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The Birth of New Ideas

This is a project for my world history assignment which is about an itinerary based five cities and their importance.
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Athena Demetroudis

on 22 December 2012

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Transcript of The Birth of New Ideas

Historical Itinerary Representing:
London (England)
Paris (France)
Florence (Italy)
Rome (Italy)
Madrid (Spain) London is an area that is located in England. London was an important English city during both the Renaissance and the Reformation. There were contributions made during the Renaissance, which were mainly artistic and architectural structures. As for the Reformation, it was William the Conqueror who invaded England just to conquer it. In London, there are three must-see places that have played a role in these legacies. These must see places are: Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, which is more commonly known as the Tower of London, the Palace of Westminster, and St. Paul’s Cathedral. London (England) Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress (Tower of London) The Tower of London is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England, United Kingdom. The Tower of London took place during the time periods of both the Renaissance and the Reformation.
The Tower of London was considered a ''Concentric Castle'' during the Renaissance because of its form and large size, which is what allowed 21 different towers to form a major part of the London castle complex. During the Reformation, the Tower of London was built by William the Conqueror in the year of 1078. William the Conqueror was also a Norman king who invaded and conquered England in the year of 1066. The Tower of London was completed in 1097. The location of the Palace of Westminster lies on the Middlesex bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London. The Palace of Westminster existed during the Renaissance and the Reformation. There is evidence that this palace was built during the Renaissance because the palace itself, manifests what is determined as the Gothic structure. This is because the Gothic structure gave way to the Renaissance in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Reformation, the Palace of Westminster was built for Edward the Confessor on land between the Thames and Westminster. After he died in 1066, the palace became the home of William the Conqueror and his court. William's son named William Rufus had built Westminster Hall but his plans for enlarging the Palace were not realized until after his death in 1100. Even so, the palace was still the main residence of the kings of England and the home of the Court. This was until Henry VIII abandoned it for Whitehall Palace in 1512, but it was still the administrative center of the kingdom. The King's Council had met in Westminster Hall, where the ''Model'' Parliament was summoned by Edward I; but he died, so the Lords and Commons held their deliberations separately. Palace of Westminster St. Paul’s Cathedral St. Paul's Cathedral is located at the top of Ludgate Hill, which is the highest point in the city of London, England. St. Paul's Cathedral existed during the Renaissance and Reformation time periods. The evidence that St. Pauls Cathedral was built during the Renaissance is that it has Corinthian style columns, which originated from ancient Greek and Roman ideas. Also, the cathedral seems to have been designed with the classical idea of symmetry in mind and the dome even has a similar classic design. During the Reformation, St. Paul's Cathedral was built in 1087–1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, who was also known as Paul the Apostle or Saul of Tarsus. Saint Paul is said to probably be the most influential early Christian missionary. The construction began during the reign of William the Conqueror after a fire that had occurred in 1087, which destroyed most of the city. This work of construction took more than 200 years, and this work construction was delayed by yet another fire that occurred in 1135. A fire that had occurred in 1087 had also destroyed a lot of the city and the cathedral. Much later, Bishop Maurice oversaw preparations, even though it was mainly by his successor, Richard de Beaumis, that construction work finished completely. Beaumis got help from King Henry I, who gave the bishop stone and said that every material derived of the River Fleet for the cathedral should be free from toll. Paris (France) Paris is an area located in France and it is situated on the river Seine, at the heart of the Île-de-France region. Paris, France had many cultural and artistic movements between the late fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries as a contribution towards the Renaissance. During the Reformation, there was Protestantism in France, which is overshadowed by the religious wars that turned on and off between 1562 and 1598. There are some must-see places within Paris, France that played a role in these legacies. These must-see places are: Palais du Louvre (Louvre Palace), Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral), and Le Jardin des Tuileries (Tuileries Garden). Palais du Louvre (Louvre Palace) The Louvre Palace is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, is a former royal palace situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. The Louvre Palace was built in the year of 1190 by King Philip II, Philippe Auguste, as an arsenal and fortress. Later, it was expanded and improved by Charles V who ruled from 1364 to 1380. His successor, Charles VI, used it as a site for visiting royals to reside. The evidence that the Louvre Palace was built during the Renaissance is that its columns were built into Corinthian styles, which came from classical Greek and Roman ideas. The Louvre Palace also has a dome with similar Renaissance styles. During the Reformation, in 1364, Raymond du Temple, who was architect to Charles V, had started transforming the fortress into a royal residence. Raymond du Temple had created contemporary works and paintings that contain images of neatly decorated rooftops. After Charles VI had died, the Louvre Palace had been set aside for a century until 1527 came. This was when François I decided to take up residence in Paris. The Grosse Tour, which is the medieval keep, was finalized. The end of the Grosse Tour had started a new phase of creating work that would continue through the reign of Louis XIV. The change of François I’s château proceeded under Henri II and his sons. Notre Dame de Paris
(Notre Dame Cathedral) The Notre Dame Cathedral was built by Maurice de Sully, who was the bishop of Paris, for the purpose of creating a new cathedral to expand population, and it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Construction started in 1163, but it was not completed until 1345. Notre Dame de Paris, in French means "Our Lady of Paris." There is evidence that the Notre Dame Cathedral was present during the Renaissance because it was created by using the French Gothic architectural style. During the Reformation, in 1548, there were rioting Huguenots, who were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were called Huguenots by the 1560s. French Protestants were inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s. The rioting Huguenots had caused damage to the features of the cathedral. For this reason, they were considered idolatrous, which refered to them as people who worship a physical object or a being which is either alive or dead. While Louis XIV and Louis XV reigned, the cathedral went through major changes as an attempt to modernize cathedrals within Europe. There was a statue of St Christopher standing against a pillar, close to the western entrance. It stood there from 1413 to 1786 because in 1786, it was destroyed along with the tombs and stained glass windows. Le Jardin des Tuileries (Tuileries Garden) The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre Museum and the Place de la Concorde in the first arrondissement of Paris. The Tuileries Garden was created by Catherine de Medicis as part of the Tuileries Palace in 1564 and it was first opened to the public in 1667. The Tuileries Garden became a public park after the French Revolution. The Tuileries Garden was one of the gardens created by using a style that was inspired by the Italian Renaissance garden, which was mainly the gardens of Florence and Rome. Gardens such as this one had been created by using the perspective of symmetrical and geometric planting beds, plants in pots, paths of gravel, paths of sand, cascades, monumental fountains, and the use of artificial labyrinths as well as statues of mythological figures. These features became an extension and they were designed to draw the Renaissance features of measure and proportion. These features were also included to remind viewers of the virtues of ancient Rome. During the Reformation, King Henry III was forced to flee Paris in 1588. As a result, the gardens fell into disrepair. His successor, Henry IV and his gardener, Claude Mollet, had restored the gardens. They also built sidewalks the size of the garden and an alley planted with mulberry trees. A rectangular basin with a fountain supplied with water by the pump called ''La Samaritaine'', had been built in 1608 on the Pont Neuf. The area between the palace and what used to be a moat, was turned into a "New Garden," with a large fountain in the center. Florence (Italy) Florence is an area located in Italy and it is situated in a basin among the Senese Clavey Hills. Florence was only important during the Renaissance. Florence is considered to be the birthplace of the Renaissance and it has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages. Even today, Florence still exerts an influence in the fields of art as it had many cultural and artistic contributions towards the Renaissance between the late fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries. There are some must-see places within Florence, Italy that played a role in these legacies. These must-see places are: The Galleria degli Uffizi (Uffizi Gallery), the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower), and the Museo Nazionale del Bargello (National Museum of the Bargello). Galleria degli Uffizi (Uffizi Gallery) The Uffizi Gallery is located near the Piazza della Signoria. The building of the Uffizi Gallery was started by Giorgio Vasari in 1560 for Cosimo I de' Medici. The name ''Uffizi'' is an Italian word meaning, ''offices.'' The construction of the Uffizi Gallery was continued by using Vasari's design by Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti. The construction of the Uffizi Gallery had ended in 1581. During the Renaissance, there were certain parts of the palace that had altered into an exhibition area for a lot of the paintings and sculptures collected by the Medici family or commissioned by them. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were said to have gathered at the Uffizi for beauty, for work, and for recreation. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are represented here. There is proof that the Uffizi Gallery was built during the Renaissance because it owns a collection of Roman statues that Renaissance artists used as models and Gothic paintings with many Byzantine influences from the 13th and 14th centuries. Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore
(Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower) The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower is the main church of Florence, which is a cathedral complex located in Piazza del Duomo, which includes the Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower was originally called a ''Duomo'', which is a term for a a cathedral church. The building of the Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower started in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio. The evidence that the Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower existed during the Renaissance is that it was created by using the architectural style of Gothic-Renaissance. Also, the Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower was completed in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. Museo Nazionale del Bargello
(National Museum of the Bargello) The National Museum of the Bargello is also known as the Bargello Palace or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People). It was also a former barracks and prison. Now, it is an art museum. The National Museum of the Bargello is located alongside the Volognana Tower. The word "bargello'' means "castle" or "fortified tower". The construction of the National Museum of the Bargello began in 1256, which was when it's original two-story structure was built. Then, the third story was added after the fire of 1323. The evidence within the National Museum of the Bargello, which proves its existence during the Renaissance is the large Italian collection of gothic and Renaissance sculptures that it contains, which are from the 14th and 17th century. These Renaissance sculptures are masterpieces created by Michelangelo, such as his David-Apollo. Other Renaissance sculptures also includes Donatello's David and St. George Tabernacle. The museum even has features that are competing designs on Isaac's Sacrifice (Sacrificio di Isacco) that were performed by Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi to win the contest for the second set of doors for the Florentine Baptistry in 1401. Rome (Italy) Rome is an area located in Italy, in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy. Rome is referred to as "The Eternal City", a notion expressed by ancient Roman poets and writers. Rome was important during both the Renaissance and the Reformation time period since it is expressed by ancient Roman poets and writers. There are three must-see places in Rome, Italy. These must-see places are the Pantheon, the Colosseum, and the Trevi Fountain. The Pantheon The Pantheon was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome and it was claimed to have been built by him in 27 BC. It was rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The writing on the pantheon, which reads, ''M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIUM FECIT'' translates to "Built by Marcus Agrippa, the son of Lucius, third counsul." During the Renaissance, the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. There were painters buried there, and those painters were Raphael Sanzio da Urbino, Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. Architects, such as Fillipo Brunelleschi used the Pantheon as a reference when designing the Cathedral of Florence's dome. The architects seeked the Pantheon as their inspiration for their works. During the Reformation, Pope Urban VIII, who ruled from 1623 to 1644 had ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. A lot of the bronze was used to make bombs, shells, or missiles for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo. During the Reformation, there were some Christian modifications on the Pantheon. One of them was on the first niche to the left of the entrance where an Assumption from 1638 by Andrea Camassei is located. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. As a result, there was another modification, which is the confraternity of artists and musicians that were formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to make sure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The Colosseum The Colosseum is located at the center of the city of Rome, Italy. The Colosseum was originally known as the It was originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre. The Colossuem was built by Vespasianus and a large army of slaves. It was built for the purpose of holfing spectacular events and because he wanted to impress as well as make the citizens happy. The construction of the Colosseum began in 72 AD and the construction of the Colosseum ended in 82 AD, so the Colosseum was built in 10 years. The Colosseum is actually a symbol of the Renaissance. During the Reformation, it was within the 16th and 17th century, that church officials created a productive role for the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V, who ruled from 1585 to 1590 had planned to transform the Colosseum into a wool factory. But, this plan had failed because of his premature death. In 1671, Cardinal Altieri used the Colosseum for bullfights, but public disagreements caused the idea to be abandoned. Trevi Fountain The Trevi Fountain is located on Via delle Muratte on a small square below the Quirinale Palace. The Trevi Fountain was built in 1732 by Nicola Salvi as a result of being commissioned by Pope Clement XII to do so. The Trevi Fountain was completed in 1762. There is evidence that this fountain existed during the Renaissance because of its columns, which were designed using the Corinthian style as this style was brought out by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Not only that, but the endpoint of an aqueduct that brought water to Rome was revived in the 15th century during the Renaissance. In 1453, Pope Nicholas V finished reforming the Acqua Vergine, which means ''virgin water.'' The Acqua Vergine is an aqueduct that was built with a simple basin. The Acqua Vergine was designed by the humanist architect named Leon Battista Alberti. During the Reformation, competitions had become popular during the Baroque era to design the fountain. In 1730, Pope Clement XII organized a contest in which Nicola Salvi had lost to Alessandro Galilei at first. Even so, becuase of public disagreement over the fact that a Florentine won, Nicola Salvi was awarded anyway. The work within the contest started in 1732 and the fountain was completed in 1762, which was after Clement had died and Pietro Bracci's Oceanus (god of all water) was set in the center of the fountain. Nicola Salvi died in 1751, but his work was incomplete. Before this, he made sure a stubborn barber's unsightly sign would not spoil the ensemble. In 1762 was when the Trevi Fountain was completed by Giuseppe Pannini. He altered the present figures for planned sculptures of Agrippa and "Trivia", the Roman virgin. Madrid (Spain) Madrid is an area located in Spain. Madrid is located on the Manzanares river in the center of both the country and the Community of Madrid, which is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. Madrid was important during the Renaissance. During the Renaissance, in 1561, Philip II had shifted the court to Madrid from which no official declarations were made by himself. The Holy Roman Emperor & Philip's father, Charles I of Spain favored 'Seville'. Seville controlled commerce with Spain's colonies, even though he was controlled by Madrid. Madrid was also important during the European Exploration because Spain had the newest ships that were built specifically to withstand and thrive on long exploration voyages, such as voyages led by Christopher Columbus and James Cook. There are three must-see places in Madrid, Spain. These must-see places are Museo del Prado (Museum of the Meadow), the Royal Palace of Madrid, and Plaza de Cibeles (Cybele Plaza). Museo del Prado (Museum of the Meadow) The Museum of the Meadow is located in central Madrid. It was built and established in 1819. The evidence that this museum existed during the Renaissance is that it contains paintings that have been created using the Romanesque style, Gothic style, and Early Renaissance style. The museum contains frescoes from San Baudelio de Berlanga and Santa Cruz de Maderuelo, which were the most important among the Romanesque paintings in the collection. These frescos were installed in a specially designed chapel within the museum, which displays the original arrangement of the paintings. One example of a Franco-Gothic painting contained within the museum is represented by the Saint Christopher Altarpiece. Other examples include the Italo-Gothic, which are ''The Saint John the Baptist Altarpiece'' and ''The Mary Magdalen Altarpiece'' by Jaime Serra. An example of the International Gothic is represented by ''The Altarpiece of the Life of the Virgin and Saint Francis'' by Nicolás Francés. There are also some examples of the Early Spanish Renaissance paintings, which are represented in the Prado, where the works by Pedro Berruguete from the monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila are contained. Other Early Spanish Renaissance examples of this time period are ''The Virgin of the Knight of Montesa'' by Paolo da San Leocadio and ''The Flagellation'' by Alejo Fernández. Royal Palace of Madrid The Royal Palace of Madrid is located on Calle de Bailén (Bailén Street), in the Western part of downtown Madrid, East of the Manzanares River, and is accessible from the Ópera metro station. The construction Royal Palace of Madrid was started in April 7, 1738 by Filippo Juvarra. The construction of the Royal Palace of Madrid ended in 1764. During the Renaissance, it was under the Emperor Charles V, a Holy Roman Emperor, who was enthroned in 1516 that undertook a huge reformation of the Alcazar by adding in Renaissance features. This was done in order to alter the medieval structure of the residence into a palace suited to his style. The columns in this palace also manifest Renaissance influence because they were built using the Corinthian style, which derived from the ancient Romans and Greeks. Plaza de Cibeles (Cybele Plaza) The Cybele Plaza is located on the intersection of Calle de Alcalá, Paseo de Recoletos, and Paseo del Prado. The Cybele Plaza was built in the reign of Charles III and designed by Ventura Rodríguez between 1777 and 1782. The place where the Cybele Plaza is located today used to form part of a wooded, longitudinal axis that, during the Renaissance, separated the urban section of Madrid from different monastic and palace complexes. It used to have three main sections, which were the Prado de los Recoletos Agustinos, now called the Paseo de Recoletos, the Prado de los Jerónimos, which corresponds to what is now called Paseo del Prado, and the Prado de Atocha.
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