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The Baking Process

Gisslen Chapter 5

Ashlea Tobeck

on 24 August 2015

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Transcript of The Baking Process

Basic Steps to the Baking Process
these are the essential steps in producing baked goods
Mise En Place

Everything is put in place before beginning
There are many different mixing techniques, specific to each type of product and the desired result
Based on the ingredients used and the desired finished product, the cooking method varies with each formula
What happens as products cool?
There are several processes that occur during the cooling of baked goods
Gases Escape and Contract
Moisture continues to escape from baked goods during the cooling process
Moisture Equalizes
when first removed from the oven, the crust of a product is very dry while the crumb may still be very moist
Proteins Solidify/Starches Gelatinize
during cooling, proteins present in product will continue to solidify and bond with each other, which helps to further set the structure of the product
Staling- the change in texture & aroma of baked goods due to a change of structure and a loss of moisture by the starch granules
Starch retrogradation-a chemical change of starch molecules that is responsible for staling; starch molecules bond with each other and become more solid
Chemical Staling
occurs as product is exposed to air
Prevention/Reversal of Staling
1) Protect product from air- wrap in air-tight plastic wrap or containers; cover with frosting
What Happens During Mixing
Formation of air cells
Hydration of Ingredients & Oxidation Occur
Hydration= the process of absorbing water
Gluten Develops
Gluten= glutenin + gliadin that have been hydrated and agitated
What Happens During Baking
There are 7 things that happen in the oven
High Altitude Baking
Now that we understand what happens when a product is baked, we can understand how high altitudes affect these processes
What Happens @ High Altitudes
High Altitude Adjustments
How to Overcome High Altitude Difficulties
How Air Cells Form
Cell walls made up of gluten and egg albumin proteins form during mixing
Air Cell Basics
Air cells are only formed during the mixing process (no new air cells form during baking)
Starch is generally the largest component of doughs and batters (esp. in breads)
Effects gluten proteins and pigments in flour
Flour Selection & Tenderizers
proteins from wheat flour form gluten
gluten needs water to develop
Melting of Fats
solid fats trap air, water & some leavening gases
Formation & Expansion of Gases
the main gases responsible for leavening of baked goods are: carbon dioxide, air, & steam
The Baking Process

Make formula modifications and
do any necessary math
Determine if any procedural
changes need to be made
Gather & prepare necessary equipment
Measure & prepare ingredients
Make sure to use the appropriate mixing method
Different formulas contain different ingredients in different proportions, which make proper mixing essential
3 basic steps to mixing processes:
1) Blending the ingredients
2) Forming the air cells
3) Developing the dough
Oven (convection, still) vs. Stovetop
Proper temperature selection
Proper cooking times and cooling methods
A tiny bubble of air, created by creaming or foaming, that assists in leavening a dough or batter
Air cell=
The interior of a baked item, distinct from the crust.
The longer the mixing process, the smaller the air cells get meaning the length of the final mixing time determines the final texture of the product
Leavening gases get trapped inside air cells during mixing and expand during baking to create the crumb
The more leavening gases you have, the larger your air cells get during the baking process
Air cells are essential for proper leavening of baked goods
Oxidation= the process that occurs when oxygen from the air reacts with proteins and other components of flour during mixing
Starch does not dissolve in water
water molecules attach to the surface of starch granules forming a 'bubble' around the starch
during baking, the heat causes the starch to absorb water and gelatinize
as gluten proteins are hydrated they uncoil and form gluten fibers that become a network during the mixing process
water temp also controls batter/dough temp
oxidation during mixing strengthens gluten proteins and forms a stronger gluten network
during mixing oxygen combines with the pigments in flour and bleaches them
bleaching through oxidation does destroy some flavor
salt inhibits oxidation resulting in darker product with more flavor
protein strands unravel during mixing and form a network of gluten chains in a dough/batter
the higher the protein content of the flour, the more gluten that will develop and the stronger the gluten network will be
fats work at tenderizers/shorteners because they coat gluten strands which keeps them from sticking together
sugar works as a tenderizer/shortener because it absorbs water that would otherwise be absorbed by gluten proteins
the amount of water in a formula controls the amount of gluten that can develop
glutenin & gliadin absorb about twice their weight in water on average
less water=shorter product
too much water= weak gluten (I'm melting.... I'm melting)
minerals in hard water create a gluten network that is too strong. soft water weakens gluten and makes dough sticky and slack
the strongest gluten forms at a pH of 5-6
can adjust tenderness by adding acids or alkalis
Mixing Method/Mixing Time
3 important processes take place during mixing:
1) proteins hydrate and gluten starts to form
2) air is mixed into dough for leavening and further gluten development
3) gluten strands align and form an elastic network
dough matures- mixing causes gluten to reach an ideal state of development
too little mixing= sticky, slack dough
too much mixing= broken gluten strands/tough dough
if tender product is desired, mixing time is kept short
dough relaxation= a period of rest which allows the gluten strands to adjust to their new length & shape, and they become less tight
Yeast aids in gluten development, but too much leavening over-extends gluten strands and leads to dense crumb
Gluten develops more at a warm room temp than at cold temperatures
70-80F is ideal for gluten development during mixing
salt strengthens gluten, but inhibits yeast
we sometimes add salt later in the mixing process to combat this problem and then mix for longer
bran breaks up gluten strands and weakens the gluten network as do other ingredients that we add to doughs/batters
dough conditioners can be purchased to ensure proper gluten development
raw milk contains an enzyme that inhibits gluten formation. cook to 180F to counteract
when these fats melt these gases are released and the water turns to steam which helps leaven products
different melting points result in different timing for this process. if it happens too early, the gases escape before the crumb sets. if it happens too late, the crumb is set and can't expand any further.
CO2 & air are present in the dough as it is mixed
yeast & baking powder gases are produced rapidly at the beginning of the baking process. steam is also produced as product is heated.
gases stretch the cell walls formed by proteins and cause the product to rise. eventually gases are no longer produced and the product
has risen as much as possible
Yeast & Other Microorganisms Die
most microorganisms die at around 140F
fermentation stops when yeast die so all leavening from yeast will occur before the internal temp of the dough reaches 140
other microorganisms will die off too including those that can lead to food borne illness
Proteins Coagulate
air cells are surrounded by gluten and egg albumin proteins
as product is heated, these proteins begin to set trapping the leavening gases inside
the process begins when at an internal temp around 140-160F and ends by 185F
once proteins have coagulated, no more leavening can occur
sugars & fats can affect the coagulation temperature of protein
proper baking temps are essential for proper protein coagulation to occur
Starches Gelatinize
Starch provides bulk to the structure of baked goods
During mixing, starch granules attract and are surrounded by water molecules
When heated the water is absorbed and causes granules to swell greatly, some break open and release starch molecules
The water bonds with the starch molecules in a process called gelatinization
Gelatinization begins at internal temps around 105F and ends at internal temps about 200F
H2O content determines the amount of gelatinization that will occur
Water Vapor & Other Gases Escape
water turns to steam during baking
if this happens before proteins coagulate, it contributes to leavening. if not, excess gases escape through the surface of the product
loss of moisture at the surface contributes to crust formation. the crust begins to form before browning occurs, but can be controlled through added moisture in the baking process
loss of moisture contributes to lowered weight in baked goods. you must account for the loss of moisture when scaling doughs/batters
Crust Formation & Browning
crust forms due to loss of moisture at the surface
browning occurs when the surface temp reaches 300F, which doesn't occur until the surface dries
browning starts before internal baking is finished
browning is due to:
caramelization- the browning of sugars caused by heat
maillard reaction (browning)- a chemical reaction that causes the browning of proteins and sugars together when subjected to heat
contribute to flavor & appearance
Gases still inside the product contract, which can lead to shrinkage and breakage
during cooling, the moisture content will equalize somewhat
after time, a crisp crust will become softer due to moisture from the crumb equalizing
don't handle or cut products until cool
starches continue to gelatinize while the interior of the product is still hot
starch molecules bond & become more solid as products cool
Fats Resolidify
Fats that melted during the baking process will resolidify as products cool
Only fats that are liquid at room temp will remain liquid when a product cools
begins as soon as a product starts to cool
is a chemical reaction of the starch and will occur no matter what
more rapid in fridge than at room temp; stops almost entirely in the freezer
can be counter-acted or reversed by re-heating the product
reheating results in loss of moisture, which will also make a product seem stale; reheat right before serving
Loss of crispness occurs because of an absorption of moisture (opposite of staling), but still makes baked goods taste/feel old
2) Add moisture retainers to the formula- fats & sugars will help to delay staling
3) Freezing- helps products to maintain quality for longer periods; serve product quickly after thawing
1) The boiling point of water decreases

For every 500ft increase in altitude, the boiling point of water drops about 1 degree, which causes liquids to evaporate more rapidly

When water (liquid) evaporates from a batter or dough, it changes the ratio of liquids to solids and leaves a higher concentration of sugar and fat.

This results in a weakened structure that can set too slowly causing coarse textures or collapse

Boiling Point

2) Atmospheric pressure lessens

This causes a decrease in the downward force of the air on baked goods

Leavening gases expand more rapidly

Structure sets more slowly and leavening gases escape before the crumb is set

Atmospheric Pressure

3) Dryer conditions exist at high altitudes

This causes baked goods to be dryer from the start as well as to stale faster

Dry Conditions

Increasing liquids helps to balance the ratio to sugars and fats

Start with an increase of approx. 5% of the total liquid in the recipe.
Reducing sugar and/or fat can help make this ratio even more balanced.
Only necessary at elevations ABOVE 5000 ft.

Increase Liquids/Reduce Sugars and Fats

Over expansion of air cells during baking combined with lower atmospheric pressure causes collapse of baked goods

Decreasing the overall leavening in the formula will help to keep over expansion from occurring
Start by reducing the chemical or biological leavening and then reduce the physical if necessary

Decrease leavening

Increasing the liquids in the recipe will help to overcome the naturally dry conditions at high altitudes

Careful storage of baked goods can help to improve shelf life

Store well wrapped in plastic wrap
Freeze and re-warm when necessary

Overcome dryness

Increase structure building ingredients
Flour and/or egg
Helps to decrease the effects that lowered air pressure has on baked goods by helping the structure to set more quickly

Increase oven temperature
May help to set batter before air cells escape
Can result in over-done edges and under-done centers
Reduce leavening and bake longer at reduced temp

Other Adjustments

Guide for High Altitude Baking

always use a cooling rack
pay attention to cooling time
never store in the fridge
always wrap carefully to avoid drying
what shape will your products take?
does this require a specific pan or baking tool?
each type of product will have at least 1 make-up method, but may have several
pay close attention as these determine the end result
how should the pan be prepared?
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