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History Israeli-Palestinian/Arab Conflict

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by

Abby Capraro

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of History Israeli-Palestinian/Arab Conflict

Israeli and
Palestinian/Arab Conflict

The Intifada
The 1948 War
The Six Day War
The Six Day War occurred in 1967 and lasted a total of six days.
Nasser (Egyptian President) threatened to go to war with Israel .
He demanded the UN's Emergency Force leave Sharm al-Shaykh so that Egyptian troops could occupy the port town.

The Declaration of Principles
The decision making about the Israeli-occupied territories began a dividing issue among the Israelis and Palestinians. In 1993 secret talks held in Norway provided an unexpected solution.
In November 1947, the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into a Jewish state, Arab state, and a UN- administered international zone of Jerusalem.
51 percent of the land would be given to the Jews and 44 percent to the Palestinians/Arabs (Jerusalem made up 5 percent).




Declaration of Principles:
Palestinian/Arab Perspective
The Palestinian/Arabs are allowed to return to the Gaza Strip and West Bank, the land that used to belong to them, and rule themselves.
They were fearful that the Israelis may try to take back the land they had given to the Palestinian/Arabs.
The Palestinian/Arabs did not have land for their large population of their people.
They wanted to gain more land, while protecting the land that they had been given.
Declaration of Principles:
Israeli Perspective
The Israelis agreed to grant the Palestinians self rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
The Israelis still feared that the Palestinian/Arabs may be unhappy with the amount of land and may still attack, demand more power, or demand more land.
The remaining tension after the declaration the assassination of the Israeli prime minister, shortly after the declaration.
If the Palestinian/Arabs attack, then negotiation would have failed.
The Israelis were motivated to protect their land from being captured or attacked.
The 1948 War
On May 15, 1948, only one day after the British left Palestine, the newly independent state of Israel was attacked by six Arab nations.
The six nations that attacked Israel the day after it was formed were Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon.
Israelis fought back and eventually took control of a majority of the land that was intended to be set aside for the Palestinians.
Over 900,000 Palestinian Arabs fled and became refugees.

Intifada:
Palestinian/Arab Perspective
The Palestinians have a hatred for the Israeli ruling system, and the Israelis in general.
To fight against the Israelis they form the PLO, or Palestine Liberation Organization.
They conduct an armed struggle and have boycotts and demonstrations against Israeli rule.
They are motivated by the opportunity to gain land and rights.
The Palestinian/Arabs are loyal to their original homeland, which motivates them to fight.
Intifada:
Israeli Perspective
The Palestinians are attacking Israelis.
Unarmed Israeli citizens are being harmed for no reason.
They fight back to defend and protect their people and land.
A motivating factor for them to fight was to protect their people, along with their land.
The intifada was a time when the amount of harassment given to Palestinians by Israeli forces increased. It occurred between 1987 and 1993.
Palestinians were forced to pay taxes for things that would not benefit them (unemployment insurance and health care). They were also forced to go through background checks in order to receive any kind of license or permit, something Israelis and Jews did not have to do.
In December of 1987 an Israeli military vehicle killed four Palestinians in an accident in the Gaza Strip. The protesting which followed soon spread to the West Bank. This movement was called the intifada or "shaking off" in Arabic. Soon after the intifada broke out, the United National Leadership of the Intifada was formed.
Israeli troops fought back, they demolished homes and businesses. They arrested tens of thousands of people.
In the first three years of the Intifada, over 1,000 Palestinians died, and 37,000 more were wounded.
In addition, only 56 Israelis were killed.
The rate of violence increased in 1990
The Intifada:
Perspectives
The 1948 War: Palestinian/Arab Perspective
Palestinians/Arabs felt that they were not being treated fairly and did not agree with the way their homeland was being divided.
They believed that since they made up over half the population, they should be able to receive more land.
The land set aside for a Palestinian state by the UN never came into being as much of the land that was declared a part of the Arab state was taken over by Israelis.
Thousands of Palestinians were forced to flee from lands under Jewish control. They then settled into UN sponsored refugee camps.
Palestinians demanded that they return to their homes
The 1948 War: Israeli Perspective
Unlike the Palestinians, Israelis were very happy with the UN's decision to finally divide the land in Palestine and create a Jewish state.
The Israelis, with a great amount of American support, were able to defeat the Palestinians/Arabs.
Israel claimed they were only retaliating against the Arabs who attacked first.
Israel felt as though they were surrounded by hostile forces.
The 1948 War: Palestinian/Arab Motivations to Fight
The 1948 War: Israeli Motivations to Fight
In effort to defend themselves and their land, they attacked Israel.
They were motivated by their religion, along with pride in their country.
The other nations joined in on the fight in order to protect their land and prevent Israel from taking over their own countries.
The 1948 War: Palestinian/Arab Motivations to Fight
The failure to negotiate and compromise with the Israelis resulted in an unequal distribution of land, causing the Palestinians to be outraged.
There is a long history of tension between the Palestinians/Arabs and the Israelis which made people even more willing to fight.

The Israelis were motivated to fight in effort to defend themselves.
After the Holocaust, many Israelis had an "us against the world" mentality which prompted them to fight even more.
They were also motivated by pride in their religion and wanted to fight for their beliefs.
UN Partition Plan
Israelis (purple)

Palestinians (green)

International Zone (yellow)
Land that Israelis annexed (light purple)
After 1948 War
Why is this event so important to understand?
It is important to understand what happened before, during, and after the 1948 war so that similar fighting in the future can be avoided.
Future leaders can consider what happened in the past and use it to base their decisions on.
The Six Day War
Nasser closed the strategic Straits of Tiran to cut Israel off from the Red Sea.
Israel then launched a surprise attack against Egypt on June 5, 1967.
After six days of fighting, Israel defeated Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.
Israel also captured the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, and the West Bank. (occupied militarily in effort to provide a buffer zone/security).
The Six Day War
In addition, Israel declared Jerusalem as it's capital.
Over 300,000 Palestinian refugees escaped to neighboring Arab countries while the remaining 1.5 million stayed in the Gaza Strip and West Bank (aka the Occupied Territories).
The Six Day War
After the war, Israel destroyed three Arab villages.
Israel then took over Arab lands and started building Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and the conquered areas.
The Six Day War: Palestinian/Arab Perspective
They felt that they were ready to confront Israel and recapture the land that was taken from them.
Egypt was equipped with Soviet tanks and aircraft.
When Israel claimed Jerusalem as it's capital, Palestinians/Arabs were furious because it is their third holiest city.
The Palestinians who lived in Jerusalem were forced to choose between Israeli or Jordanian citizenship (most chose Jordanian).
Palestinians living in other areas were not given the choice and were left stateless.
15,000 Arabs were lost in the fighting.
UN Partition Plan
Palestinians fleeing to refugee camps
The city of Jerusalem is holy not only to people of Jewish faith, but people of Muslim faith as well (and Christian). This presented a huge conflict regarding who gets control of this holy city.
The Six Day War: Palestinian/Arab Motivations To Fight
The Palestinians/Arabs were motivated to fight to defend themselves from the Israelis.
They were also motivated to reclaim the land that the Israelis continued to take from them.
Palestinians/Arabs in the midst of fighting
Both Palestinian/Arab and Israeli Motivations to Fight
The Six Day War: Israeli Perspective
When the Egyptian President closed off the straits to block them from the Red Sea, Israelis saw it as a sign of war.
They believed that they were about to be attacked so they raided airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria.
Once they were safe from air attack, they made three attacks on the ground.
800 Israeli troops were lost.
The Six Day War: Israeli Motivations to Fight
The Israelis were motivated to fight in order to defend themselves from the Palestinians/Arabs.
They were also motivated to fight for access to resources and trade routes which were closed off by the Egyptians.
Also, fear played a big role in the Israelis motivation to fight as they had suffered various terrorist attacks by Palestinian groups in Syria and Jordan the previous year.
Why is this event so important to understand?
It is important to understand the cause and effects of the Six Day War so that the information can be used in the future.
People can learn from past mistakes and also determine which techniques are successful and which are not.
Map of Straits (including Strait of Tiran)
The difficulty of making that decision was shown by the assassination of the prime minister Rabin. He was killed by someone who opposed giving land to Palestinians.
The Declaration of Principles:
Perspectives
Israelis fighting
The Intifada
Israel confiscated land and deported Palestinians suspected to be activists
The number of people who were arrested/ jailed for six months without reason increased.
These policies did not destroy the Palestinians, though. Instead it motivated them to increase unity and form an anti-Israeli movement.
It represented the main Palestine political parties. The leaders planned strikes, boycotts, and marches. They also refused to pay taxes. Violence that had started as rock throwing, grew to guns and hand grenades.
The Intifada
The Intifada
The Intifada
The Intifada
The Intifada
Palestinians threw rocks at unarmed Israelis
However, feeble rock throwing soon turned into dangerous weapons being used, as seen above where a Palestinian is depicted with a large gun.
The Declaration of Priniples stated that the Israelis, led by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, would grant the Palestinians self rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. Yasir Arafat, the leader of the PLO, and Yitzhak Rabin signed the agreement on the lawn of White House in 1993.
The Declaration of Principles
Rabin's successor had opposed the plan to give the Palestinians the land, and ability to govern themselves. However, he still made an effort to keep the agreement. In 1997 he met with Arafat to discuss a withdrawal from the West Bank. Despite his efforts, peace contniured to be difficult.
The Declaration of Principles
The Declaration of Principles
Why is it important to understand this?
It is important to understand this event because it shows how lack of communication and compromising can lead to events that could potentially kill many of your people. It can also lead to ongoing feuding if it is not initially put to a stop.
This image shows the leaders of the two feuding groups shaking hands after the Declaration of Principles was accepted by both as a way to stop the violence.
Why is it important to understand this?
It is important to understand this event, because after so many years and years of always being at each other's throats, the two leaders came up with a negotiation which pleased both of them. It is also important to understand that even though the people had gotten the land that they had desperately wanted, peace was not easily won.
This map shows the areas of land where the Palestinians and Israelis were after the Declaration of Principles.
By: Kerry McGillicuddy & Abby Capraro
or have their lost land/property compensated for.

Israelis said that most Palestinians chose to leave the land on their own and that the Israeli was just defending themselves.
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