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Psychology Unit 3: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

For Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E. Psychology Unit 4 & 4 students
by Simon Berry on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Psychology Unit 3: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

Psychology Unit 3: The conscious self: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body States Of Consciousness Consciousness is the awareness of objects and events in the external worlf and of our own existance and mental experiences at any given moment. Mindmap - What is Consciousness? What do we know about it? Within our consciousness we develop a send of self - a personal identity thought which we experience the world.
Simon ---> New person every millisecond, explain Consciousness is:
- Personal (subjective).... provide example
- Selective.... provide example
- Continuous.... provide example
- Changing.... provide example

pg 100 L.A. 2.1 (1 minute) read out Our level of awareness changes. For example you take in more when you are alert than when sleeping.

Explain: 1 Billion bits per second. We attend to around 15.

Our state of consciousness (or level of awareness) of our internal state and external environment determines how much we take in and respond to. fg. 2.6 - Draw in note books (again!)
On board - add examples at each level Consciousness is:
- Not all or nothing
- Times when we taken in lots of info vs almost none
- No concrete boundaries where one level starts and ends
- Is a continuum
- Many states with different levels of attention

- Difficult to distinguish b/w states. However psychologists agree that there are two types.... Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC) and
Altered States of Consciousness (ASC)
- should be in your notes

There are generally held different qualities that distinguish b/w NWC and ASC. Read article pg 102
pg 104 L.A. 2.2 - in pairs

Home Learning
UN - pg 105 L.A. 2.3 Qns 1, 2 Ext 6, 7 Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC) - VCAA Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) - VCAA Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education.

Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book Normal waking concsiousness (NWC) refers to the states of consciousness associated with being awake and aware of our thoughts, memories, feelings and the sensations we are experiencing from the outside. It is also fluid and changing - much like a river
However despite this changing experience of consciousness our perceptions and thoughts continue to be organised and clear, we remain aware of our personal identity (who we are). Levels of awareness Look at fg 2.6 pg 101 again -
Generally those in the top half are NWC.

In NWC we perceive the world as real, have a familiar sense of time and place.
We continually shift between different states of consciousness, and awareness within NWC.

Researchers use our Attention as a measure of awareness. Attention Attention is defined as: a concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on specific stimuli while ignoring others.

Write down an example of attention.

Fg 2.6 pg 101 - What levels do you thing have more attention and hence more awareness?
Add to your chart Researchers distinguish between selective attention and divided attention. Attention can be focused external (sights, sounds etc.) or internal (thoughts or feelings).

List 3 examples of external and internal attention. Selective attention involves selectively attending to certain stimuli while ignoring others.

This points to the fact our attention is limited (what do you think that means?

People often notice very little of the information that is not attended to (Milliken & others, 1996) Selective Attention Divided Attention If a stimulus is personally relevant (or important) we are more likely to take notice of it.

Party example....

This is commonly known as the cocktail party phenomenon (Wood & Cowan, 1995)

Can you think of an example? Our attention is also attracted by changes in stimulus and novel stimulus (new or unusual)

In class example

Can you think of an example? As we begin to move down the consciousness continuum, the level of attention required is not as focused or selective.

Driving - radio, Driving - how did i get here Divided attention refers to our ability to distribute our attention and undertake two or more activities simultaneously.

What limitations could be put on divided attention? In fact, driving a car alone causes our focus to be split between several different things at once; one must always be aware of their speed, their surroundings, and the condition of their car. Our ability to divide our attention depends on how much conscious effort is required for the various task in which we are engaged (Damos, 1992)

Research indicates taht our perceptual systems (vision, hearing, touch etc) can handle some divided attention tasks as long as they are NOT complex and do not demant considerable mental effort.

List a task that may not be able to be completed successfully with divided attention? Read pg 107 bottom para..starting with...In one experiment Duncan (1993).....

Understanding Limits of attention has become and important research area Content Limitations -VCAA Controlled Processes - VCAA Generally content (type of info) held in NWC - is more limited/restricted (concrete) that ASC. Variables of attention We control what enters our attention (in NWC) through selective attention. We can also block our awareness of info that makes us feel embarrassed, sad ect.

However in ASC we don't have the same control therefore the content of our consciousness is not as limited (eg...crying when drinking) Fg 2.6 pg 101. The top end of the consciousness continuum are the states of consciousness that demand a high level of attention (or concentration).
These are called control processes. According to Schnieder and Shiffrin (1977) activities such as these use controlled processes.

The information processed invovles conscious, alert awareness and mental effort that the individual actively focus on (achieving a particular goal. Controlled processes tend to be serial: meaning only one activity requiring controlled processes can be preformed at a time.

Write an example of a controlled process As you gain experience skills like driving become more automated Automated Processed - VCAA According to Schnieder and Shiffrin (1977) an automatic process requires little conscious awareness and mental effort, minimal attention and does not interfere with the performance of other activities.

List an example of an automated process.
Is there a way your earlier example of controlled precess could become automated? Unlike controlled, automated processes tend to be parallel....that means two or more process can operate at the same time. Read pg 109 right hand side...stroop effect
Comments/questions Read pg 110 Box 2.4 ....complete...get data
UN Learning activity - Stroop Effect
Construct a research report with the following:
- Operational IV and DV
- Operational Hypothesis
- Research method used
- Sample and allocation method used
- Summary of data
- Limitations: CV / EV
- Conclusion
- Generalisation Note book pg 112 L.A 2.7 5 mins
- Class Check UN pg 112 L.A. 2.5 Q 1, 2 ext 3,4 The term Altered state of consciousness (ASC) is used to describe any state that is distinctly different from NWC.
(it is different in terms of level of awareness, experience, and quality of intensity of sensations) Word List - NWC vs ASC In an ASC mental processing or perceptions of yourself and the world may change, normal inhibitions or self-control may weaken (Martindale, 1981) Some ASC occur naturally (daydreaming, sleep, dreaming) others are purposely induced (meditation, hypnosis, alcohol, medications or illegal drugs Distortions of perception and cognition Time Orientation Changes in emotional awareness Changes in self control Daydreaming Alcohol-induced state Methods to study level of alertness in NWC (VCAA) Electroencephalogram
EEG Heart Rate Body Temperature Galvanic Skin Response ASC Common Characteristics (VCAA) An ASC seems to have two effects on the senses. Make them more receptive to external stimuli OR dulls them to such an extent that some sensations are not felt at all.

Perceptions are often so distorted in an ASC that people may lose their identity (who they are).

Example: Dress up party vs Rabbit man GBH Cognitive functioning also becomes impaired during an ASC. Thoughts are often more disorganized, especially during sleep.

Who has had a dream that has made no sense? NSW / ASC
Revision - Cognitive impairment
- Thinking is often illogical and lacking sequence. France snow example
- Problem solving is difficult.
Police sobriety test
- Trouble remembering
Where am I (after smashing your head) Cognitive impairment disappears when the person returns to NWC. In an ASC the perception of time is often distorted. Appearing to move faster or slower in different ASCs.

Nap example - Wow I was out for 30 minutes. ASCs appear to sometimes put an individuals feelings into a state of turmoil resulting in uncharacteristic responses.

Unpredictable emotional responses are often associated with ASC.

Example - Aggression/crying while intoxicated Changes in our ability to manage self-control are often evident in ASC's.

Sleepwalking people often have trouble walking, as do people under the influence of drugs.

Hypnotic people are more open to suggestion.

But ASC have also allowed some people more self control....hypnosis to give up smoking. Daydreaming is an altered state of consciousness in which we shift our attention from external stimuli to internal thoughts, feelings and imagined scenarios.

The shift in consciousness occurs naturally often without the individual being aware of it. Research suggests that daydreaming is more likely to occur when were are stationary (maybe b/c our active behaviour and directed attention are turned off) (Pope & Singer, 1980)

It is also more likely to occur when we are tired, waiting to fall asleep, board.

It appears that consciousness may become bored by the lack of stimuli in the environment and turn inwards. Day dreams are also, when measured on an EEG (Electroencephalograph - measures eye movements) different to night dreams. Daydreams are less connected and unrelated that night dreams. Freud believed we daydream to allow us to fulfill our desires.

Singer (1975) proposes daydreaming enables us to mentally try out a range of plans that could be applied to situations.

Schachter (1976) suggests that daydreaming allows us to problem solve.

Others state it is our brains attempt to stay mentally alert when there is not enough external stimuli. Alcohol is considered to be a psycoactive drug (which are chemicals that change conscious awareness, perceptions or mods. Alcohol is considered a depressant, it lessens inhibitions (by depressing centers of the brain) responsible for judgement and self-control. Hockenbury (2006). Effects of Alcohol on consciousness depend on a wide range of variables. Amount consumed, weight, amount of food in stomach, environment you are in, drinking history Effects of alcohol on the consciousness are many and varied.
- shorted attention span - impaired thinking
- impaired perceptions - impaired memory
- slower r/time - reduced self-awareness
- impaired emotional awareness and control
- impaired perception of time
- less self control - difficulties with voluntary muscle control and fine movements
- deterioration in performance of complex tasks pg 120 tbl 2.4 read
As class pg 121 L.A 2.13 Q 1 and 2 Measuring consciousness is difficult as it is a hypothetical construct (it is believed to exist, but can not be directly observed or measured).

Much of what we know about consciousness is inferred or assumed based on what the individual reports, their behaviour and their physiological changes.

Various devices are used to measure physiological responses and different patterns of responses are associated with different states of consciousness. EEG Measures: Electrical activity of the brain

Brain wave patterns as shown in an EEG recordings can vary in frequency (the number of waves per second). High frequency is faster, with more brain waves per unit of time; while low frequency is slower with fewer brain waves per unit of time.

Brain waves can also vary in amplitude (the size of the waves), this is judged on the size of the peaks and troughs. High amplitude waves have bigger peaks, and low amplitude brain waves have smaller peaks. Changes in heart rate are associated with different states of consciousness.
In some ASCs heart rate increases, while in others it decreases. Body temperature is less variable than heart rate; however, a pattern has been identified.
Body temperature will drop by more than 1C when person is asleep. Beta waves: Have a high frequency (fast) and low amplitude (small). They are associated with normal waking consciousness and focused attention.

Alpha waves: Have a high frequency (but slower than beta waves) and a low amplitude (but larger than beta waves). They are associated with a relaxed, wakeful or meditative state.

Theta waves: Have a medium frequency (slower than alpha and beta) and a mixture of high and low amplitude. They are associated with early stages of sleep.

Delta waves: have the highest frequency and amplitude. They are associated with the deepest stages of sleep. Physiological response that measures the electricalconductivity of the skin.

More sweat, decreases electrical resistance, increasing electrical conductivity. More sweat can be caused by increased emotional arousal. L.A. 2.14 pg 123 In class. UN Home learning
pg 125 L.A. 2.15 Q 1,2 UN home learning
pg 116 L.A. 2.11 Q 1,2 E 4,5 UN home learning
pg 121 L.A. 2.12 Q 1,2,3, 6a, b, c Should be finished reading/highlighting/ and note taking Chr 3
Comlpete Chr 2 quiz and test

UN Ch1 should be finished
You have one week to finish all Chr 2 Review
RM - Survival
Night time is dangerous for humans
Being inactive during this time aids our survival as we are less likely to be eaten!

Look at pg 163 fg 3.25

One criticism of the survival theory is that is does not account for why we loose consciousness during sleep. Why do we need to sleep? Most people your age get about 8 hours Research shows that adolescents need 9 or 10 hours.

Many people report not being able to get to sleep quickly, not getting enough sleep and difficulty getting up in the morning.

Biological factors – rhythms – regulate when we sleep and wake through the release of hormones that make us tired.

Our sleep-wake cycle is called a circadian rhythm – this means about a day Sleep pattern shifts over the lifespan (vcaa) Research using the administration of drugs often encounters a problem known as the Placebo effect
The placebo effect occurs when a participant's behavioural response is influenced by their expectation of how they should behave
The expectations of the participants rather than (or as well as) the independent variable, may be affecting the dependent variable and therefore the results

Eg. You know you had the drug so you expect to sleep better. I cant know now if the drug or your expectation caused the change Sleep deprivation research – do sleeping pills work? During adolescence your sleep-wake cycle is shifted biologically (through the release of hormones) to make you require about 2 hours more sleep!
This is called the sleep-wake cycle shift (VCAA): it will be examined.
Sleep wake cycle shift has biological explanations (hormones) and psychological explanations (gaming/late night parties.

But our school and work day does not really allow for this! (that’s shit)

As we consistently get less than optimum sleep we create a sleep debt – this compounds like a fine you haven't payed – it gets bigger and bigger!!!!

As a result you try to catch up on the weekend! But then you go to bed later and compound the problem!
Research shows that less than 8 hours has a negative impact on cognitive function (learning and memory). So why are you tired? Sleep patterns and stages (VCAA) The sleep Scientist at Work Polysomnography - detailed monitoring and recording of physiological responses during sleep
Read Box 3.1 pg 136 Studying Sleep (VCAA!!!) Heart slows, shaking, increase sensitivity to pain, immune function impaired
Effects can be overcome with a few good nights sleep with fewer hours sleep than those lost
Physiological effects Sleep deprivation means going without sleep
Involves partial or total loss of sleep
May occur during one night or for several nights.
Varies from one individual to another

Longest anyone known to have gone without sleep is 11 days – suffered severe psychological effects during deprivation, hallucinated and deluded.

Two types of sleep deprivation studies (regular) and REM sleep deprivation Sleep Deprivation
VCAA Stage 2 NREM – truly asleep, everything continues to slow, (theta with spindles – high frequency & k complexes - low freq high amplitude) may still think not asleep 10 – 20 mins Non Rapid Eye Movement sleep Yay sleep, that’s where I’m a viking! Sleep – the most common ASC REM = Alpha 4 = Delta 3 = Theta / Delta 2 = Theta/Spindles
/K complex 1 = Alpha/Theta REM sleep – Rapid eye movement, dream sleep
Higher arousal but not awake,
Helps consolidate memories - form new connections between neurons, evidence that young have more REM than old as brain still developing Rapid Eye Movement Sleep 3 NREM – deeper sleep, more slowing of bodily function (theta, delta) 30 mins Note Book - Sleep studies 1 week
Date: Time: Level 1 / Level 2 / Level 3 / Level 4 / REM Difficulty waking (easy/hard/very hard) Dreams (Description) Elecrtomyograph
- EMG Is a device used to ditect, amplify and record the electrical activity of muscles.

Fg. 3.3 Analysis and write 2 points about it EEG
Brain produces distinguishable patterns of electrical activity that follow a regular sequence EMG
Muscles produce identifiable changes during the course of a nights sleep EOG
There are changes in eye movements during different stages of sleep. Immense value in clarifying 2 diffent types of sleep REM and NREM Electro-ocular gram
- EOG Is a device for measuring eye movements or eye positions by detecting, amplifying and recording electrical activity in eye muscles that control movement You will need to memorise EEG, EMG, EOG, heart rate and body temp, and GSR Heart rate and core body temp
Both gradually as we progressively drift from lighter sleep to deep sleep, then gradually increase from lighter sleep to deeper sleep.

HR for trained athlete can drop below 30 pg 135, Fg 3.5, pg 136 Fg 3.6 Physiological Responses (VCAA) Self Report
- Sleep diaries (VCAA) Sleep Labs (VCAA) Video Monitoring (VCAA) Self reports are commonly use to study sleep. The most common is a sleep diary.

Read F.g. 3.8

Our own sleep diary due 1 week. Mindmap - All we know about sleep
....ways to study sleep
...types of sleep Sleep labs often are fitted with video monitoring.
The cameras can record, sound, temperature, in little or no light.

Video monitoring is particularly important for patients (or participants) with serious sleep disorders. Stage 1 NREM – dosing, falling asleep, hypnic jerks, losing awareness (alpha, theta) 5 – 10 mins 4 NREM – Deepest, hard to wake, disorientated (delta) 20 mins at beginning less as night goes on Interestingly UN
pg 139. L.A. 3.1 Q 1-3
In class Q 5 Open to pg 144 fg 3.14. Discuss In class
pg 148 complete L.A. 3.2

UN pg 148 L.A. 3.2 Q 2,3,4

pg 149 complete 3.3 (in class)

Pg 149 complete 3.4 - create posters. pg 150. fg 3.17 look at as class. Analyze.

pg 159 L.A. 3.6 in class.

Read top pg 152 example.
Read pg 152 Box 3.5 (Sleep foundations)
Read pg 154 Box 3.6 (sleep tips)
Read pg 155 Box 3.7 (sleep waking cycle) VCAA (delayed sleep)
If you are on a 26 hr sleep cycle and you wake at 7pm what time will your body want to go to sleep??
What about the next night (do for one week) UN
pg 159 L.A. 3.5 Q 1-4 (very important) Restoration
Recovery from physical and mental exertion
Repair damaged cells
Replenish energy stores
Memory formation

Look at pg 161 fg 3.23. and 3.24
...questions There is NO one on earth that never sleeps.
There are two main theories about why we sleep. Restorative and Survival. Partial Total Partial sleep deprivation (or debt) can occur over a period of time. It accumulates.....

What do you think that means?

Psychologists can use human participants and believe most ppl underestimate the effects of partial sleep loos over a prolonged period.

Research findings show that 30% of road accidents occur when drivers fall asleep.

Can be overcome with a few good nights sleep. Physiological Response Psychological Response - Deterioration of cognitive functioning
- Memory processes imparied
- short term memory inpaired - Slower reaction times
- impaired motor skills
- lack of energy Total sleep deprivation due to ethical reasons (which are...?) are commonly preformed on animals.

It is the absence (due to the experimenter manipulation) of sleep.

Rechtschaffen (1989) deprived rats of sleep, they could not maintain a constant body temperature and died! Autopsy's showed that their immune systems failed resulting in blood poising.

Humans have been studied (but of their own choice) so psychologists have used convenience sampling. Randy Gardner held the record of 11 days. He experienced debilitating psychological and physiological effects...but there was no long lasting effects. He slept for 15 hrs on the first sleep and 12 on the second and 10.5 on the 3rd. Follow up studies have shown he suffered no long term harmful effects. Physiological Response Psychological Response - Sever motor coordination
- no energy
- body temp drops
- heart rate slows
- lack energy and strength
- inability to focus eyes - Along with the other symptoms (partial)
- Hallucinations
- paraniod
- delusions pg 167 read box 3.11 25 hr sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythm) (sleep-wake cycle shift (VCAA) for adolescents is 26)
Monday to bed 9 pm
+ 26
Tue to bed 11pm
Wed to bed 1am
Thur to bed 3am
Friday to bed 5am
What are you going to do on Sat? REM rebound (VCCA) Invovles the catching up on REM sleep immediately following a period of lost REM sleep when next asleep. Complete Box 3.13 in class discuss You should be finished the following
- Chapter 1-4 Reading/Highlighting/Note taking
- Chapter 1-3 UN activities

You should be reading every few weeks
- Chapter 1-4 summaries

You should be completing
- Quizlets: Research Methods / Consciousness
- Exam revision question (printed) Micro-sleep (VCAA) Is a period of very short period of drowsiness or sleeping that occurs when the person is actually awake.

What EEG brain wave patterns might you see? The EEG resembles the early stages of sleep.
After the Micro sleep the person usually has no recollection. Various research studies on sleep deprivation have found that we do not need to fully compensate for the lost hours, we can make it up by getting a few extra hours over the next few nights. The homunculus man After the accident Phineas suffered severe personality changes
Became impulsive, aggressive, disorganised
Could not continue his work as foreman
Appeared for a time at Barnum's American Museum in New York
February 1860, Gage had the first in a series of increasingly severe convulsions
died in or near San Francisco on May 21 — just under twelve years after his accident

Gage’s case along with others suggest the frontal lobes important role in emotion and personality, planning and initiative Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage Occurs when there’s damage to Broca’s area
- Most commonly caused by stroke

Results in:
non-fluent speech (short sentences, typically 3-4 words, mainly verbs & nouns)
Comprehension of speech can be impaired if meaning cannot be inferred from individual word meaning
‘The girl was hugged by the boy’ (not understood)
E.g. ‘The boy hugged the girl’ (understood)

People with Broca’s aphasia are usually aware and have an understanding of their condition
Deaf people with damage to Broca’s area have difficulty producing sign language Broca’s aphasia or Nonfluent apasia Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation The Central Nervous System
CNS (VCAA) Receives information from photoreceptors. This is where our visual reality is formed

Left half of each eye receives info from the right visual field. Left half of each eye send to the left hemisphere

Right half of each eye receives info from left visual field. Right half of each eye sends to the right hemisphere

Draw on board. The temporal Lobe as a drummer? Difficulty comprehending speech
Difficulty speaking in a meaningful way
Speech is fluent but nonsense. Often gram

Have little or no awareness or understanding of their condition
They do not know that they are making now sense!!
Most commonly caused by stroke Wernicke’s aphasia
/ Fluent aphasia Only in the left hemisphere
Is invovled in speech production BUT has a crucial role in the comprehension of speech (more specifically interpreting human speech)
Interprets the sounds of human speech
Locates appropriate words from memory to express meaning

Until the information has passed through Wernicke's area it can not be understood

Vital for not just understanding words but locating appropriate words from memory. Wernicke’s area Different types – mostly experienced with visual sense but can occur with hearing, touch, movement

If they acknowledge a stimulus on their neglected side they will claim it came from the other side

Can affect recall of images from memory; however it does not involve memory impairment

Can show a gradual recovery in some cases

Thought to be caused by failure of cortical arousal associated with the activities of the thalamus & reticular activating system Attentional disorder where individuals fail to notice anything either on their left or right side

(VCAA) Most common in stroke or accident victims with damage to the rear parietal love of the right hemisphere (Can sometimes occur with similar damage to the left hemisphere, but it’s less common) Spatial Neglect The parietal lobe receives and processes sensory information (called somatosensory info) from the body and other sense.

Other functions (Association areas):
Spatial reasoning (primarily in the right hemisphere)
Enables us to sense the position of our body in space (primarily in the right hemisphere) September 13, 1848, 25-year-old Railway foreman
Packing gun powder into a hole with a steel pole to blow up rock
Sparks from the pole ignite the gun powder and send the pole under gage’s cheek and out the top of his head

Before the accident he was well liked, organised, calm and polite Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage The frontal Lobe as a car? Only in the left hemisphere responsible for:

Production of articulate speech
Coordinates movements of muscles required for speech.
Why is it next to the primary motor cortex?

Understanding of grammatical structure in order to extract meaning that depends on that grammatical structure Broca’s area Responsible for voluntary muscle movement

The greatest area on the cortex is devoted to the most sensitive areas (tongue, jaw lips)

Left hemisphere sends messages to right side of body and right hemisphere sends messages to left side of bosy Primary motor cortex  The largest of the 4 lobes. It is responsible for:
Primary motor cortex – movement
Broca’s area speech production
Association Areas:
Complex mental functions such as planning & problem solving (association areas)
Expression of characteristics associated with personality and emotional behaviour The frontal Lobe Structure and function: different parts of the brain control different functions. Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Convoluted outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres

Surface area approximately 0.25m2

2-4mm thick

3 broad categories
Sensory cortex areas (receives & processes info about senses)
Motor cortex areas (receives, processes & sends info about voluntarily body movements)
Association cortex areas – integrate sensory, motor & other info

Divided into cortical lobes
Size of cerebral cortex is linked to intellectual ability (between species) Characteristics of the cerebral cortex The Occipital Lobe Mediation of fear

Seizures involving the amygdala involve intense fear
Damage leaves a person unable to learn a fear response through classical conditioning

Involved in remembering the emotional significance of an event

Damage leaves us unable to judge emotional component of facial expressions in others – i.e. angry person perceived as calm or even happy
Memory formation – not memory storage

Damage leaves patient unable to form new long term memories Deep within the temporal lobe- the amygdala The temporal lobe is primarily involved in with auditory perception, but plays an important role in memory (with hypocampus)

Other functions (association areas):
- memory including linking emotions with memory
- Object identification
- Facial recognition
(Temporal sounds like tempo, the tempo of the music) The temporal Lobe Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation The Parietal lobe The Occipital Lobe as an eye? The Peripheral Nervous System (VCAA) Two Great Revision web sites Studies on cognitive processes of the brain (VCAA) Bigger brains are smarter brains (only between species, sorry big heads don’t mean your smart!)

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease Each hemisphere of the cortex can be divided further into 4 lobes (Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal)
FPOT (put the F*&%ing POT on)

These lobes are also responsible for specific behaviours, i.e. the frontal lobes control emotional behaviour, planning etc.

These Lobes also receive and processes information from a particular sense.
Occipital lobes = visual information,
Temporal lobes= Auditory (sound)
Parietal lobes= somatosensory (body and skin)
Frontal lobes. This lobe is involved in initiating movement of the body The Lobes of the cortex The cerebral cortex is made up of two separate but linked hemispheres (halves)

Each hemisphere (left or right) is responsible for movement and sensation in the opposite side of the body.

Each hemisphere is also involved in specific functions i.e. the left side controls our ability to use and understand language

The two hemispheres are linked by a bundle of nerves (neurons) called the Corpus Callosum The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex The brain is the control center for all human behaviour, without understanding our brains and nervous systems we can never fully understand behaviour.

Some scientists argue that all human behaviour can be traced to biological functioning.

Our Brains are our most important organ, they make us who we are.

The bigger an organisms cerebral cortex the more intelligent it seems to be – this is NOT true within species!

Whether or not the brain is the sole seat of consciousness it is most certainly part of the puzzle……

Learning and Memory involve physical changes in your brain! You will be different by the end of the lesson! Adult brain weighs about 1.5kg
It has the consistency of jelly
If spread out flat it would cover about 6 pages of the age newspaper
You are born with all of the nerve cells you will ever have, about 100 billion
Your brain grows connections between nerve cells, making your brain more dense
Every single brain cell can form connections with around 10,000 other nerve cells The Human Brain: Get a feel for it…. Bigger brains are smarter brains

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease Brain Myths Hit or shit? These lobes cover both the left and right hemispheres – Note that hemispheric specialization still stands (eg. Left hemisphere predominately involved in language)

Left frontal lobe – speech production – motor movement in frontal lobe
Left temporal lobe – speech comprehension – auditory info in temporal The Lobes of the cortex The Lobes of the cortex- Sketch The corpus Callosum The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex More Highly Evolved? Humans – the best brain! Left controls Right

Right controls Left

No one knows why so don’t ask!

This diagram is from the back

Note sexy yellow budgie smugglers The Cross over…. Hemispheric Speciaisation The soma or cell body is the structure that determines whether the neuron will be activated and thus transmit (send) messages to other neurons.

A dendrite (from the Greek work meaning 'tree') is a short, thin, widely branching nerve fibre that is specialised to detect and receive neural information.

An axon is a single, tube like, fluid-filled extension that transmits messages from the soma to other cells in the body including other neurons, muscles, organs and glands. Encased in a white fatty substance that helps speed un transmission called myelin sheath.

At the end of each axon are branches called axon terminals. Each axon terminal has a small knob-like swelling at the tip of it called a terminal button / synaptic knob

The synaptic knob is a small structure like a sac that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission neural information from one neuron to another 100 billion neurons
10,000 connections for each neuron The gap between neurons is called the synapse.

 When the neural impulse reaches the end of each axon, the terminal buttons releases chemicals called neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is manufactured by the neuron. It contains ions that travel across the synapse to the receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Sometime the neurotransmitter triggers or activates a neural impulse on the connecting neuron. At other times, the neurotransmitter inhibits or prevents the connecting neuron from firing

When the neurotransmitter has done its job it is either taken back by the terminal buttons or disposed off. Synaptic transmission A neuron is a cell that sends and receives information in the form of neural impulses (neural impulses are tiny pulses of electro chemical energy)

Sensory and motor neurons do not share the same tracts to and from the brain, they follow separate but adjacent paths

Sensory (feeling) neurons – afferent
Motor (Moving) neurons – efferent
Interneurons – connecting (enable the spinal reflex, sensory communicate with motor) Neurons –building blocks of the Nervous System Spinal cord is the super highway for all information / messages coming to (afferent - sensory) and leaving (efferent - motor) the brain.

There are separate pathways for information / messages coming to and leaving the brain – these are called tracts

The spine contains two types of matter
White Matter = Myelinated axons (part of neuron that sends information away from cell body or soma) Myelin is a protective coating that helps speed up transmission of information

Grey matter = Neuron bodies, mainly located near the centre of the spinal chord The Spinal cord – linking the CNS to the PNS Neural information super Freeway The spinal cord Left – work Right –play Dendrites
Cell body (soma)
Axon Terminals
Terminal Buttons
Synapse The Parts of a Neuron An Action Potential
Four Sections of Cord - These sections of the spinal cord are named by the groups of nerves that enter and exit the spinal cord at each section

Cervical – 8 pairs of nerves enter and exit
Thoracic – 12 pairs of nerves enter and exit
Lumbar – 5 pairs enter and exit
Sacral – 5 pairs enter and exit

Nerves at each level send / receive information to / from different parts of the body The Spinal cord - levels Spinal Cord:
Connections and Neurons Human Nervous System The human nervous system is a complex combination of neurons. It enables us to gather information from outside and inside the body. It has two major divisions. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PSN). There are 3 major types of neurons (nerves). Sensory, Motor and Inter neurons. The CNS has two main parts. The brain (organises, intergrates and interprets information) and the spinal cord (connects the brain to the PNS) UN home learning
pg 180 Q1-3, Ext Q5 There are 3 main areas/categories of cortical functioning.
Sensory Cortex areas
Motor Cortex areas
and association cortex areas

What do you think these each do? Sensory Cortex areas: Responsible for receiving and processing information from our senses.

Motor Cortex areas: receives, processes and sends information about voluntary bodily movements.

Association cortex areas: integrate sensory, motor and other information (involved in complex mental abilities, such as thinking and problem solving) Pop quiz - Complete the test

Complete and let me know your score. UN home learning
pg 182 L.A. 4.2 Q 1ab, 2abc ext Q3 In class pg 185 4.3 and 4.4 Sketch pg 184 fg 4.10 and 4.11
into note books with correct headings Main part is the Primary Somatosensory cortex
- At the front of the parietal lobe next to the primary motor cortex which is at the back of the frontal lobe
Receives info from senses
Greatest area of the cortex devoted to the most sensitive areas (face muscles etc) Primary somatosensory cortex Phantoms in the brain Compete the video learning sheet Sketch pg 188 fg 4.16 and 4.17 correct titles ans labels Why is it all wrinkled? By wrinkling itself it can create more surface area. When spread out the cerebral cortex would cover 7 text books (open) Plays a vital role in different features of sound such as frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness).
Receives & processes sound from both ears

- Wernicke’s area speech comprehension
- Has specialist areas that play vital roles in understanding sounds. Primary auditory cortex Sketch pg 192 Fg 4.21 and 4.22 and 4.24 pg 215 read as class. Pg 216 read as class
In class. LA 4.14 Q 5 and 6 The man who lost his body Almost exclusively devoted to the sense of Vision.
Damage can produce blindness even if they eyes and neural connections to the brain are normal.

Major area is the primary visual cortex.

Association areas:
integrating different parts of the visual field, sending to other parts of the brain for interpretation
Other areas visual association areas – identifying objects etc. Primary visual cortex (at the bottom of the lobe) Sketch fg 4.27 pg 195 Association areas Are just if not more important....
Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language.
The parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes - all located in the posterior part of the cortex - organize sensory information into a coherent perceptual model of our environment centered on our body image.
The frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning actions and movement, as well as abstract thought Read pg 216 Box 4.11 Frontal Lobe Case study Read pg 218, Fg 4.39 and pg 219 fg 4.40 UN learning activity
pg 219 L.A. 4.15 Q 1,2,3 Ext 4, 5 In class
L.A. 4.5 pg 189 UN home learning
pg 217 LA 4.14 Qns 1-4 Read box 4.5 on pg 194 In class.
LA 4.6 pg 198 complete carefully.

Then complete with a balloon (take a photo when finished)

LA 4.7 pg 198, Q 3 discussion UN Home learning
pg 198, L.A. 4.7 Q 1 and 2 The earliest evidence for Hemispheric Specialisation came from observations of people who had strokes affecting one hemisphere but not the other Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere LH cognitive functions: Verbal (use and recgonition of words - Brocca's and Wernicka's) and Analytical functioning (breaking down ideas into parts - logical reasoning).

LH behavioral functions: receives sensory input from the right side of body, controls voluntary movements for the right side, and controls the internal organs (involuntary movements) on the right RH cognitive function: Non verbal functions (spatial and visual thinking eg Jigzaw puzzle), recognising faces, locations of objects, patterns, music, artwork, creative thinking, recgonising facial cues (most non-verbal communication)

RH behavioral functions: recieves sensory input from the left side of body, controls voluntary movements for the lest side, and controls the internal organs (involuntary movements) on the left side In class pg 199 LA 4.9 Q 1 (discussion) and 2 (in note book) 3 and 4 (discussion) If you find this interesting you should look at pg 201, completing LA 4.11 with family. Read pg 206....The spinal cord PNS [Sensory/afferent Neurons] --> CNS [Spinal cord (inter neurons) --> Brain (somatosensory cortex)
CNS [Brain/motor cortex --> Spinal Cord (inter neurons) --> PNS [Motor/efferent) Neurons] --> Muscles STRUCTURE OF A NEURON UN Home Learning
pg 213 L.A. 4.13 Q 1-4 Ext 5 You will need to know (inside out):
- Broca's Aphasia
- Wernicke's Aphasia
- Spatial Neglect
- The split brain studies Split-brain studies Revision Activity Early split brain research by Michael Gazzaniga Split brain surgeries involves surgically cutting the corpus callosum (and other nerves connecting the hemispheres) The effect is that the two hemispheres do not directly receive info from each other. The pioneers of split-brain research, Michael Gazzaniga and Roger Sperry (VCAA!), worked together at Caltech testing the functioning of each hemisphere independently of the other in split-brain patients.

The results revealed an overall pattern among patients that severing the entire corpus callosum blocks the interhemispheric transfer of perceptual, sensory, motor, gnostic and other forms of information in a dramatic way.

This allowed Gazzaniga and Sperry to gain insights into hemispheric differences as well as the mechanisms through which the two hemispheres interact The "split brain" was first discovered in the laboratory by Roger Sperry and Ronald Meyers in the late 1950's .

Initially they began experimenting with cats, and later proceeded to study monkeys. In 1961 the first human patient was subject to the split brain surgery.
The procedure worked well as a "cure" for patients who suffered from severe epilepsy and did not respond to anti-epileptic drugs.

It was soon discovered that patients who had a commissurotomy had some interesting difficulties. Patients were not able to communicate information from one hemisphere to the other, almost as though they now had two separate brains. Turn to pg 224 Fg 4.44 Normal Brain
Draw in books.
Note The Left visual field (right half of retina) goes to the right hemisphere. Turn to pg 221. Fg 4.42
Draw split brain visual pathway. Findings Sperry and Gazzaniga used the apparatus shown to test the responses of participants with no hemisphere connections.

They used case studies..why?

N.G. (participant) could name objects flashed in the right visual field.
N.G. could not name objects flashed in the left visual field and denied there was anything even shown. BUT NG could locate (with left hand - reaching under desk) objects flashed onto the left field. Showing that her right hemisphere did see the image and could control the right hand to grab the object. Sperry also argued that just b.c the CC was severed didn't mean there were two brains. He argued the combined (using other cues) to create consciousness. UN home learning (VCAA)
pg 224 L.A. 4.17 Q 1,2,3,4
In class 5,6,7,8,9,10, 13 VCAA dot point. Lets discuss
- research methods and ethical principles associated with the study of the brain and states of consciousness, as outlined in the introduction to the unit. Ethical principles and research methods in brain research In class pg 263 LA 4.31 Study 2
UN home learning
pg 262 L.A. 4.3 Q1, 2 - SAC 2 weeks. Prep and Plan
- Manditory Thursday after school classes UN - answers up to chr 3 are up
Exam revision site - w/ answers
After school class today
pw: rsXHWDPu Handouts and split brain students!! Frontal Lobotomy Revision Quizlet's
Chapter Summaries
Re-reading note
Completing all UN activities

Please visit Andrew Scott's youtube channel and watch his videos Autonomic function – sympathetic and parasympathetic Connected to internal organs, not consciously controlled. Keeps us alive – automatically.

Sympathetic branch controls arousal, fight or flight response / fires us up. Release of adrenaline, heart up, breathing up etc.

Parasympathetic calms back down, keeps at stable level. Digestion resting etc. The Autonomic Branch The word soma means body!

Motor information from the brain. Voluntary movement

Sensory information to the brain. Sense data from skin, body etc.

Afferent – to the brain
Efferent – from the brain

S.A.M.E. – sensory nerves are afferent, motor nerves are efferent The Somatic Branch Central NS is includes the brain and the spine
Peripheral NS includes everything outside of the CNS!!!!! Central vs Peripheral PNS – yep it sounds like your saying penis
If you liked that one you will love the ANS -anus It is sympathetic arousal!
In response to a real or imagined threat
Physical or psychological danger Sympathetic: Fight or Flight Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.

Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?

Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?

Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?

Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?

Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning? Quick quiz - Write the answers Autonomic nervous system Some of these autonomic responses can be controlled voluntarily, others with the help of biofeedback.

This involves using information about internal bodily activity to exert control over that process.

Describe the process of learning the biofeedback technique.
How could biofeedback be beneficial? In this scenario, you would automatically withdraw your hand before any intervention from the brain. Interneurons create connections between sensory and motor neurons, and relay messages from one type of neuron to another type of neuron. They exist only in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Neural pathways stimulate accelerates dilate increase sympathetic Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ___________ nervous system would be activated. This would _______ the activity of your visceral muscles. This might mean that your pupils _____, heart rate __________, and your adrenal glands ________ hormone secretion. Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic Sympathetic nervous system immediately increases the activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands at times of vigorous activity, stress or threat. Parasympathetic nervous system gradually decreases activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands once the threat has been eliminated. It aims to maintain a balanced state of the body called homeostasis. The autonomic system is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Divisions of the ANS inhibit decrease increase homeostasis decrease parasympathetic Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ______________ nervous system would be dominant. This would ________ the activity of your visceral muscles, maintaining a state of ___________. This might mean that your saliva glands _______ salivation, sweat glands ________ perspiration and your adrenal glands _____ hormone secretion. Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.

The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.

The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. DRAW UN home Learning
Pg 273 Q 1ab, Ext 2 How do you think the autonomic branch operates? Studies into paraplegia and quadriplegia discussion The somatic nervous system, a subdivision of the PNS controls the skeletal muscles attached to our bones, these produce observable bodily responses The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a sub branch of the PNS it is a network of nerves that connects the CSN to the bodies internal organs (such as the heart, stomach liver, and glands (adrenal and salivary). It is 'automonous' b/c many of the features are not usually under voluntary control. UN home learning activity
pg 275 L.A. 5.3 Q 1ab, 2, Ext 3, 4 Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.
Answer: Somatic and autonomic.
Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?
Answer: The sensory neuron.
Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?
Answer: The autonomic nervous system.
Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.
Answer: Biofeedback.
Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?
Answer: Gradually.
Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?
Answer: The sympathetic nervous system.
Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning?
Answer: Homeostasis. The parasympathetic NS is the system that dominated most of the time. It is involved in everyday functioning. UN home learning
pg 279 L.A. 5.5 Qns 1,2,3, Ext 4
In notebooks sketcg L.A. 5.7 pg 280 Revision activities You should now be finished:
- Chr reading/highlighting/notetaking
- up Chr 5 UN (this weekend)

Its possible you could be doing the following:
- Rereading your Chr notes
- Completing the AoS1 Prac Exam
- Completing the Quizletts
- Rereading the Prezi
- Completing the revision activities in the Prezi

SAC is in one week. YOU CAN DO IT!

Quizlet - Pop Quiz Area of Study 1: 2 SACs Next week
1. M/C, Short Ans, Extended Response
2. Visual Presentation

You should all have your guidance sheets

reread: Notes/Highlighted sections of book
UN questions/Self corrections
Practice Exam on AoS1
Youtube channel.
See the full transcript