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APHUG PING Project

Jessica Li 8
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Jessica Li

on 4 May 2013

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Transcript of APHUG PING Project

Egypt Jessica Li 8 Data Sheet & Map Current Event #1 Morsi remakes cabinet, increasing Islamist presence Continued Work and Trade Data Data Data Data Sheet Current Event #2 Continued Current Event #2 By Associated Press, Updated: Sunday, January 6, 6:18 PM
CAIRO — Egypt’s minority Christians were celebrating their first Christmas after the election of an Islamist president and a new pope — and following adoption of a constitution many argue has an Islamist slant.
Christians gathered in Cairo’s main cathedral Sunday for Midnight Mass on the eve of Orthodox Christmas led by their new pope. Pope Tawadros II was elected in November to replace longtime Pope Shenouda III, who died in March after 40 years as the leader of the church. Islamist President Mohammed Morsi called Tawadros with Christmas greetings and sent one of his aides to the Christmas mass. Concerned for their future and their ancient heritage in Egypt, some Copts are reportedly considering leaving the country.
As Egypt struggles with the role of religion in society, many Copts are aligning themselves with moderate Muslims and secular Egyptians who also fear the rise of Islamic power. Amir Ramzy, a Coptic Christian and a judge in Cairo’s court of appeals, said Christmas is a chance to retreat and pray for a “better Egypt. "Christians are approaching Christmas with disappointment, grief and complaints, fearing not only their problems but Egypt’s situation in general,” Ramzy said. “During the reign of (ousted President Hosni) Mubarak and the (military rulers), mainly Christians were facing problems, but now with the Muslim Brotherhood leaders, each and every moderate Egyptian is facing problems.”
In one of his first public messages after his enthronement, Tawadros said the ouster of Mubarak opened the way for a larger Coptic public role, encouraging them to participate in the nation’s evolving democracy.
Egypt’s Coptic Christians, who make up about 10 percent of Egypt’s 85 million people, have long complained of discrimination by the state and the country’s Muslim majority. Clashes with Muslims have occasionally broken out, sparked by church construction, land disputes or Muslim-Christian love affairs. Following the ouster of Mubarak in 2011, sectarian violence rose, and attacks on churches sent thousands of Coptic protesters into the streets. A protest in October 2011 was violently quelled by the country’s military rulers, leaving 26 people dead and sparking further outrage.Ereny Rizk, 34, whose brother George died in that incident, said it was the second Christmas without him, but that the election of a new pope has raised her spirits. Summary “I felt like he’s my father. Having him lessened the severity of my grief,” she said. “I definitely thought about leaving the country, but two things stopped me. First the churches and the monasteries in Egypt, our heritage that I’ll be missing. Also, I decided not to let my brother’s blood go in vain.”
The violence has abated, and 2012 was characterized more by the struggle for political and religious rights, said Hossam Bahgat, the director of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights.
“It is not actual frequent sectarian violence, it is fear of further marginalization and second class citizenship,” he said, adding that Egypt has been deeply polarized as it drafted the constitution. Christians and liberals walked out of the committee writing it, complaining that their concerns were not being addressed by the Islamist majority.
Youssef Sidhom, the editor of Egypt’s main Coptic newspaper, Watani, said Christians are more concerned for the identity of Egypt, saying that legislation based on the new constitution will be focus of attention out of fear of restrictions on the way of life of Christians and their freedom of worship and expression.
“Egypt is stepping into 2013 split and divided between Copts and moderate Muslims on one side confronting political Islam and fundamentalists on the other side,” Sidhom said. “It will only be (resolved) through reconciliation, and this is the challenge that we will have to meet.”
Verna Ghayes, a 21-year old arts student, also noted the deteriorating economic situation. Her father, an architect, lost his job because of a tight market. She felt the hardships, have, in turn, encouraged Christians to seek relief from God.
“With all the unfortunate events that are happening to Egypt, Christians came closer to God, they started to pray more, believing that only God could handle it,” she said. “For me that’s the good thing, and everything is according to God’s plan,” she said. Neighboring Countries – Gaza Strip, Israel, Libya, Sudan
Crude Birth Rate – 24.22 / 1,000
Crude Death Rate – 4.8 / 1,000
Growth Rate – 19.22/ 1,000
Infant Mortality Rate – 24.33
Life Expectancy: Male – 70.33 years Female- 75.66 years
Literacy Rate : 72% Male – 80.3% Female – 63.5%
Per Capita GNP/GDP – $6500
Currency – Egyptian Pound
Growth Rate Percent- 1.8%
Inflation- 10.2%
Unemployment – 24.8% Labor Force: total- 26.5mil
Agriculture- 32%
Industry - 17%
Service- 51%
Natural Resources: Petroleum, Natural Gas, Iron Ore, Phosphates, Manganese, Limestone, Gypsum, Talc, Asbestos, Lead, Rare earth elements, Zinc By Abigail Hauslohner, Sunday, January 6, 1:20 PM
CAIRO — Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi rebuilt his cabinet Sunday, replacing 10 ministers and amplifying the Islamist presence in the government. The move, in which at least three Islamists were appointed to head major economic ministries, comes a day ahead of a planned visit by the International Monetary Fund to discuss an impending $4.8 billion loan.
The shake-up also marked the latest in a series of appointments and forced resignations that have rattled Egypt’s government in the two years of political turmoil since a popular uprising ousted former president Hosni Mubarak. Morsi, as well as the transitional leaders who ruled before his June election, have used past cabinet shuffles as a means to assuage popular frustration over the slow pace of economic and political reforms.
Islamist political parties gave their support to the changes, but some opposition members criticized the move, saying it served only to further consolidate Islamist control of Egypt’s top government positions weeks after a conflict over the religious character of Egypt’s new constitution left the country bitterly divided.
Mohamed Adel, a leader in the opposition 6th of April youth movement, said in a statement Sunday that Morsi’s administration had failed to consult opposition parties on the moves and that the Muslim Brotherhood would bear responsibility for any bad policies to come.
It is unclear what impact the last-minute replacements would have on negotiations for a badly needed $4.8 billion IMF loan, which Egypt is hoping to secure by the end of the month. The country’s foreign currency reserves have dwindled to less than half their value before Egypt’s 2011 uprising, and the Egyptian pound plummeted to a new low Sunday at 6.45 to the dollar. Financial analysts say the IMF loan is critical to pulling the country back from its own “fiscal cliff”, by opening the door to more loans, investments and aid money.
At least three of the new ministers are long-serving members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including those heading the ministries of Supply and Domestic Trade, and Local Development. The new finance minister, Al-Mursi Al-Sayed Hegazy, is not a member of the Islamist organization, but local media described him as a specialist in Islamic banking who may be sympathetic to the group. Morsi is a former leader of the powerful political organization.Many of the Brotherhood’s more conservative allies from the fundamentalist Salafist parties have called on the government to implement a system of Islamic banking, which would ban interest on loans, as an alternative mechanism for economic reform.Hegazy told reporters Sunday that he remained committed to discussing the IMF deal. And Brotherhood leaders fired back at accusations that the government was stacking the cabinet with Islamists.“When a Democratic Party candidate wins in the United States, does he appoint Republicans? Would they appoint their rivals?” said Mahmoud Ghozlan, a Muslim Brotherhood spokesman. On the contrary, Morsi has been far more conciliatory, Ghozlan argued.Islamists and opposition members alike had been deeply critical of the old cabinet, and Sunday’s shake-up was expected. “My reading of the situation is that the performance of the previous cabinet was not up to the required level,” Ghozlan said. “I hope the new cabinet will perform better and rise with the country in a tangible way that can be felt by the regular citizen.”Ingy Hassieb contributed to this report.
Capital(s)/Population – Cairo / 10.902 Million

Area – 1,001,450 sq km. Arable Land – 2.92%

Physical features – Desert, Plateau, River, Delta

Population – 83,688,164 Density – 81.49 person per squared km

Form of Government – Republic

Head of Government/State –

Prime Minister Hisham Qandil / President Muhammad Mursi Summary Population Profile Population Statistics My Country? Main Imports – Machinery & Equipment, Food Stuffs, Chemicals, Wood Products, Fuel Main Exports – Crude Oil & Petroleum, Cotton, Textiles, Metal Products, Chemicals, Processed Foods Projected Population: 2025- 102 Million
2050 – 135.6 Million
Infant Mortality Rate – 24 / 1000
Fertility Rate – 2.9 %
Urban Population- 43% ( 35, 985,910.52)
Co2 admission/capita – 2.7 Metric Tons
Population with access to clean water – 99%
# of vehicles/capita – 45
Economically active: Male- 75% Female- 22%
HIV Infection Rate: <0.1% My PING : Egypt is in the 2nd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model. It's population is still growing rapidly as the birth rate is very high and the death is decreasing. Decrease in CDR can be from improved medical care, clean water, and better sanitation. The birth rate is still very high and steady because encouraged to have kids, more workers, high fertility rate, etc. Egypt is stepping closer to Stage 3 , as seen rounding in the population pyramid, but still has a long journey. Egypt’s Copts celebrate Christmas with prayers, but worry about Islamist domination Recently Coptic Christians, were urged by Pope Tawadros to not worry about the rise of Islamist power. They represent 10% of Egypt's population and many feel unsettling under President Morsi, the 1st Islamic President. Before the Christian Minority had already been discriminated and persecuted. Many have been jailed and had trials held against them. Some report leaving the country, while others aren't so fortunate and don't have the option. Christians are worried about trials that have been held against those who insult Islam, while others fear for their life style.
Population is affected greatly by migration throughout the World. Push Factor are the conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place. In other words, a push factor can influence your want to leave a place, for many possible reasons. This article talks about Christians being discriminated, persecuted, and jailed. This could affect someone’s decision to leave or stay in Egypt. The Coptic Christians in Egypt are having a tough time coping with the new Islamic influenced government and it may result in a loss in the population, for the country. This could help steady the population, but could also negatively affect with more of them leaving the country, there are less to people to work and help the country’s economy. On Sunday, 10 ministers were replaced in President Morsi’s cabinet. Of the 10, at least three of the new ministers are members of the Muslim Brotherhood. This affects the presence of Islam in the government just like the new constitution, but was also seen as a wise thing to do. When a person is elected, the smart thing to do is place people that would agree with you on your team. Islamist parties supported this move, while some worried. It is still unclear how the shuffle will affect the $4.8 billion IMF loan, but it remains currently being handled. Many hope the new cabinet will be better for the country’s future and took the change well.

President Morsi can be seen as a religious fundamentalist that believes returning to the basics of faith. Egypt is going through a period were Christianity is emerging, but being suppressed. Religious Fundamentalism is seeking to return to the basics of faith when perceived breakdowns in societies and lack of religious authority. The country is undergoing remodeling of its government and now has the new Islamic influenced constitution and increasing Islamic presence in the government. They are trying to influence the country back into the values and practices of Islam. I think the Muslim brotherhood will continue to work for better adherence to Shari’a laws and their beliefs. Egypt's cities are mostly located near water. If not water, then an oasis, dam, or structure of water. The cities shy away from the desert area because there are less resources. The cities are mostly around available resources (water) that are necessary for growth of food and survival. Egypt may face sandstorms, flooding, conflict, refugees, etc. It has plentiful access to waterways such as rivers, canals, lakes, and borders two seas towards the east. It has many available earth elements, oil, iron, limestone, gypsum, and many more. There isn't much available arable land, due to portion of desert to the west. The country has most of it's labor force in service, exporting and importing many goods with its many trade partners. Import: US, China, Germany, Italy, Kuwait, Turkey, Saudi Arabia Export: Italy ,India, Saudi Arabia, US, Turkey, Spain, France Trade Partners Works Cited
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Communications Egypt's Attitudes Toward: Things to do while in Egypt to Learn more about its People and Culture Every Day Life Questions Public Display of Emotion The Work Environment Egypt's Heroes Sports and Recreation Work in Egypt Educational System Healthcare Family Life The Holidays Arts & Literature Food Translations PING Pt. 2
Culture مصر مصر Egypt in Arabic Arabic is the official Language of Egypt When meeting someone for the first time, there are certain things you should and shouldn't discuss. Egyptians love compliments on the beauty if the country, what impressed you, the famous sites, and you showing your knowledge about their culture, festivals, events, etc. The love humor and those who are appreciative. Avoid discussing topics over religion or politics to avoid any conflicts or disagreements. In Verbal and Non-verbal communications, women are very different from men.
Men shake hands, use eye contact, and get close to show friendliness and unity. Avoid eye contact if there is conflict as well as any subjects about religion and politics.
With women, you should keep your distance, minimize eye contact, and not shake hands unless they reach out. They are very conservative and sometimes veiled. There are strict rules on no touching. With public displays of emotion, Happiness and Gratitude are always accepted, at times even appreciated by some. Between opposite sexes, Affection is not acceptable in public and Anger is very frowned upon. Anger can be seen as an insult and it is better to show that you disagree politely. At joyful celebrations such as weddings, births, and engagements, happiness can be shown. It is also acceptable to be emotional at sad events such as funerals,where some may scream and cry,. Recently egyptians' have shown how they feel about the government through riots and protests. In the workplace, it is proper to dress formally at jobs with banks, companies, ministries, embassies, and other official offices. Foreigner's are usually expected to dress formally as well. Informal dress would include low-income jobs. Colleague's are addressed by either their first name or Mr./ Ms. First Name. workers are expected to be very hardworking and productive. Deadlines are different, but most would like you to be on time, thought there are exceptions.
Heroes of Egypt include Gamal Abdel Nasser, who was the leader of the revolution that overthrew King Farouk and converted Egypt into a republic. Others include Saad Zaghlool, Moustafa Kamel, Ahmed Orabi, and Kasem Amin from the 19th century. While in Egypt, you should see as much of the place as possible. Talking with the country's people and interacting is probably the best way. Walking the streets, talking to people, eating, and socializing are all excellent. It is also a good idea to visit the Museums, country side, pyramids, markets, and more. Watch sports, taste the dishes, and experience everything. Egyptians are mostly open-minded folks, but the imprint of the past is still there. Women are sometimes not respected as much if they are superior in the workplace. Overall they are equal, but there are some different cases. Class has a bigger gap because there are those who are educated, and there are those who may be illiterate and uneducated. Religion is very diverse in Egypt, but recent outbreaks of Coptic's being persecuted show that there may be conflict between Muslim and christian religions. Ethnicity is not a problem. all ethnicities are respected the same. Family is very important to most Egyptians. Most families consist of a man, his wife, and his children. It used to be ideal to have sons, but the modern society has made an imprint on Egypt. Males usually run the household, but women have begun working in the more industrialized parts of the country. Children have school available, and some women may stay at home to look after the children. The economy of Egypt relies mostly on the labor force, but also includes many businesses, agriculture, and industry, which the jobs come from. Women and Men are both able to work and some people work several jobs a day, putting in long ours because of low pay. Modern day sports in Egypt include wrestling, boxers, swimmers, weightlifters, basketball, and soccer. For fun they also hang out at coffeehouses, watch television broadcasts, and watch movies. Public school systems are available to students for 12 years. Though an average number of kids only complete 11 years. Some families may choose to go to private schools, because of the poor funding for public schools. At the end of their public education, students take a test similar to the SAT that helps determine what colleges they can attend and what field of career is for them. Healthcare is available to many, many people of Egypt. The government has had Healthcare as one of its top priorities and has improved greatly to get sustainable healthcare insurance to many. More hospitals and beds have been made available and they continue to work to improve it. The Nile Project debuts with a cross-cultural bang
Author: Maha ElNabawi
“My southerners, my southerners,” sang Egyptian musician Dina El Wedidi during the closing set of The Nile Project's concert in Al Azhar Park Thursday evening. The song — an ode to her southern neighbors along the Nile basin — kicked off with fellow Egyptian Hazem Shaheen hypnotically plucking his oud in the traditional Arabic maqam scale.
Within moments, they were joined by a riveting onset of percussions spreading from Nubian riqq players to tablah players from Sudan. The song culminated with a magnificent saxophone solo by Ethiopian musician Jorga Mesfin — his ability to play off the percussions caused an energy-filled, uproar of rhythmic clapping and dancing from the audience. And for a short evening in time, nothing else existed but the beautiful sounds of perfectly collaborated music from the various countries along the Nile basin.Co-founded by Egyptian ethnomusicologist Mina Girgis and Ethiopian musician and activist, Meklit Hadero, The Nile Project is a cross-cultural musical collaboration initiative that seeks to address cultural and environmental issues rooted in the Nile basin. By using an innovative approach that combines music, informal education, and an enterprise platform, the project’s mission is to inspire, educate, and empower Nile citizens to work together in hopes of fostering a more sustainable river system.
“You know, there are 400 million people who share the Nile,” says Girgis, “It has a complex cultural landscape to navigate, and so the idea is really to develop qualitative measures that allow us to better understand each other. We are in a time of transition in Egypt, and we must begin cultivating our relationship with our southern neighbors. After all, we are African.”
According to Girgis, the cross-cultural collaborations features a diverse collection of musicians, styles, and instruments from the eleven Nile countries including Congo DRC, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. One of its main goals is to expose local audiences to the cultures of their neighbors — through storytelling, the songs are meant to humanize relevant social and environmental challenges experienced by the various cultures along the river Summary Continued Living between San Francisco and Cairo. The Nile Project was based off the work I did with the Smithsonian Silk Road Festival,” explains Girgis. “The Silk Road project is basically a performing arts nonprofit initiative with cultural and educational missions that promote innovation and exchanges between cultures who traversed the historical Silk Road trade routes [which connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European worlds, in addition to parts of North and East Africa].”“But the idea only really came about after I attended an Ethiopian music concert with Meklit in San Francisco. I had just returned from Cairo and it seemed ridiculous to me that I had to go all the way to California just to regularly hear Ethiopian music. Especially because Ethiopia and Egypt are so close geographically,” says Girgis.After speaking with Meklit about the idea, the two decided to move forward with developing a cross-cultural exchange project that would spread through both their native countries and the surrounding cultures within the Nile basin. “This concept was especially relevant because it had a lot of value that went beyond musical exposure,” he says. “We have had twenty years of unhelpful dialogue that has done little to help us figure out all the challenges and issues we have when trying to cooperate around the Nile basin. It became clear that there was a real need for a healthier cultural dialogue between those cultures.”He goes on to mention that many of the Nile basin challenges are not only environmental, but the root of the problems is actually based in the lack of human understanding between cultures. They soon realized that through music, they could help cultivate a new path for intercultural learning.“By building platforms for musical exchanges and experiences, we can foster cultural empathy and hopefully inspire environmental curiosity to shift the Nile from a divisive geo-political argument to a uniting cultural and environmental conversation,” he says. Current Event #3 Religion in Egypt is prominently Islam. The Coptic Christians are mostly centralized in smaller parts around the larger cities of Cairo, Giza, and Asyut (Northern egypt ). These religions became popular when Muslim Arabs migrated into Egypt. Muslims sought out converts into Islam. The appealed to many and spread. Islam is definitely a universalizing religion and so is Christianity. Though the two religions have caused much conflict recently in Egypt. The Nile Project was founded in August 2011 by Mina Girgis and Ethiopian-American singer Meklit Hadero.
They address the Nile basin’s cultural and environmental challenges using an innovative approach that combines music and education. The Nile Project is a cross-cultural musical collaboration with bordering countries.As an ongoing series of workshops, performances, and collaborations, it helps members learn more about their own culture while spreading the word about the region's problems.
The Nile Project is an creative way that Egypt, and the Nile Basin Region have come up with a way to be heard, It is being heard by many different people and has began to rapidly spread throught the communities. This music is like a Popular culture that people can watch in their free time. Their influence is starting to be heard all around the world. Apartment building seen from the streets of Cairo ( housing) "El-Horrya" Folk Dance Kom Ombo people playing music Music from the Nile project
(pop culture) Egyptians celebrate many important holidays.
Jan 1-3 is Eid-al-Adha is the second important holiday which celebrates the Prophet Abraham's willingness to offer his son for sacrifice. Jan 20th is the Muslim New year (354 days). September 13 is Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. It is during this month that Muslims observe the Fast of Ramadan. Arts and Literature are both very important in Egypt. Old Paintings, sculptures, were produced many civilations ago, and very important to the people. Ancient , Islamic, and modern literature are also very influencial through the society. Egyptians eat a variety of food including mezza, similar to appetizers,hummus (ground chickpeas and sesame-seed paste), stuffed grape leaves, ta'miyya (fried patties made with fava beans and spices, chick peas it is called felafel), beans, and other light items. A main course is usually a meat dish - chicken, beef or lamb, served with rice and bread. Sometimes vegetables are the main ingredient. The most common are eggplant, squash, or moulkhiyya, as well as kushari, a mixture of rice, pasta, lentils, and spicy tomato sauce topped with a hot sauce and fried onions. Hummus (Material) Ping Project
Part 4 Egypt is a Nation- state. It's population consists of more than 90% of the Egyptian race as a culture and group of people.It has a common culture, history,and language-and also meets all the requirements for it to be a state, Egypt is a rectangular shaped state.Sudan on the South and Libya to the east are drawn to be very boxy.The North and East boundaries are also roughly rectangular. Although Egypt has the Sinai Peninsula, it represents a rectangular state because of the other borders to the red sea, and other countries. Egypt has had boundary issues with Sudan over the Halaib region (22nd parallel) where they have claimed it , while Egypt administers security and economic development there. They have removed past administration in the Bir Tawil trapezoid. In January 2008, The Gazan have breached Egypt's security wall causing problems with the Sinai border. Saudi Arabia has has also claimed Egyptian administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir. Demonym - Egyptian CHORUS:
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.

1. Egypt! O mother of all lands,
My hope and my ambition,
How can one count
The blessings of the Nile for mankind?

Chorus

2. Egypt! Most precious jewel,
Shining on the brow of eternity!
O my homeland, be for ever free,
Safe from every foe!

Chorus

3. Egypt! Noble are thy children,
Loyal, and guardians of thy soil.
In war and peace
We give our lives for thy sake.

Chorus Current Event Flag of Egypt Egypt's Flag Symbolism: Egypt's current National Anthem is "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" also called "My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland". It was adapted in 1979 to signify the newly signed peace accord with Israel. The lyrics were written by Younis-al Qadi, a poet. The music was composed by Sayed Darwish, a pioneer in arab Music. It is originally written with three verses, but is now only commonly sung with the chorus and 1st verse.
The lyrics also include a chorus that comes from one of Mustapha Kamel's famous speeches.The lyrics show much admiration towards Egypt and discusses the Nile as a blessing, how they stand together in war and peace, and the love they have for their homeland. Egypt's National Anthem White - peace and honesty Red - hardiness, bravery, strength, valour Black - Determination The bird in the middle white horizontal stripe is Egypt's National Emblem. The emblem represents the Eagle of Saladin. The flag can related back to the Egyptian revolution in 1952. It is said the Free officers specifically chose the symbolism on the three bands.The red representing the time before the revolution, the black to represent when people stopped their cruelty towards foreign colonialism and monarchy, and white to represent the peaceful nature in the revolution. CAIRO, Feb 24 2013 (IPS) - On a recent Friday, coppersmith Alaa Moussa parked himself in the same spot where two years earlier he had stood defiantly with a handwritten banner addressed to then president Hosni Mubarak. His petition that cold February morning in 2011 had listed the key demands of Egypt’s 18-day uprising: “bread, freedom, dignity”.
His new message for President Mohamed Morsi from the Muslim Brotherhood reflected the growing desperation among the nation’s poor and unemployed. It simply stated: “bread, bread, bread.”
Moussa, a father of three from Cairo’s ramshackle Ramlet Boulaq district, says he joined the uprising against Mubarak because he believed the dictator’s fall would end the suffocating corruption and government repression that blocked all paths out of poverty.
It did not, and the disillusioned artisan says his hope of a better life for his family has been crushed by the stark economic realities of post-revolution Egypt.We hear promises every day, but we never see any improvement and things are much worse now than under Mubarak.”
In the two years since the uprising, Egypt’s battered economy has taken hit after hit. Political turmoil and labour unrest have shuttered factories, forced layoffs, and scared away tourists and investors. Economic growth has slowed to a crawl, while foreign reserves have withered to critically low levels.
The small workshop where Moussa once fashioned ornamental brass lamps is closed, its owner having absorbed months of losses before laying off his six employees. Some have found jobs in other workshops at a lower salary. Others are still looking.
But with the national unemployment rate at 13 percent, competition for jobs is fierce. Like many, Moussa’s only option was to seek work in the informal sector, where job security is absent.
“Since the revolution, employers are reluctant to hire,” he says. “You work for a few days, then get laid off, and start looking for work again.”Twenty-seven year old Ramy Shahin was working in an American company before the 2011 uprising. He now drives a taxi, earning about 120 dollars a month after expenses. With his second child on the way, he worries about rising living costs.
“We’re already living hand to mouth,” says Shahin. “We have no savings, so our only choice is to borrow money and pray tomorrow will be better.”Inflation has averaged nearly 10 percent in the two years since the uprising due to a surge in food prices. Currency depreciation and a proposed government plan for tax increases and subsidy cuts are expected to accelerate inflation in 2013.
. The Egyptian Food Observatory, a quarterly government study prepared in cooperation with the World Food Programme (WFP), found that 86 percent of Egyptian households surveyed in September 2012 were unable to meet their basic monthly needs – a 12 percent increase over the June figure. It noted that among vulnerable households, over 60 percent of income goes toward food.
Families surveyed reported a number of coping strategies, such as substituting cheaper food items, reducing portions, and borrowing to cover food expenses“At least a quarter of Egyptians live below the poverty line of two dollars a day,” says Cairo-based sociologist Madiha El-Safty. “You can imagine how dire their situation must be if they’ve resorted to borrowing to pay for meals.”
Across Egypt, rising prices and hoarding have created shortages of diesel, cooking gas, and food staples. Umm Farouk, a widow with four school-age children, queues for hours each day to buy subsidised bread made from low-grade flour pitted with pebbles and chaff.
“There were bread lines under Mubarak, there are bread lines under Morsi,” she says. “Nothing has changed. It’s a daily struggle.”President Morsi has promised to solve the country’s economic problems and lure investors back. But his Islamist-led government has inherited corrosive bureaucracy and a crumbling infrastructure from decades of neglect and corruption.The President’s supporters argue that it could take years to purge institutions and repair the economic damage from the Mubarak regime’s 29-year rule. Critics, however, accuse Morsi of mismanaging the economy and putting the Muslim Brotherhood’s political agenda ahead of fiscal prudence.
“The Muslim Brotherhood is only interested in the poor when they need votes,” says Shahin. “They have no experience running a country or setting economic policy, and their failures at both are destroying Egypt.”
Deteriorating economic conditions have created a backlash not just against the Islamists, but against the democratic process itself. Many Egyptians who supported the 2011 uprising have begun questioning its outcome.
“Of course I’m disappointed,” says Umm Farouk. “The revolution was supposed to make our lives easier. Everything is going backwards.” [END] Continued: Current Event: Political Geography On Friday ,February 24, Alaa Mousa held a banner reading " Bread, freedom, dignity" bringing attention to the growing uneasiness of Egypt's poor and unemployed. Since the uprising, Egypt's economy has sunk with political turmoil, many job cuts, and less tourists. Many families struggle to support themselves to satisfy basic needs, eating hand to mouth as 60% of the income goes to supplying food. Job availability is scarce with an unemployment rate of 13% and people getting laid off. President Morsi has promised to try and fix the economic problems, but hasn't made progress with the infrastructure crumbling. The uprising has caused many questions to arise as supporters start to question the outcome of the democratic process. Egypt's growing poverty is a big struggle for the country and the economy is starting to suffer. Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems theory includes the three tier structure ,where Egypt is periphery country. Egypt has lower levels of education, women just beginning to have the right to vote, and definitely lower salaries that are now a growing struggle for the country's poor.Their labor force centered in Service, people are struggling to keep any jobs.They are less productive and starting to affect their development. Everyday people are struggling to feed their families as the unemployment rate grows. HDI Ranks #112 with value of 0.662
2006 rank : #111 with value of 0.702
Kyrgyzstan #110, Nicaragua #112
Life expectancy rank: 73.5 years #122
Literacy Rank:72% #169
GDP per capita rank: $5547 #136 HPI-1 Rank :# 82 with a value of 23.4
2006 rank: #44 Value: 20.0
#81 Botswana, #83 Vanuata
Survival : 7.2% (106)
Illiteracy : 33.6% (169)
Without Water - 2%
Underweight children : 6% PING Part 6 GDI Value And Rank Overall Life Expectancy Rank Literacy Rank Primary: 106%
Secondary: 72%
Tertiary: 32% Development Profile Unavailable for Egypt Egypt's Literacy percentage is 72%. It ranks #169. Industry slides Industrial Revolution in Egypt Percentage of Workforce in Industry Main Industrial Regions Interregional Shifts in Agriculture Impact of New International Division of labor Important Industries in Egypt Current Event Both countries can co-operate in areas such as ICT, space science, energy, agriculture and nanotechnology,’’ he said.He said Egypt was an attractive destination for India as it could act as a bridge between Asia and Africa. Till now, about 50 Indian companies, including Aditya Birla, Dabur and Kirloskar, had invested about $2.5 billion in Egypt.Free economic zones“Egypt is looking into setting up of free economic zones by Indian companies to trade and promote its projects in the country and neighbouring ones,” he said.Commerce and Industry Minister An and Sharma said he would urge Indian companies to look at Egypt more seriously and invest in various sectors. “Indian companies can also partner Egyptian firms in sectors such as infrastructure, biotechnology, energy and pharmaceuticals,’’ he added.Meanwhile, six memoranda of understanding (MoUs) were signed between Indian and Egyptian companies for exploring ways to promote ties to the level of strategic partnership. The six agreements signed included MoUs in the field of plastics, for setting up of a Plastic Park at Port in Egypt, co-operation in the field of engineering and vocational training and partnering for enhancement of financial and non-financial service for MSMEs (micro small and medium enterprises) in Egypt. Summary Egypt's overall rank in the Human Development Report is #112. Its value is 0.662. Above and below :Kyrgyzstan #110, Nicaragua #112 Egypt's Life Expectancy is 73.5 years. It ranks #122 worldwide. The Industrial Revolution reached Egypt fairly early for a developing country. Energy, mining, and manufacturing provided the backbone, helping develop the infrastructure leading on to a trade. They have a strong railway connectivity and dominated agriculture mostly with cotton.The country's economy presently supported with the backbone they created.The face problems along the way, but depend on such economic activities and government to help. Egypt's Main industrial regions include The Nile River valley and Cairo are also head contributors to the industry through ports on the rivers, and cairo being the country's capital and having the connections to help development. They happen to produce lots of cotton in agriculture helping with the production of textiles, and natural resources for mining and etc. Egypt's important industries include Textiles, Food Processing, Tourism, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, (polymers, fertilizers) Hydrocarbons, Construction, Iron, Steel, Cement, Metals, and light Manufacturing. Seeking Indian investments in energy, biotechnology and nanotechnology and cooperation in agriculture and space, Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy, on Wednesday, pushed for an ambitious goal of doubling trade with India in the next few years from the current level of $5.4 billion.
“The trade surge between India and Egypt pushes us to set up more ambitious goal of doubling this volume within the coming few years. Egypt needs more grains and these could be exported by India,” Mr. Morsy said at a function organized jointly by Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (Assocham) here. The Egyptian President is on a four-day visit to India.
“I would like to invite Indian companies, businessmen and investors to take advantage of the promising opportunities Egypt offers and to assure that we will provide all required facilities and create the most inducting atmosphere for investment and business practice. One of our main focus areas is on attracting foreign direct investment. The New international Division of Labor has impacted Egypt's economy. Countries outsource to other countries having to provide for their citizens and independent internal economy as well as providing service and products to other countries. Low labor costs in other countries all effect the production of such things Egypt may produce and other countries depend on the export processing zones and can negatively or positively effect the economy and development. Interregional shifts in agriculture are shown when he greater the areas around farming changed the more influenced the farming was. Egypt was effected through things like breeding stock, crops, and developing new methods of farming, we are able to develop the way we farm and it is shown in out capital product and the amount of crops we produce. The economy and urbanization of places has an effect adding machinery and developing more. "Central Intelligence Agency." CIA. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html>.
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"School Enrollment, Tertiary (% Gross)." Data. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR>.
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Lafforgue, Eric. "Camel Herders Going To Egypt With A Caravan, Dongola, Sudan." Flickr. Yahoo!, 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/mytripsmypics/8660227740/>.
"Let Them Eat Vegetables: Egypt's Wheat Farmers Hit Hard by Diesel Price Hikes - Economy - Business - Ahram Online." Ahram. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/3/12/69016/Business/Economy/Let-them-eat-vegetables-Egypts-wheat-farmers-hit-h.aspx>.
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"Walk like an Egyptian." NIJT EDU, 2010. Web. 3 May 2013. <https://blogs.njit.edu/ajz4/2011/02/12/walk-like-an-egyptian/>. Egypt is currently seeking Indian investments in energy, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. They have seen advantages in agriculture and space so president Morsy is now pushing for doubling trade with India.Their current level sits at 5.4 billion as president Morsy invites Indian companies, businesses and investors to take advantage of the opportunity.They are looking to set up free economic zones and hope to promote more trade.This will help benefit Egypt greatly in commerce and industry.

The recent want to increase trade with India will help Egypt's formal economy in growing and may increase the Gross National Income overtime. With more production, and exchange of products trading partnership can evolve. They can then d evelop into Export processing zones with more countries and boost such economic production and help with the country's current economic problems. If successful it can cause a great difference in both india and Egypt's economy. For School Enrollment, the Tertiary, Secondary, and Primary were represented by percentages of person. Egypt has 17% of its workforce in industry. Subsistence Agriculture vs. Commercial Farming Egypt’s arable land stands at a measly 3% of the total which is mostly covered by desert. Unlike other developing countries, Egypt’s agriculture is mostly for commercial purposes, but also has subsistence farming for wheat and other crops. The arable land is high fertile allowing growing of crops more than once a year. Field crops are about three- fourths of Egypt’s agricultural production. Egypt supplies about 1/3 of the world’s cotton commercially,. Among others, other crops grown are corn, rice, wheat, sorghum, and fava beans. Main types of Farming Impact of Green Revolution Future of Agriculture in Egypt Continued Egypt's wheat imports fall in 2013 Current Event Summary & Concept PING:
Agriculture Because desert covers most of Egypt's land, they mostly practice Nomadic and semi- nomadic herding, and Intense subsistence farming of mostly wheat and other crops. There are also few areas that focus on Fruit, Truck, and specialized crops. The Green Revolution really took off in Egypt. Over the last century, technology has made a large difference allowing for the Egypt's irrigation system, mechanization, application of pesticides and fertilizers, and more. This allowed them to be more resistant in the beginning and really help benefit the agriculture of the economy. There was some controversy as the government implemented the new system, but it was for the better. Cotton crops were grown easier, greenhouses were built all because of the technology brought with the green revolution. Agriculture has always been a big part of Egypt's economy. I think it will continue to, as long as Egypt keeps allowing the new technology, use of chemicals to help them farm. It allows them to liberally sell crops and grow a large amount. Agriculture can help the country's economy as they use new innovations and technology to help the be more productive with growing and selling. The country's core crops can really help if they take charge and provide for the need of other countries.
Supply Minister Bassem Ouda was quoted last week as saying he expected US and European exporters to provide "easy terms" as it seeks to replenish falling stocks. Egypt needs around 9 million tonnes of wheat for its subsidised bread programme,and the diesel-fuel shortage is cutting in. Salah Abdel-Momen told Reuters in an interview on the sidelines of an industry conference in Dubai. Egypt produced 8.4 million tonnes of wheat last year. The US Department of Agriculture and International Grain Council predict it will increase production only marginally to 8.5 million tonnes this year. But two years of political turmoil and economic crisis since the ousting of autocrat Hosni Mubarak have eroded hard currency reserves at a rate of about $1 billion a month, raising questions about Egypt's ability to purchase in open tenders. Egypt plans to cut its state wheat imports this year by around 10 percent, with the world's largest grain importer relying instead on its domestic crop and building storage, Egypt's Agriculture minister said on Tuesday. Egypt is the world's biggest wheat importer, buying about 10 million tonnes a year or around half of its consumption, with purchases shared between state wheat buyer General Authority for Supply Commodities (GASC) and private importers. The minster warns Egypt of mixing imported wheat with domestically grown and manipulating it. 32% of Egypt's workforce is in Agriculture Recently, Egypt planned to cut wheat imports by about 10 percent.They are usually the world's largest grain importer but are instead working on relying on their own crops. They consume almosy half of what they import and with purchases shared between state wheat buyer (GASC) and private importers. Egypt produced 8.4 million tonnes of wheat last year and are expected to needs about 9 million tonnes of wheat for it's bread programme. the minister advises over it currently because the diesel- fuel shortage is starting to affect them.

Egypt's current agriculture is changing from intense subsistence in crops like wheat to more commercial crops like cotton. They consume much of the wheat they import, and farmers have recently been struggling. They import much of their wheat, as well as grow it causing fuss over mixing imported wheat with domestic. Egypt's arid climate is used for the growing of wheat and could lead to the growing of pesticides and fertilizers. it has already been used in cotton plants. the wheat is currently a problem.
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