioning Brings together both classical and operant and extends them looking at observation and communication. People look to role models as guides on how to behave. Issue with Classic & Operant? This approach takes into account cognitive factors as well as the fact that we may learn from our peers, family and friends. In classical conditioning, stimuli that precede, or occur at the same time as a learned stimulus (such as a drug) may become secondary reinforcers, deriving their influence only by association. For example, research has shown that alcohol related stimuli (e.g. sights and sounds of a pub) elicit the many of the same physiological responses as alcohol itself, such as increased heart rate and arousal (Glautier et al,1991).