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Anthony Patmanathan

on 29 May 2013

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Gangs By: Anthony Patmanathan What Is It? What Is It? History Even More History ... Last Bit of History More History ... Types of Gangs •A group of recurrently associating individuals or close friends
•There is a leader and an internal organization
•Their purpose is to claim control over territory in a community - But, not all the time
•They engage in violent or other forms of illegal behavior – in a group or individually
•They are usually recruited and initiated to prove their loyalty towards the gang
They do this by committing criminal acts like robbery or violence
•Gangs are prominent in the larger cities and urban areas in the U.S., in prisons and jails and in small towns and suburbs
•Soviet Organized Crime Groups are referred to as “Bratvas”
•American gangs originated from New York City, Chicago and their surrounding areas
•Gangs competed with each other for reasons such as during the prohibition era for control over illegal drinks
They would beat or even murder an opposing gang member for attempting to sell or distribute alcohol on their “Turf”
This often resulted in retaliation and a war between the opposing gangs
•In present times, gangs are referred to as criminal organizations or criminal affiliations
•In the early usage, gangs referred to a group of workmen
•In the U.K. – United Kingdom, the word is still used to refer to a group of workmen
•The word gang brings upon a negative vibe with it, but members in a gang use the phrase as a recognition of identity
•When discussing banditry (the lives of bandits – outlaws), Barrington Moore Jr. said that ‘Gangsterism’ is a “Form of self-help which victimizes others”
•It appears in societies that lack strong Law and Order forces
•Barrington Moore categorized European feudalism as “mainly gangsterism that had become society itself and acquired respectability”
•All the major cities of Victorian English in the late 19th century had gangs
•These early gangs had reputations of participating in many criminal activities but many countries could not profit from drug trafficking before the 1912 International Opium Convention and the 1919 Volstead Act made drugs illegal.
Street •Many gangs have existed for centuries:
The Order of Assassins
Indian Thugs
Dead Rabbits
Italian Mafia
Jewish Mafia
Russian Mafia Crime Families
American Old West Outlaws
And More
•In the United States, the history of gangs begun in the East Coast in 1783 after the American Revolution
•The appearance of gangs were popular in the urban areas because of the vast rural population immigration
•The first ever street-gang in the US was the “40 Thieves”
They began in the late 1820s in New York
•In the 17th century, London was “Terrorized by a series of organized gangs”
Some of them being known as the: Mims, Hectors, Bugles and Deadboys
These gangs came into conflict with each other often
They dressed “with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions (groups)”
•Many orphans survived in London by joining pick-pocketing gangs controlled by adult criminals in a desperate plea to stay alive
•In the 19th century, child criminals in Britain were punished in the same way as adults
They were sent to adult prisons
Transported to many Australian Penal Colonies
Sentenced to death
Prison Non-Violent Street Gang •Matthew O’Deane, a Ph.D. identified five primary steps of gang involvement: At Risks, Associates, Members, Hardcore Members and Leaders " At Risks" Not considered gang members by law enforcement
They know gang members and may associate with them on a casual or limited basis
They usually are young and are getting close to the age where they might think about joining a gang
They like and admire the gang members in the neighborhood and gang lifestyle
Usually between 7 and 9 years old
"Associates" Kids that associate with gang members on a regular basis
They consider gang life normal and acceptable
They find certain things in common with gang members and are serious about joining the gang
Sometimes considered as members
Often referred to as “Wanna Be’s”, “Pee Wees” or “Baby Gangsters”
They claim to have the gangs back when confronted by law enforcement
They act, walk, talk and dress like gang members and usually socialize with them
Used as lookouts, runners or graffiti taggers
They lack direction and may drift in and out of the gang depending on the activity
Usually between the ages of 9 and 13
"Gang Members" Associates exclusively with other gang members
They have shifted their loyalty from their family to their gang
They participate in gang crimes and most of the gang’s activities
They make up most of the gang
Held responsible for protection of the gang’s turf an fellow members
Generally between the ages of 14 to 20, but can also be from the 11 to 40 year old range
They have a much more significant attachment to the gang mentality, or code when compared to an associate
"Hardcore Gang Members" Totally committed to the gang and gang lifestyle
Referred to as “OG” – Original Gangster or “Verterano”
They reject any value system other than their gang
Their life revolves around the gang
They have usually already been arrested and been through the justice system
They usually commit any crime of act of violence to achieve the goals and objectives of the gang
They are usually in their late teen years and extending to their 30s
"Gang Leaders" These are the commanders of the gang
They are usually the oldest in the game and likely to have the smallest criminal record
They often have the power to direct the gangs activity
They can be involved in acts or chose not to participate
In many jurisdictions, this person is likely a prison gang member
They call all the shots
They often distance themselves from the street gang activities
Prison Gangs Group in a prison or correctional facility
They often have several affiliates or “chapters” in different states of prison systems that branch out due to the movement or transfer of their members
Criminal gangs function both inside and outside of prison such as the Nuestra Familia, Mexican Mafia, Folk Nation and the Brazilian PCC
In 1970s, prison gangs in Cape Town began recruiting street gang members from outside and helped increase associations between prison and street gangs
Non-violent Gangs Not all gangs are violent and filled with crime
Some gangs are just a group of friends that are always there for other and have each others backs
They refer to themselves as a “gang” because they don’t bother with saying every name of the person in their group, so they refer to themselves to a gang or their gang name
For example, me and Mahmood and 3 other friends refer to ourselves as the “Angels of Death” because we are always there for each other and are loyal to each other
We always have each others back over anything and we protect each other
We don’t commit crimes … that many anyways, but we still consider ourselves as a gang just because we have most of the same characteristics
Motives •Social disorganization, the disintegration of institutions like family and school cause groups of peers to form gangs
•The most common motive for joining a gang is unemployment – discovered after the World Bank conducted an international survey for their World Development Report in 2011
•Ethic harmony is a common factor in gangs
•Majority and minority races in society have established gangs in the name of identity: the Igbo and the Bakassi Boys in Nigeria
Bakassi Boys defended the majority of the Igbo group violently through terror

•In the US, Caucasians who feel threatened by minority rights have formed their own groups such as the Ku Klux Klan
•In a sense of responding to an increasing in black and Hispanic migration a white gang called Gaylord was formed in Chicago Why Join? •They are in desperate need to feel safe, and have power – like the Maslow Hierarchy states
•They want respect, money, protection and power
•Usually, individuals who experience low levels of these factors believe that joining a gang will give them a status and have success in obtaining those factors
•Also, people who are bullied and faced with a lot of fear in their life because of gangs follow the old saying “If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em”
They feel alienated by the community and experience a lack of social support so they join a gang
They instantly gain a feeling of belonging and identity, they are surrounded with individuals which they can relate to
They have generally grown up in the same area as each other and bond over similar needs
Joining a gang is actually integrated in the growing up process in some areas
People are influenced by video games like Grand Theft Auto San Andreas
They like the gang names
They like the sense of “family” and loyalty in a gang
Gang Statistics •In 1850, New York City recorded more than 200 gang wars with the majority of them being youth gangs
•Chicago had over 1000 gangs in the 1920s
•In 2007, the United States had approximately 785 000 active street gangs members
•In 2012, Chicago was named the city with the highest amount of gang members in all of the US – 150 000 members
•Traditionally, Los Angeles was considered the Gang Capital of America with an estimated 120 000 gang members
•Chicago has a higher rate of gang membership per capita than Los Angeles
Illinois gang member rate is 8-11 gang members per 1 000 people
California’s gang member rate is 5-7 gang members per 1 000 people
•There was at least 30 000 gangs and 800 000 members active all over the US in 2007
•About 900 000 members lived “within local communities across the country” and about 147 000 were in U.S. prisons or jails in 2009
•In 1999, Hispanics were 47% of all gang members, Africans were 31%, Caucasians were 13% and Asians were 6%
•In El Salvador, there are between 25000 and 50 000 gang members
•The Mexican Drug Cartels have as many as 100 000 members
•More than 1 800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011
•The FBI estimated that the size of the four Italian Organized Crime Groups are approximately 25 000 members and 250 000 affiliates worldwide
•The Yakuza are among one of the largest crime organizations in the world
As of 2005, there were 102 400 known members in Japan
•Hong Kong’s Triads had up to 160 000 members in the 21st century
In 1950, they had up to 300 000 members
Crime Stats •The “Thugge” gangs in India murdered 1 million people between 1740 and 1840
•Drug trafficking in gangs increased during the 1970s and 1980s
•58% of Los Angeles murders were gang-related in 2006
•Gang-related homicides are mostly in the largest cities in the U.S.
Typical Activities •Turf Wars/Gang Wars – claiming turf in certain areas in communities and cities
Featured in Rockstar’s popular game: Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas
•Spray painting
•Drug trades – they are thought to be $352 billion worth in total
This is a criminal offence of obtaining money or property from a person, entity, or institution, through intimidation.

•They participate in robbery and kidnapping
•Distribute cocaine – main drug used by gangs in America
Using Chicago, Cape Town and Rio de Janeiro to transport drugs internationally
Brazilian urbanization had driven the drug trade to the Favelas of Rio – which were featured in the movie Fast Five
Gangs hire “lookouts” to warn members of upcoming law enforcement
The dense environment of the Favelas in Rio and public housing projects in Chicago helped gang members hide from police easily
Known Gangs International Gangs •Italian Cosa Nostra – known as the Mafia
•The Napolitan Camorra
•The Calabrain ‘Ndrangheta
•The Apulian Sacra Corona Unita
National Gangs •Russian Mafia
•Mexican Drug Cartel
•Colombian Drug Cartel
•The Chinese Triads
•The Irish Mob
•The Japanese Yakuza
•The Jamaica-British Yardies
Regional Gangs •Crips
•Nazi Lowriders
•Latin Kings
•Vice Lords
•Biker Gangs:
Hells Angels
Mongols Motorcycle Club
Negative Impact on Society •Gangs bring a lot of violence to communities and societies
•Gangs bring drug influence on the citizens
•Gangs deface the community with vandalism
•Gangs corrupt society
Identification •Almost all gangs have identifying characteristics unique to their specific clique or gang
•The Bloods wear red, the Crips wear blue – to represent their affiliation
People who show disrespect to a gang member’s color is grounds for violent retaliation, often by more than one gang member
•Tattoos are common identifiers like an “18” above the eyebrow to identify an “18th Street” gang member
•Tattoos help a gang member gain respect within their group and mark them members for life – literally
•Some gangs have more than one identifier, like the Nortenos who wear red and have ‘14’, ‘XIV’, ‘x4’ or ‘Norte’ tattoos
•Many male gang members wear earrings or other types of body jewelry, just have pierced ears to depict gang membership
•Gangs have many identifiers like graffiti tags, colors, hand signals, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, fingernails, slogans, signs, flags, handshakes, code words and group symbols
•Majority of the story was based on gangs
•Grove Street Families vs. Rollin’ Heights Ballas (Parody of Bloods vs. Crips)
•Grove Street Families color was green, they drove a certain car, had tattoos, and had hand signals
•Rollin’ Heights Ballas’ color was purple, they too drove a certain car and had tattoos
•Grove Street Families had many nicknames for their gang like “G-Street”, “Families”, “GSF”. “The Grove”
•They had a slogan “GSF 4 Lyfe” – they spray painted that slogan on walls of the city of Los Santos
•Grove Street also had rivalries with two Mexican gangs – Los Santos Vagos and Varrios Los Aztecas
Grove Street Families are a family based gang
The leader – Sean “Sweet” Johnson and co-leader – Carl “CJ” Johnson are brothers
Melvin “Big Smoke” Harris is a member who was friends with Sweet and CJ for a long time
He later betrayed the Family and joined the Ballas, Los Santos Vagos and Russian Mafia
He was then caught by CJ in a mission and killed – to end the game
Lance “Ryder” Wilson was a long time friend of Sweet and CJ which is why he was in Grove Street Families – he beat up a teacher for wearing Ballas colors and was dealing drugs since age 10
Ryder is killed as well
•Rollin’ Heights Ballas partnered up with crooked cops, Big Smoke and Ryder
•They killed the Johnson boys’ mother
•The gang influence on the city corrupted it
Its changed how the city worked
People were scared
People were violent – starting riots
Cops became crooks and worked with gangs
The drug trafficking got out of hand
It completely destroyed the City of Los Santos
Rappers In The "Gang" Game Lil Wayne grew up in New Orleans and was a rapper for most of his youth. He somehow thought it was wise to become a member of the Bloods during the height of his successful career. The 17 year-old rapper was raised in Chicago where gang violence is notorious. He often claims the Black Disciples in his raps. Snoop Dogg grew up in Long Beach, Calif., and became a member of the Crips as a teenager. He was a member of the Rollin’ 20s Crips. Jim Jones was raised in Harlem, N.Y., but he decided to claim his Blood affiliation after the age of 30. Game was born and raised in Compton, Calif. He became a member of the Cedar Block Piru Bloods as a teen.
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